KR & Associates! Blog 7

Ari Roby & Casey Klusman
Blog 7

Hurricane Andrew of 1992

Hurricane Andrew took place on August 24th, 1992 in South Florida. This was a category five hurricane which is catastrophic with winds up to 165 miles per hour. Hurricane Andrew was the most expensive natural disaster in U.S History as of 1992 until Hurricane Katrina came in 2005 according to the National Park Services. This was the most dangerous disaster to ever hit South Flordia. The hurricane also leftover 250,000 people homeless and 82,000 businesses were destroyed or damaged. A little over 25 people also died and 445 were injured or became ill due to the natural disaster. Only three category five hurricanes have happened in the US and Hurricane Andrew was one of them which cost about twenty-six billion dollars in damages.

The human impact described by the stories coming out after Hurricane Andrew is devastating. The hurricane hit south of Miami, heavily impacting poorer families in Dade County, especially the families of migrant workers and struggling young families, according to a 1992 New York Times article published the day after Andrew struck. One story tells of a family that owned a fish market and was forced to huddle in the fish locker for hours, wondering whether they were about to die. Another tells of a group of strangers at a motel desperately trying to hold the ceiling together above them as the wind beat down. Looting was rampant as people tried to scavenge supplies so they could survive the coming days. In addition to making 250,000 people homeless, the storm also knocked out the power for 1.3 million households. Due to Andrew occurring before the widespread use of cellphones, this made communication with friends, family and rescue services very difficult. It also completely destroyed Homestead Air Force Base, causing further complications for 6,500 militaries and 1,000 civilian workers according to a Miami Herald article reflecting on Andrew’s devastating impact.

One key factor that led to the destruction that Andrew caused was its sheer size. Though it is a relatively small hurricane in terms of size, it had rainbands stretching about 100 miles out on either side of the eye, meaning the storm itself was over 200 miles wide. Compounding this, the extreme wind speed reached the peak of the hurricane was nearly 175 miles per hour. It was ranked at the time as having the third most intense landfall in United States history, only having been surpassed hurricanes Michael and Katrina and Maria since. Due to the Miami area’s coastal location, its vulnerability to Hurricanes is greatly increased, especially due to the warm waters in the area that help to increase wind speeds. Additionally, the technology of the time-limited immediate assistance that was able to be given. Nowadays when a storm hits, one is able to call the police or fire department using their cellphone should power go out. However, due to it being 1992, cell phones were not widely used, limiting people’s ability to communicate and perform immediate aid when necessary.

Future Improvements & Implementation
A strategy that can be used to protect people is to be prepared. Having a bag ready with supplies just in case something happens is a great way to ensure safety. Another strategy would be Mitigation, which is also a great way to ensure that you are protected because it minimizes the effects of hazardous events. This also helps with reducing the chances of an emergency happening. This also reduces the damages of an emergency in case it still happens. Another way to prepare for a natural disaster is to educate yourself on them. Education to explain land use and regulations is very important. You should make sure where you are moving does not flood a lot or is prone to disasters. Being aware of the environment you choose to live in is very important in ensuring that you are prepared. A potential barrier to adopting the strategies is the cost. Implementing ways to mitigate in your areas can be extremely costly. The land has to be purchased in areas that are prone to disasters which can be very expensive. Being prepared for any natural disaster is at least having the essentials you need and an evacuation plan if need be. Programs to help ensure that places that are more subject to disasters are taken care of like Florida should be funded by the city or government. There are many websites for getting insurance on your home in Florida due to the amount of flooding. Implementing the right kind of machinery to help with flooding and other things could become damaged in the disaster which is another barrier. Implementation can be difficult depending on the area and the amount of money available in that space.


MCM Blog 7

  1. In 2005 Hurricane Katrina began as a tropical storm, but quickly escalated to between a category 3 and 5 on August 29, 2005. It began as a category 1 hurricane after landfall with Florida, however, once back over the ocean, the storm intensifies to a category 5 before breaking to a 3 before landfall in Louisiana. With winds speeds reaching 170 mph, the hurricane struck land in Louisiana. Initial damages were limited to minor flooding, however, the reason that Hurricane Katrina was so deadly was due to the levees breaking and allowing all of the flood waters in. It took the United States military over 3 days to finally get aid into New Orleans and the final damages of the storm were an estimated 1800 people dead, and an estimated $160 billion in damages.
  2. In the days and weeks following Hurricane Katrina, that effects of the storm were described to accumulate at least $9 billion in damage costs making it one of the costliest storms on record. The affected areas were flooded for weeks, displacing families and preventing many search and rescue efforts for those who were stuck in their homes and those who had died in the storm as a result of being trapped from the flooding. The flooding caused the drinking water to be unsafe without boiling and the areas that were hit were without power for weeks. This caused very unsafe living conditions for those who could not relocate at the time. Many hospitals in the area were left without operable emergency rooms which posed a big problem in providing medical attention to those who were injured as a result of the storm. The united states fatality toll of hurricane Katrina is recorded to be 1,836 people. The effects of the storm did not quickly decrease overtime, damage repairs lasted for years and many people who were displaced as a result of the storm were left homeless or in inadequate shelter for months and up to years after the hurricane hit.


Hurricane Katrina Slams Into Gulf Coast; Dozens Are Dead – August 30, 2005

Hurricane Katrina: The Aftermath – August 30, 2005

Hurricane Lashes New Orleans – August 29, 2005

Administrative breakdowns in the Governmental Response to Hurricane Katrina – September 2005

