How People Learn II: Learners, Contexts and Cultures

An important update to a National Academies Press resource on teaching and learning is now available online as a downloadable PDF book. The book incorporates research from the past two decades to expand on the original report from 2000. How People Learn II includes chapters that summarize theories related to learning and knowledge, theories related to motivation to learn, and use of digital technology for learning. These summaries can be very helpful when we are designing learning interventions and collecting evidence of their effectiveness in the process of educating nurses. The new (and free) edition of this book can make underpinning your learning design with theory and evaluating the outcomes a little easier.

National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. (2018). How people learn II: Learners, contexts, and cultures. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. https://doi.org/10.17226/24783

Creating a Self-Grading Quiz on H5P

In a previous entry, you learned how to create a set of flashcards on H5P. Flashcards are an excellent study tool, but some students may simply memorize the cards themselves rather than actually learning the underlying concepts. For that reason, an excellent tool to reinforce the material on the flashcards is the self-grading quiz. Below is an example quiz based on this flashcard set:

To create an interactive quiz of your own, go to the H5P content creation screen and select “single choice set” from the drop down menu.

The first dialogue box will set the title for the entire quiz.

In these dialogue boxes, you will fill out the question and up to four possible answers. The form will default to two possible answers. You must click the grey “add answer” button to create new blank answer dialogue boxes. It is important to note that the first dialogue box is for the answer that you want the quiz to grade as correct. It is also important to note that the quiz will randomize the order of all four possible answers. This will be important later.

Question 5 is an important example because I chose to include an “all of the above” style answer. However, it is important to note that even though this answer is the last one on the form, it will not necessarily appear as the last question within that answer set (eg: it could appear answer 1, 2, 3, all of the above OR 1, all of the above, 3, 4 etc.). For this reason, you should choose a wording similar to “all answers are acceptable” and avoid answers that make reference to other answers in terms of their location within the answer set.

This image shows the grade ranges you can choose. This section starts relatively blank. To create the grade ranges for this quiz, I clicked the blue “add range button” until there was one grade range per question, then clicked the white “distribute evenly button.” However, If you choose to, you can manually adjust the grade ranges. The text boxes next to each grade range are the messages that will appear if a student receives a given score.

In these final steps you can further customize the behavior of the quiz and the messages and prompts that appear on the quiz. For this tutorial, these settings have been left as default, however I encourage you to play with these settings and contact CON IT for any additional assistance you may need. As with other content on H5P, you can edit the download, embed, and copyright buttons that will appear. Once you are happy with your quiz, click the pink save button. If you followed these directions, you should end up with a quiz identical to the one at the beginning of this blog post. Once you have completed your quiz, it can be embedded into Carmen or into your u.osu blog for use as a study tool. For help configuring your quiz, or assistance in implementing an H5P quiz in your classes or study groups, please contact CON IT for additional assistance.

Creating Flashcards on H5P

The previous blog entry showed how to make a basic accordion style review tool on H5P. This entry will teach you how to use H5P to create online flashcards. The online flashcard tool is a great way to present a large amount of study material, as long as the material requires only a brief explanation or rationale. The process is a bit more complex than the accordion style list, but the outcome is much more customizable. Below is an example flashcard set to study commonly used medical abbreviations. Most of these cards are simply text on both sides. Cards 3 and 4 give examples of how to use audio and image clues on a flashcard set.

To create a flashcard set, start at the H5P content screen (you will need to create a free account) and select “dialog cards” from the drop down menu.

These first dialogue boxes will set the title for your project, the title that appears at the top of the card pile, and the general instructions for the card pile.

The first dialogue box for your card will determine what shows on the front of the card. The second dialogue box shows what will appear on the back of your card. Initially, you will only have one blank card. To add more cards, you must click the blue “add dialog” button on the left menu.

Card 3 is unique in that I added an audio clue to the card. To do this, scroll down until you see the section for “audio files” then click on the grey rectangle to upload your audio file. You can upload audio files with a URL or from uploading a saved MP3 from your computer. It’s also possible to record your own audio files to upload. It’s important to be aware of any copyrights your file may have, and to cite them properly. Citations will appear in the “Rights of Use” button on your flashcard set.

Card 4 is unique because it has a visual clue that appears on the card (images will appear on the front and back of the card). Images are uploaded just like audio files, except you will upload images under the “image” section. Just like audio files, be aware of the copyrights your image may have and cite them properly.

At the bottom of the page you will have the option to further edit actions and behaviors of the card deck. For this tutorial I left those options as default, but I encourage you to play with them and contact CON IT for any additional assistance you may need. You will also have the option of editing what buttons will appear on the final flash card deck. Once you are satisfied with your flashcard deck, click the pink “save” button. If you followed the directions posted here, you should end up with a deck identical to the one at the top of this blog post. For help configuring your deck, or assistance in implementing flashcards in your classes or study groups, please contact CON IT for additional assistance.

 

 

An Introduction to Using H5P

In this post, I will show you how to create an accordion list, one of the many tools on H5P. Below is an example I created of an accordion to review physiology. In this example, the student is presented with a question  to consider, and then the student can double check their answer by clicking on the accordion to reveal more information. One of the benefits of an accordion list is that it can organize and present broad answers with a lot of information. Accordion lists can be embedded into Carmen to condense large chunks of information and can be given to students as an assignment to complete or as a study guide. Accordion lists are especially useful in organizing long blocks of text into digestible pieces of information, as in complicated assignment instructions or longer discussion postings. Please try out the interactive accordion below:

The creation of an accordion list is quite simple. Follow this link  to get to H5P’s content creation page (you will also need to create a free account). Once there, click on the bar in the center of the page labeled “select content type,” and “accordion” will be the first choice. After selecting “accordion” and clicking the blue “use” button, you will be presented with a blank template. In the image below I have given the list the title “Physiology Review.” The current template has one blank form. To create a second blank form, you will need to hit the blue “add panel” button (circled in red).

The following images shows how I filled out the forms to create the interactive example at the top of the page (click on the image for a larger view):

Following these steps will create an accordion list identical to the one you see at the top of this