  1. The reason Hurricane Katrina was so deadly was because majority of New Orleans resides below sea level. The sea is held back by a series of levees but during the storm, these levees failed, causing sea water to rush into the city and cause great destruction. The levees breaking paired with the failure for many citizens to evacuate increased the death toll. Instead of leaving the city for safer ground as was suggested by the government, many sought refuge in the city itself without actually leaving. Part of the reason that many did not evacuate is due to the misrepresentation of the size of the storm. Because Katrina was only a category 1 when reaching landfall, it was expected to be an average storm, however, the storm intensified over the Gulf of Mexico, doubling its wind speed and destructiveness. Coupled with a below sea level elevation and many expensive buildings placed in the flood plain, Hurricane Katrina was one of the costliest disasters in modern history.
  2. To avoid another disaster like Katrina, Communities throughout the country need to set up roles within local departments and organization. With there being roles within the community, the recovery process for the disaster will be completed at a faster rate. Outside help will still be needed but the community will not only be limited by outside help. Knowledge and education about certain disasters should be taught in schools and community centers in areas prone to disaster. With knowledge, people are better adequate to face the storm, preparation and recovery will be much easier. Flood maps and other geographic information should be available in every household. Proper evacuation techniques and recovery techniques should also be taught at the schools and community centers. Money and government grants are also a great way to prevent another disaster like Katrina from happening. When disaster struck in New Orleans, the government didn’t do much, president bush received a lot of backlash from the black community because it seemed as though he was holding back resources. With prior government aid and funding, schools and other community centers will have the proper resources to adequately prepare for the disaster. Planning and infrastructure to prevent these disasters from happening cost money and the government is typically the most important asset when it comes to providing funding for disaster relief and prevention.
  3. Potential barriers to effectively adopting these strategies are the mindsets of people who think that disasters like hurricane Katrina will not happen to them, so they don’t need to be prepared for an event like that. A disaster like this can happen to anyone, so everyone should have proper knowledge on how to be prepared and how to react. Another potential barrier is lack of government funding for preparation efforts. The government may not see the necessity to prepare for an event like this but it harder for them to hold funding when it comes to response efforts after disasters happen. Therefore, the proper funds should be spent beforehand to educate the public and prepare in order to try and minimize the cost of response efforts after the fact.

Blog 7: Disaster Training

The Great Flood of 1993 was a flood that occurred in the Midwestern United States, along the Mississippi and Missouri rivers and their tributaries, from April to October 1993. Ot left many economic ramifications that would be impact communities for years to come. Over 17 million acres were flooded across nine states across the Midwest during the summer of 1993, starting sometime in June and lasting through August. This is an area larger than the entire state of West Virginia. This long-duration river flooding caused hundreds of levees failures, 50 fatalities and an estimated $15 billion in damages. As a major freight artery in the USA, the river couldn’t be used for freight whilst it was flooded, at a loss of an estimated $2 million per day. On top of this, an estimated $2.6 billion in crops were also lost. Insurance payouts for property losses alone stood at an estimated $12 billion, and an estimated 72,000 homes were flooded along with 62,000 evacuated families. Of the 17 million acres that were flooded, a majority was being used as farmland. This had a long-term impact on the industry as some of the land was not able to be used again for farming for several years after flood waters had receded. High water also rendered some bridges that spanned across the Mississippi River unusable for weeks, disrupting travel across the region. In some cases, this meant taking a detour of over 100 miles just to make it to the other side of a flooded river. Entire towns were destroyed too; Valmeyer and Rhineland were completely destroyed and later relocated to higher ground.

The 1993 Floods had devastating impacts for the midwestern United States as it ruined many aspects of life for people in the area. Interestingly, in both today’s terms and back then, it was recognized as one of the worst floods to ever happen. In August 1993, when the flooding was coming to an end and the cleanup and damage assessment phases were about to begin, B Drummond Ayres Jr. wrote for the New York Times that there was an estimated 12 billion dollars in damage, over 50 lives lost, and nearly 70,000 people losing their homes. Despite the insane damage caused, Ayres Jr writes that the flood never managed to take the people’s spirit away and that once there were signs of the river receding an impressive five feet back, people were “moving in determinedly” to help. It was also estimated that about 800 levees were topped or breached in the areas affected. In 1993, right after the flood, people knew they were in for a lot of damage and that lots of others needed help. Today, with an article reflecting on the floods from Accuweather, written by meteorologist Brian Lada in July 2019, the statistics for the damage is still ridiculous, but at least some light can be shed as to why this happened. Lada writes that more than a year’s worth of rainfall occurred in just a few months. In fact, the rain was “measuring nearly 48 inches of rain between April and August. This is significantly higher than the 35 inches of precipitation that the area typically receives in an entire year.” The Mississippi had reached levels no one thought possible, nearly 50 feet, which Lada states is 20 feet over the flood threshold. Accuweather stats for the flood show that the damage estimated in 1993 was close, but there was over 15 billion dollars of damage. 92 gauges reached all time levels, with 1083 levees topped or failed, quite a few more than predicted in 1993 as well. Through the 186 consecutive days of flooding, 404 counties were declared federal disasters. The pictures that Accuweather has really put the damage and statistics into perspective though. These pictures are haunting. The statistics for the 1993 are absolutely insane, and in 1993, people knew the damage was going to require them to help each other and today those numbers still stand as records. In the end, the 1993 floods will always be recognized as one of the most dangerous floods ever.

Extremely severe weather and hydrologic conditions led to the flood of 1993. During the first half of 1993, the U.S. Midwest experienced strange heavy rains. Much of the United States in the upper reaches of the Mississippi River drainage basin received more than 1.5 times their average rainfall in the first half of the year, and parts of North Dakota, Iowa, and Kansas experienced more than double that amount. The rains often arrived in very intense storms. Floods overwhelmed the elaborate system of dykes and other water control structures in the Mississippi River basin, leading to the greatest flood ever recorded on the Upper Mississippi. This followed extremely heavy snowfall during the previous winter, which when melting, added to the rainfall runoff entering the river systems. Other factors contributed to the severity of the flooding that year, such as the previous year was cooler than average, which decreased evaporation from the soil and allowed the heavy rains to saturate the ground rapidly. In addition, widespread land cover change along rivers and streams has dramatically altered the natural flood control systems: wetlands that can absorb large amounts of water and release it slowly over time. The network of levees, canals, and dams in the Upper Mississippi Basin was unable to control the floods of 1993. The extreme length of the disaster was also caused by human error as well. Development of many urban areas along the river reduced infiltration, and this increased the risk of damage done to buildings. Channelisation of the river in places such as St Louis exaggerated problems further downstream. Many of the levees along the river weren’t built efficiently, and were breached easily, especially away from major settlements. One man, James Scott was imprisoned for life for causing a catastrophe: his role in flooding of Quincy, Illinois. He removed sandbags from a levee which broke later that day, which resulted in the flooding of 57 square kilometers of farmland.

Disasters are not natural and communities and individuals are able to take measures to prepare themselves to not only minimize damage but also maximize safety. One way all individuals can prepare themselves for a natural disaster is to prepare a backpack with essential items such as: canned food or non perishable goods, water, flashlight, batteries, portable charger, money, multipurpose tool, first aid kit, emergency contact information, and toiletries that can be kept in a secure location in their homes so that should a disaster occur, they have basic necessities for survival. Additionally, individuals can educate themselves on evacuation routes, so that should they be required or encouraged to evacuate, they are already familiar with the route. Individuals, especially those living in disaster prone locations, should invest in insurance such as flood insurance so that should a disaster occur, their belongings will be replaced or be compensated for. Communities can work towards development standards that do not build critical infrastructure within the floodplain. In the case of the 1993 floods, much of the damage from the floods was to agriculture. One way to minimize the risks on a community level is to have federal buyouts in which the government buys flood prone land. Although this can be expensive it is very effective in mitigating the risks associated with floodplains. If the government would have provided more federal buyouts along the Mississippi floodplains prior to the 1993 flood, the loss of life and property damage may have been significantly less. Another way that the community can prepare for a disaster is by implementing development standards that limit building in flood prone areas. In the case of the 1993 floods that affected the Mississippi River, cities and towns along the river could limit the agricultural development which would allow for the land to absorb more of the water from the river flooding, and would limit the devastation to infrastructure caused by the flood waters. The cities and towns along the Mississippi River could also create education programs explaining the buyouts and proposed zoning so that the public can better understand the effects and hazards associated with flooding.

With the several strategies mentioned along comes some potentially barriers that may affect those strategies. One barrier to the evacuation route strategy is that sometimes the shortest best evacuation route can be swarmed with heavy traffic and may take too long. A way of minimizing this is to plan a few evacuation routes and to make sure to evacuate with plenty of time before the disaster is supposed to happen. Another barrier is with the plan of the federal government buying out all the floodplains, the businesses/farms and the communities surrounding the floodplains economic success would be crushed. A way of minimizing this would maybe to have the federal government buyout only the floodplain areas that are in high danger and also have the federal government aid the communities surrounding the flood plan. So that there is less negative economic impact. Another barrier is with the communities developing standards that limit building in the flood prone areas because it would limit the communities to only be able to grow in the other direction and also some of the best agricultural successful land are in those flood prone areas. A way to minimize this would maybe be to only allow them to use the land for agricultural purposes during a certain time of year where the disaster probabilities are lower. Another barrier is with limiting the agricultural development in the flood prone areas to allow the land to absorb more water because the agricultural development in those areas is a main market for the community’s economy. One way to minimize this is, as we suggested before of only allowing agricultural development on the flood prone areas during certain times a year where the probability of disasters is lower.

Pretty Plannerz Blog #7

Drought of 1988


The drought of 1988 was a widespread drought in regions of both the United States and Canada. Its onset was in the spring of 1988 and its effects were seen for the next couple years. It had major effects on the agricultural regions and therefore majorly affected agricultural production and the surrounding ecosystems. This had major effects on food and water supply which in turn majorly shifted the lives of people and prompted numerous government involvements concerning the issue. Drought Advisories were a major action taken that consolidated drought conditions into summary reports. The Interagency Drought Policy Committee was established as well. These are just a couple examples of programs implemented as a result of the drought of 1988. The organizations that were all put in place can help the government as well as the public understand present and future concerns. 



June 24,1988

  • Raising food prices 
  • Inflation in prices and seeing effects

July 3, 1988

  • Millions of dollars lost in crops and livestock
  • June 20-24 rain in the farm belt helped corn and soybean crops in their most vital stage of growth 
  • Crop losses over $2 billion in North Dakota


The Drought of 1988 impacted the entire United States. During this time, most of the U.S. experienced at least 20 days with maximum temperatures of 90 degrees or higher. Major crops in 25% of the United states received less than one half of normal rainfall from April to June. The agricultural impact was most severe in the Great Plain and Midwest, the consequence led to wheat crops being 50% below its normal yield. The Northeast had its worst growing season since the 1980s and had some of the hottest temperatures on record. In the South, low stream flow from the drought impacted reservoir storage and hindered boat navigation, leaving barges and other water vessels stranded along rivers. The 1988 Drought in the West lead to massive forest fires. Over 4 million acres were affected, twice the amount from 1987. Because of this California’s and other western states’ water supply became critical. In most parts of the country water restrictions were placed. The Drought of 1988 in the Southern portion of Canada’s prairie provinces had similar severe impacts as the United States, including effects on agriculture, water resources, forestry and waterfowl production.


Future Improvements: 


Individual Level: 

  • Save water by reusing it for other needs and conserve. Water that is not necessarily drinkable can be used to water plants or a replacement for water in toilets.
  • An individual should have an emergency water supply. This can include having a rain catch system or having ample amounts of drinking water (bottled) in storage.  
  • One should make sure their home is leak free and fix water pipes and faucets if not. This can be an easy fix to save water. One drop per second wastes 2,700 gallons of water per year.

Community level:

  • Communities should integrate soil and water management practices. This can conserve water moisture and allow food production to continue to grow in a drought.
  • Communities should push for laws that allow a control over water pollution. Communities will have less water to ration in a drought if water is polluted. It would be in the community’s favor to clean up local water resources.
  • Giving all famers access to technology that will prepare them for droughts. This can be achieved by technology that provides early detection of droughts. Farmers in high risk drought areas should also have access to drought tolerant seeds and water efficiency seeds. Having these tools can help plan and prepare for the future.




Some barriers that would effect our strategies would be that not everyone wants to use recycled water. Some people would find it disgusting and oppose this right away without seeing the greater benefit of it. While pushing for new laws to allow control over water population would be beneficial incase of a drought, but some people might find it unnecessary. There’s always going to be someone that opposes the law proposed. Unfortunately, it takes a tragedy for people to realize that action needs to be done. We need to set laws in place incase something happens not after something happens. Some other barriers might be that the community doesn’t have the funding to provide farmers with the technology to prepare them for droughts. Since the Drought of 1988 was so widespread it’s hard to predict what farmers qualify for being in a high risk drought area. 


JEB Blog #7

The Drought of 2012

The Drought of 2012 was the worst drought in more than half a century in the United States. It originated with a record shattering heat wave that swept across the US. The drought included most parts of the US, parts of Mexico, and central and Eastern Canada. At it’s all time peak in July 2012, it covered 81% of the mainland of the United States. Overall,  the drought was estimated to cost around $33.3 billion in damages with most of it being to farmers and roughly 123 deaths through the span of the drought. In the article on this by Science Direct, it states that this drought was the worst in terms of moderate to extreme drought coverage since the 1950’s. In the article on this by The Atlantic on August 28, 2012 it displays plenty of pictures of what the drought has caused in the most severe areas. One of the images shows a whole massive field of dead corn that couldn’t get enough water to survive. Another image from the same article shows parts of the Mississippi River uncovered that have not been uncovered since the 1950’s. Finally, there is an image of grass being painted in the state of New Jersey to restore it to its normally green color despite it being brown. This was seen as just a normal drought during the time, but after all the data was collected, it turned out to be one of the worst in US history.

There are many factors that can contribute to the creation of a drought. The most obvious one is simple water waste, In some areas with smaller amounts of water available large amounts of waste by humans can easily cause a drought. Another factor that can create droughts is climate change. Shifts in global temperature can make areas that are naturally prone to climate change even worse, with an increase in temperature comes a spread in desert and dry lands. A third and final effect that can cause climate change is the destruction of ecosystems by humans. Destroying local environments can have disastrous effects on usable water in the area and can ultimately lead to droughts. 

Many parts of the United States have been hit with a drought at one time or another. The Official Website of the Department of Homeland Security offer a few tips in case of a drought. The best way to mitigate the damage of a drought is to be prepared for it. Local governments should issue warnings about water use if they know a drought may be coming. Warning citizens to not wash their cars, not flush their toilets unless they have to and not to take long showers, all of these things will go a long way in conserving water supply. Another useful strategy for preventing and avoiding droughts is by planting plants in your local community that only require a minimal amount of watering, this would prevent excess water being used by green life. A final strategy for preventing droughts is by installing water saving equipment in homes, like swimming pools, washers, and dishwashers. Even fixing leaking pipes could help to prevent water waste. The largest barrier for these strategies is that it can be hard or almost impossible to enforce these strategies, it’s up to the citizens to decide if they want to try and save water to prevent waste.

Blog 7 Proxima Project

Hurricane Sandy (2012)  


  • $72.2 Billion in damage  
  • 159 Deaths  



 Hurricane Sandy turned from a tropical wave to a hurricane in under five days when winds heightened to a speed of 74 mph. At the peak of being category two, the storm devastated the Caribbean and Haiti where the death tolls of each were higher than the US deaths combined. The category one storm then hit the US starting in NJ and going through New York, Pennsylvania, Maryland, Delaware, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Virginia, West Virginia, Connecticut, and the Carolinas. The perfect combination of the full moon and the hurricane together caused flooding to become a huge issue very quickly. The subways of NYC flooded and all along the Jersey coast. The winds wreaked havoc on the skyscrapers, trees, powerlines, and homes. Over 8 million people lost power throughout the East Coast. Tropical storms are usually not an issue in the areas that were destroyed and rebuilding the homes destroyed proved to be difficult because of the lack of insurance and the pure number of houses that were wrecked. Shortages in gas lead to a rise in gas prices and gas rationings throughout New Jersey. During the storms glory, the election campaign was put on hold for many people. Although the effects are not known, there were exceptions for voting polls where areas were still damaged or being repaired. 




Human material impacts of Sandy were described in the New York Times as devastating and tragic. It mentioned the washed-out communities, the rampaging fires, and explosion of power lines. It also talked about the more than 40 lives that were claimed during this time period in New York. ABC covered the touchdown of the storm in Atlantic City, N.J. They mentioned the devastating impacts of sandy and how people died. They also showed images of the wreckage. This was shortly after the hurricane occurred but more recent articles are about prevention and what we can do to help those in need. (2012) (2012) 



Some of the problems that aided the impact of Hurricane Sandy were lack of disaster protection infrastructure. Power outages were abundant with more than 8 million people without power. Stations flooded and trees fell on the power lines. Transportation was another huge aspect affected by Sandy. Flights were cancelled, the subway was flooded, buses were down, AMTRAK trains were not operating, and bridges to and from Manhattan were closed. With basically all forms of Transporation down the city and surrounding areas were severely impacted. Fires were also common. Everyone was vulnerable to sandy, especially those commuting using public Transportaion. The homeless were also majorly affected because, well, they don’t have homes, so shelters were overcrowded. Crowded more than usual. So everyone was affected. 



Future Improvements:  

The eastern seaboard cities in New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Virginia, and Maryland all felt the dramatic impacts of Hurricane Sandy in 2012. However, New York City is showing no interest in relocating businesses and houses along the Atlantic Ocean, rather investing $20 billion in protective measures. Other cities invested in flood walls (barriers) to protect against the heightened waves that accompany hurricanes and higher tides. Architectural plans for newer/recent projects have been adapted to account for heavy winds and flooding as well. Another popular example of improvement includes beachfront houses raised on platforms. This makes sure there is minimal flooding inside the home.  



While implementing strategies to reduce the effects of these disasters may seem in everyone’s best interests, there are some roadblocks that prevent some of these measures from seeing completion. For example, there is a monetary cost that affects these projects. When deciding between optional structural upgrades to buildings and cost cutting, some builders choose to save the money. In terms of the flood walls, this means increased taxes on citizens to fund the project. This also requires a vote, or specifically a levy to gauge support and seek approval from the community to move forward with the project. The problem regarding saving money in development can be solved by passing laws and regulations requiring increased structural stability and floodwater prevention systems in seaside cities and towns. These problems regarding community support can be fixed by hosting a community event where citizens can voice their opinions and concerns, and developers can share their ideas for the project before implementation. Allowing citizens the opportunity to feel included and heard goes a long way regarding the success of approving the project. 

Blog 7 CCDC

Hazard: Hurricane Ike (2008)

Mac, Henry, Sam, Taylor



Trajectory and storm category of Hurricane Ike (“Story Map Journal”)


At the end of August 2008, Ike formed near Africa’s west coast, and was upgraded to hurricane status on September 3rd. Several days later, Ike made landfall as a category 4 hurricane on the Turks and Caicos Islands. Ninety-five percent of the houses on Grand Turk and South Caicos Islands were damaged. Seventy to eighty percent of the houses on the Great Inagua Island were also damaged and 25% were virtually destroyed. Over 2.5 million Cubans were evacuated before Ike hit the eastern side of the island, severely damaging crops (banana, coffee, corn) and roadways. Galveston, Texas was the site of the hurricane’s final landfall on September 13th (“2008- Hurricane Ike”; “Story Map Journal”). Although downgraded to a category 2 hurricane, Ike had a category 5 storm surge which flattened most structures on the Bolivar Peninsula and caused significant erosion of Galveston beaches. High winds broke windows on Houston skyscrapers and caused power outages to some coastal residents for over a month (“2008- Hurricane Ike”). Nearly 10,000 people were left jobless due to structural damage to buildings and businesses. In addition, thousands of ranch animals were killed and Louisiana’s seafood industry suffered losses in the hundreds of millions of dollars. The adverse effects of Ike also impacted the oil and gas industry along the Gulf Coast. Pipelines and offshore oil rigs were destroyed and 22 Texas-based oil refineries were shut down which caused an increase in gas prices to almost $5 per gallon (“Story Map Journal”). Making its way through the midwest, the final effects of Ike were felt in Canada. The storm caused an electrical malfunction in the Montreal subway system and brought record rainfall to Ontario (“2008- Hurricane Ike”). In the end with wind speeds reaching 145 mph, Hurricane Ike was ultimately responsible for nearly 200 deaths, 112 were in the United States, and approximately $35 billion in property damage across Texas, Louisiana, and Arkansas (“2008- Hurricane Ike”; “Story Map Journal”).


Works Cited

“2008- Hurricane Ike.” Hurricanes,

“Story Map Journal.”,


(“Story Map Journal”)                (Krauss & Mckinley 2008)


    Hurricane Ike received extensive coverage, especially on September 13, 2008, after it made landfall in Texas. One article, titled “Storm Damage is Extensive and Millions Lose Power,” appeared in the New York Times. Over two million residents in coastal Texas and Louisiana fled in anticipation of the hurricane, while more than 100,000 disregarded the mandatory evacuation. When this article was published, only four deaths had been reported, but the reporter acknowledged that it could be several days before the full extent of damage was assessed. The article also described damage to major cities in Texas which included sheets of steel pulled from skyscrapers, the main highways covered in debris, and at least 100,000 houses flooded. In addition, more than three million people were left without power, and experts predicted restoration could take weeks (Krauss & Mckinley 2008). A few days later, on September 15, 2008, an article called “U.S. Death Toll from Hurricane Ike Rises to 33,” was published by CBC News. By this time, Hurricane Ike had moved into the midwest. The death toll reported in this article was significantly higher than the previous article. Two days after hitting Texas, there were 33 reported deaths across nine states. The CBC News article confirmed the material impact reported by the Times, namely that millions were without power and thousands were in temporary shelters after their houses were destroyed (“U.S. Death Toll from Hurricane Ike” 2008). On October 4, 2008, the New York Times reported an update titled “Three Weeks After Storm, a Grim Task of Recovery.” The focus of the article was efforts to save stranded residents. Volunteers and rescue workers used dogs to find human remains, but officials feared that some victims were lost to the sea and marshes. Hurricane Ike left coastal areas in ruins as debris from houses, cars, and machinery were scattered across the land (Mckinley 2008). Collectively, these articles reveal that following Hurricane Ike’s landfall in Texas, there was an increase in details and extent of damage as officials gathered more information and rescue teams searched debris. 


Works Cited

Krauss, Clifford, and James C. Mckinley. “Storm Damage Is Extensive and Millions Lose

Power.” The New York Times, The New York Times, 13 Sept. 2008,

Mckinley, James C. “Three Weeks After Storm, a Grim Task of Recovery.” The New

York Times, The New York Times, 4 Oct. 2008,

“U.S. Death Toll from Hurricane Ike Rises to 33 | CBC News.” CBCnews, CBC/Radio

Canada, 15 Sept. 2008,



Hurricane Ike exposed many vulnerabilities in the communities that were affected by the storm. One main vulnerability that was observed in many communities was the lack of preparation for flooding. Many homes were destroyed that were at the previous BFE or Base Flood Elevation (Mitigation). By increasing this minimum requirement, homes could be more resilient to flooding on a major level as what happened during Hurricane Ike. Foundations of many homes were also found to be very weak and thus, many ended up collapsing during the storm. This was mainly due to erosion from the storm and the lack of embedment of the foundation poles (Mitigation). Some lessons learned, according to FEMA, were to elevate critical facilities such as schools and hospitals, which were previously prone to flooding and to remove aggregate roofs from buildings in downtown Houston, which have a tendency to throw rocks around during strong wind events, potentially causing damage to nearby buildings and people. These cities were not as prepared as they originally thought when it came to flooding, the policies put into place after Hurricane Rita were meant to prevent major losses from future hazards but many of these policies were not as strong as they could be. In lower income neighborhoods, many homes only passed the basic requirements when it came to BFE. These homes were heavily damaged during the storm as a result. Minorities suffered greater degrees of loss during the storm. In many cases, families lost everything. Property values in these lower income neighborhoods took longer to recover from the storm (Van Zandt). Many residents living in these low income neighborhoods that were heavily affected by the storm were displaced. This is the result of not having the funds to rebuild, therefore residents had to move somewhere else, away from their homes (Van Zandt). The lack of disaster preparation in these communities lead to the failure of these systems during Hurricane Ike. The most vulnerable were exposed to the worst elements of the storm without any system of support. There was little room for error when Hurricane Ike made landfall. It was the ultimate test of resiliency and many vulnerabilities were exposed in these communities. 


Works Cited

“Mitigation Assessment Team Report on Hurricane Ike.” Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), FEMA,

Van Zandt, Shannon. “Poor and Minority Impacts from Hurricane Ike.” Hazard Reduction & Recovery Center, Texas A&M,


Future improvements

One issue that arises during the communication stage of disaster response is overloading of information. There are many agencies and departments trying to convey information, and it can be overwhelming to both the physical equipment and the population. Important messages can get lost and unimportant information can be frequently repeated when this initial surge of information begins. Furthermore, it is difficult for people in crisis to break down complex messages and store complicated information, especially when presented with a lot of it. Agencies must quickly collaborate and coordinate messaging ensuring that only the most crucial information is shared as concisely as possible. The John Space Center post-hurricane analysis suggested that agencies should limit themselves to 1-2 sentences per agency (JSC). This helps prevent information overload and makes sure only the most important information is conveyed. Having an interdepartmental collaboration task force established before the storm season and communicating regularly during the storm/response can help mitigate this information overload. 


Another major issue was efficiently examining and reporting damage and preparing a response. Many homes were visited more than necessary and data was incompletely or inaccurately reported due to poor planning and resource management. Having a comprehensive data reporting and organization method prepared beforehand will greatly aid recovery time. This includes contingency plans for damaged equipment or infrastructure such as cell towers or power lines. There should also be a detailed procedure for how to collect the data, including the order it should be collected and how it should be shared with a central database to avoid duplication. This plan should be reviewed before every storm season to make sure it is updated and applicable to the current environment. 


Finally, there were reports of skepticism among residents about how serious the hurricane would be (Tolson). The area is frequently issued storm and hurricane warnings, many of which prove inconsequential. As a result, many people were unprepared for the storm and did not do enough to prepare. Improving dialogue between officials and individuals in the community about the seriousness of the storms and educating about the dangers associated with non-compliance with orders is essential in preparation for disaster. Building trust within the community can ensure that everyone understands the magnitude of the situation and trusts that officials are acting in their best interest. Individuals should also have an action plan and understand how to monitor the storm and react accordingly. Developing these programs and fostering trust and education within the community will help facilitate quicker and more effective responses to further hurricanes. 


JSC Hurricane Ike Lessons Learned Report. Office of the Director, Johnson Space Center, May 2009,


Tolson, Mike. “5 Lessons We Could Learn from Hurricane Ike.” Houston Chronicle, Houston Chronicle, 5 Aug. 2011,



Certainly no strategy for greater preparedness will come without complications and setbacks. It is the nature of a hurricane to create issues, whether that is minimal (knocking power out for a few hours), or well beyond an inconvenience, in the case of a loss of life. Even without perfect strategies there are always improvements to be made. 


Information overload can be minimized by limiting agencies to 1-2 sentences to communicate what they have to, and a task force can be an ideal way to ensure agencies meet that guideline and do not share conflicting or overlapping information. For putting this strategy into practice we move beyond the theoretical and deal with the problem of each storm being different and therefore presenting different challenges. Some agencies may see communicating with the public as essential to their mission, while others may find that less important to their role. Agencies involved with bringing power back on line or distributing rations may require more than the recommended 2 sentences to address everything they need to. Agencies that are more interested in monetary aid distribution or coordination may find public communication less necessary. Possible solutions could be a cap on overall public communication so that the public isn’t overwhelmed yet agencies who need the extra space for information are not limited. Another idea is to have the task force assess individual storms and decide on communication limits through this analysis.


Creating contingency plans and having a centralized data reporting system can create less confusion but it can also lead to increased confusion. Collecting data in a central database can overwhelm individual agencies who only require a fraction of the data being collected and it would cause a backlog of data requests. Contingency plans may also be unable to foresee all scenarios. Having data distribution plans and a system for requesting data from a central location may be able to minimize these potential issues.


It is essential to make sure information is communicated and the public trusts that information. It is necessary to give out warnings even when they are ultimately unnecessary because storm predictions are not 100% accurate, but this means people immediately underestimate the next storm. Building trust is important but one program to build trust will not get the job done. Some areas may require different forms of outreach. Those in housing that is not built for storm resistance may need to take greater heed of warnings than others and their needs for preparation will differ as well. To minimize this imbalance in community outreach it may be necessary for a neighborhood by neighborhood trust building program rather than a general storm awareness program.


Plan OH Blog 7

Hurricane Harvey occurred in late August 2017 (Weather). It started as a tropical storm off the coast of Africa, and gradually built in size and intensity as it moved over the Gulf of Mexico (Weather). It eventually landed land on the southeastern coast of Texas (Weather). The reason why it caused so much damage was because it stalled there, sitting over Texas and dropping record-breaking amounts of rain and extreme winds (Weather). It was the first major hurricane to hit Texas since 1970 (Weather), so a lot of people were not used to this level of disaster. Although the death toll of Hurricane Harvey may not have been as steep as other disasters, it still affected 13 million people (World Vision). After the storm, unemployment was at a two-year high, schools were closed, and almost 135,000 homes were destroyed (World Vision). Most of the homeowners affected also had no insurance because their homes did not sit on a flood plain (World Vision), so they could not rebuild. The hurricane also holds the record for the second highest cost since 1900 (World Vision). One million cars were wrecked and eight million cubic yards of garbage was cleaned up (World Vision). One of the reasons for the widespread damage was because the storm affected such a large area, throughout Texas and along the Gulf coast (World Vision). The flooding even caused Houston to temporarily sink two centimeters (World Vision).

The first coverage of Hurricane Harvey was published by NASA, who tracked the storm starting on August 17 and provided updates through September 6. An article from NBC News written on August 28, 2017 reports four deaths and 17000 people seeking shelter, and claims the storm was moving back toward the coast. On September 1, 2017, CNN News published an article claiming that 30000 people were in shelters and the storm caused $75 billion worth of damage. Another article from the Texas Tribune reported that 24000 people were living in hotel rooms on January 1, 2018. On August 31, 2018, almost a year after the disaster, experts from NPR were beginning to realize the environmental impact of the storm: eight million pounds of extra air pollution was released. We now know that there was close to $130 billion in damage and 89 deaths. It seems as though information on tracking and predictions becomes more precise the closer the storm gets, but immediately after the storm the true data is lost in the chaos. It takes a little while for all the news outlets to get caught up on what really happened, and even longer for professionals to start learning from the problems they faced.

From news and weather reports to testimonies from those who experienced Hurricane Harvey firsthand there seems to be no shortage of problems that contributed to the devastating human and material impact the event caused. Early predictions suggested the areas that would be impacted by the greatest rainfall and heavier winds were larger areas located on or near the coast, including Houston. Several of the most significant problems that contributed to Harvey’s impact were on one hand the magnitude of the affected population as well as the magnitude of the storm’s threats itself, not only in terms of the heavy rainfall and winds, but also the subsequent dispersal of dangerous chemicals and waste. On the other hand, lack of an adequate flood management system in terms of both infrastructure and flood control policies, increased development and developers display of little regard for local and state regulations, as well as lack of preparation for potential hazardous events also contributed to the devastation.

According to a news report, specifically in regards to the impact of Hurricane Harvey on the Houston metro area, although the hurricane occurred in 2017, there had been red flags for decades especially in the development patterns of the city (Many Contributing Factors Have Made Harvey’s Devastation so Severe). Houston as a major metropolitan area is constantly in the wake of some form of development. However, for a region that has been known to be flood-prone, development has occurred without serious consideration of potential flood risks. “Developers have shown little tolerance for regulation, and state and local government have not fought hard to impose much. Federal rules aren’t up to the challenge, either. Many of the vulnerable areas in Houston are outside 100- and 500-year flood zones on FEMA’s maps, zones which recent events (even before Harvey) have shown to be almost certainly too small” (Many Contributing Factors Have Made Harvey’s Devastation so Severe). Such factors, coupled with the numerous other public health related threats exacerbated the impact of Hurricane Harvey both in terms of its human impact and its material impact.

In Dakin Adone’s article “Houston knew it was at risk of flooding, so why didn’t the city evacuate?” it is mentioned that no evacuation was ordered for Houston, even though it was suggested that it would be a good idea; the mayor decided not to due to the recognition that doing so would entail an immense level of coordination the city did not have and was not prepared to establish. The mayor posed that it was better for people to be sheltered in their houses, as ordering an evacuation and putting everyone on the highway would have caused a major calamity itself. However, many people who found themselves trapped inside their homes were unable to receive aid. One strategy that could be used to better prepare/protect communities in the wake of a potentially hazardous event such as Hurricane Harvey could be for there to be some initiative taken to organize a more efficient evacuation plan that would take place well in advance of a storm making landfall. The primary goal would be to develop an efficient means of removing or relocating people, especially those in the most vulnerable areas, out of red zones, those in which the impact is expected to be the greatest. A potential obstacle would be how to develop a sufficient network of coordination for such a large population. However, the issue may be less of there being a lack of capacity but more a lack of preparation. Houston is prone to flooding; that is a known fact. It is imperative for there to be some type of plan prepared in advance of potentially hazardous events.

One way we can prepare for hazards such as Hurricane Harvey, is when designing and constructing homes, we strategically place extra nails and bolts along with adding metal connections at the joints. As minuscule as this sounds, it can make all the difference when one of these hazards strikes. Another way we can prepare is by designing shelters for those within the community to move into if they can’t afford to leave.

Some may think that these extra pieces will cost a lot especially if the house is big, but really, it doesn’t increase the overall cost of the house by that much, and the labor is already being done, so adding in extra nails and bolts wouldn’t make a difference in the cost of labor. On the other hand, by taking these precautions, many insurance companies are willing to lower their rates, because there will be less damage to fix in the event of a natural hazard such as a hurricane. A few Habitat for Humanity houses in Panama City Beach are proof that these reinforcements work. Sure, these houses lost some shingles and experienced some water damage, but overall, they’re seemingly untouched by Hurricane Michael. Ultimately, it’s all about how we reinforce the connections at the joints of the structure. The shelter(s) may raise more questions. Some of those being: Where do we get the money to pay for the shelter(s)? Do we make one big one or various smaller ones? What do we do with these shelters in the meantime, when we’re not experiencing natural hazards? First, we can apply for grants, we can have fundraisers in the community, and we can ask for donations. Most people are usually willing to help, they just don’t know how, so we need to jumpstart them. I personally believe it’d be best to build various smaller shelters in case natural hazards hit harder in some areas than in others. This allows people to spread out, rather than piling people on top of each other in one building. It would also be in our best interest to construct these structures with the low-cost reinforcements discussed above. In the meantime, we use these shelters to hold events, possibly even fundraisers, to help put money back into the shelters. Also, to make it affordable, families can work to pay “rent” here. Those staying in the shelters can make up various hazard-relief teams. This helps those whose jobs are nonexistent through the hazard and takes away pressure from the government having to build and send in teams. It would also be smart to evaluate different income levels to determine who should get the opportunity to stay here first.


Weather. “Major Hurricane Harvey.” National Weather Service, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, 2017,

World Vision. “2017 Hurricane Harvey: Facts, FAQs, and how to help.” World Vision Inc.,7 September 2018,

NASA. “Harvey (was TD 09 – Atlantic Ocean).” National Aeronautics and Space Administration, 13 September 2017,

Johnson and Siemaszko. “Harvey, Already a ‘Landmark Event,’ Threatens Round Two.” NBC News, 28 August 2017.

Griggs, Brandon. “Harvey’s Devastating Impact by the Numbers.” CNN News, 1 September 2017,

Harmon, Dave. “Four Months after Hurricane Harvey, four major questions about recovery for 2018.” The Texas Tribune, 4 Jan 2018,

Hersher, Rebecca. “Industry Looks for Hurricane Lessons as Climate Changes.” NPR, 31 August 2018,

Mak Production blog 7

Blog 7 MAK Production

  1. Hurricane Ike was a category 2 hurricane that struck the United States on the 13th of September in 2008 along almost the entire southern coast, from Florida to Texas. Ike’s produced damaging and destructive storm surge across the upper Texas and Louisiana Coasts; its likely to be the third most costly disaster after Hurricane Katrina and Hurricane Andrew in the United States (Weather). Many in-land states were hit with power-loss and wind damage; In Ohio, the power was knocked out for 2.6 million people. The storm surge produced by Ike was comparable to a Category 5 hurricane. This storm took the lives of 112 people and the cost of the damage was over $35.7 billion. 


  1. Not only humans were affected, but places like zoos were affected too. There is a story about a tiger and lion getting loose due to wind damage to an exotic animal zoo. After this incident was published, there had been a lot of push back from the community about there not being any sort of animal evacuation plan. The incident put more people in danger than just the hurricane, so people were very adamant new evacuation methods for animals that could be dangerous if let out. More than 4,000 cattle were lost in this storm and 11,000 individuals were unemployed due to lost businesses (Balance). The impacts of this storm were not only deadly to people, but deadly to the economy and the way of life that people once knew. Homes were destroyed, and within a matter of minutes, thousands of people were homeless. The New York Times has a specific section dedicated to hurricanes, and within this section are all articles relating to Ike. The communication of this disaster through this website followed the response and recovery aspects of the hurricane, but did not cover anything about mitigating the disaster for the next time or being prepared for it.

    3.Hurricane Ike hit in Texas with massive power, and coastal areas are more vulnerable to this type of disaster. The small island town that was hit hardest by Hurricane Ike was Galveston Bay. This area would have been more difficult to flee in emergencies because of it being an island and only having two routes of exit onto the mainland of Texas. If individuals did not take evacuation seriously, there was a huge likelihood that their lives would be put in danger. Galveston is only about 5-15 feet above sea level, and that makes the island very vulnerable to the large waves and destructive winds that the hurricane created. Lack of planning is one of the greatest sources of vulnerability. The city was hit in 1900 by a devastating hurricane, and the Galveston Plan was created to expedite recovery of this area. This plan probably worked in the area’s favor with continued development and communication about disaster procedures.

    4. Disasters can always be planned for and damage can always be mitigated with this prior planning. City planners and others in the field should be dedicated to the continual improvement of infrastructure to mitigate the damage from weather related incidents. This can be done in many ways. One way would be to educate people on the value of disaster preparedness. This means promoting insurance for tornados, floods, hurricanes, and other disasters that would be prone to the area. This education would also promote just having a plan and course of action for when disaster strikes. Having a population who is ready to retreat from danger at all times and who is insured for any physical damage that may occur will lessen the amount of lives and money lost. 

Another way to mitigate disasters would be to reserve flood plains for excess water only and to push all infrastructure in that path out. This shift would decrease the amount of physical damage and loss in critical infrastructure. This was done in the Netherlands where flooding is common, but almost never causes damage. The government bought land and buildings that were located in the natural and manmade floodplains so that there would be no physical infrastructure lost when flooding occurs naturally. This can be implemented in the United States as well. 

One last way to mitigate damage from disasters would be to rebuild what has already been damaged with better, sturdier foundations and construction materials. This would imply that we learn what made the building susceptible to damage and changing it to better handle inclimate weather.

5.Implementing these processes would have to occur in stages, especially the acquisition of land in flood prone areas. It would not only be expensive to buy the land, but it would not be easy to remove people from their homes and heritages and relocate them. There would need to be a shift in mindset for those affected individuals because there would have to be an agreement between the civilian and the government in order for the government to not pay more than what was absolutely necessary for the land and for the citizen to not give up their entire livelihood. It would be a tough process, however, through zoning, it would be possible to rezone the area and not allow any critical physical infrastructure to be built (or rebuilt after damage) in areas where flood and hurricanes are prone to cause mass damage. 

Implementing new designs and construction materials may be difficult due to the ties a community may have with a building. A historic wood building with a tall steeple may be a staple to the community, but if it keeps being ripped apart by disaster and rebuilt, it may not be the most sustainable option to keep rebuilding it the same way. The focus would be shifted from the ties the community may have with a piece of infrastructure toward an ideology that new buildings can and should be built that are more resilient and sturdy.  

Educating the population would not be nearly as difficult to implement. This could be done through government programs, student programs, or even non-profit programs. Money used towards promoting plan-making procedures, disaster supply kits, and evacuation tips have the ability to save more money and lives overall. Also, promoting education on how to communicate in a storm or weather emergency could save money and time in searching for people, so it may be easier for funding to get passed on this education. 



Blog 7: Team Sim City


Hurricane Andrew was a category five Atlantic storm that hit the Bahamas, Florida, and Louisiana. The storm decimated much of Southern Florida and reconfigured the area.Most of the damage was caused by the strong winds that ripped off roofs and toppled cars. Hurricane Andrew destroyed over 25,000 homes which left 160,000 people homeless. Over a million people were evacuated from southern Florida overnight once the storm was deemed dangerous. The hurricane was hard to track due to these strong winds destroying the wind measuring devices. The wind would blow an object one mile from its original location. Hurricane Andrew became the second costliest storm in America.


 At first,only 15 deaths were reported and the number kept increasing as more victims were found.Most of these victims were elderly people, children, and people who had illnesses such as heart disease. Several days after, more people were reported missing by their families and people struggled to get food and power. Thus, the first 6000 troops and 1000 Marines were sent with blanket and water. Later reports showed that 65000 jobs were estimated to temporarily lost and the local economy lost 2.9 billion dollars in order to cover the services. More than 10 percentage of the residents in the affected area were forced to relocate, which also caused a housing shortage and high renting prices problems. It took more than two year for some of the residents to reform their houses; while others chose to never return to the area-causing the Dade County to lost 27 percent of its population. In addition, the storm caused 10 billion dollars in insured damages, which led to the bankruptcy of nine small insurance companies. Final report showed that the storm caused 61 deaths and an estimated 27 billion dollars in damage. This made Hurricane Andrew the second costliest hurricane on record. 


The main aspect of Hurricane Andrew that contributed to the massive destruction was the high speed winds produced by the storm. The wind speed averaged over 150 miles per hour. The sheer wind speed could knock over trees, people, and even entire homes. The amount of debris being propelled through the air via the hurricane cause significant damage, injury, and death. The prevalence of mobile homes increased the amount of debris due to the ease of mobile home destruction via the strong winds; poorly constructed homes also contributed to the sheer amount of devastation and debris. The hurricane also sprouted off a few tornadoes, which increased the amount of destruction. While the areas most affected by Hurricane Andrew established a state of emergency and mandatory evacuations, the lacking ability of storm tracking technology led to most people only having about a day to pack and evacuate their homes. This led to a great deal of people fleeing to shelters or finding makeshift shelter; there were also a portion of people that refused to flee their homes. Therefore, a lot of people found themselves in the heart of the hurricane under trucks, inside sheds, and huddling in their homes.


Future Improvements:

Communities affected by hurricanes, like those affected by Hurricane Andrew, can use new strategies to prepare themselves for these kinds of storms. They can start by building sturdier, wind resistant housing. This can help prevent the damage caused by strong winds. This can be done by using stronger materials to support the building. The roof can be made through careful roof sheathing and framing to sustain heavy winds. The walls can then be supported through concrete reinforcements to hold them in place. This can prevent many from going homeless due to the stability of their home.

Communities can also use technology to their advantage to help prepare for storms. If storms are better predicted than people can prepare for them properly. Instead of using ground based wind measuring tools, the tools could be planted closer to the storm to get a more accurate measurement. This would give meteorologists a better idea of how strong the storm is before it hits the U.S. People would have more time than just one day to prepare their home for a category five storm.

Communities in hurricane zones could also stress better building codes for their residents. This would ensure that people are out of flood zones or too close to the ocean. These codes would also require people to build their homes up to code at the risk of being fined. If everyone’s home is fully adapt for hurricane conditions, a community would not suffer as much damage. 


Money would be a potential barrier for some of these issues. If the government is requiring people to update their homes to code, it will require money on their part. Some people many not have the means to build their homes to withstand a hurricane. The government could provide a program for these people to help them pay for improvement. Whether it is a loan or a grant, the government can help ensure people’s safety by investing money in precautions before a storm. 

Technology could also be a potential issue in predicting hurricanes. If the hurricane is too strong, the technology could be damaged by being too close to the storm. However, luckily, advancements in technology have allowed scientists to develop new techniques to predict storms. They use land, sea, and air based trackers to help manage the storms. These improvements can predict storms up to 72 hours in advance of when they are supposed to hit land.



“Hurricane Andrew.” Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, 29 Oct 2019,

“List of Hurricane Andrew’s Victims, How They Died With PM-Hurricane Aftermath, Bjt.” AP NEWS, Associated Press, 4 Sept. 1992,

“The 25th Anniversary of Hurricane Andrew.” Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory,

Victor, Daniel. “Hurricane Andrew: How The Times Reported the Destruction of 1992.” The New York Times, The New York Times, 6 Sept. 2017,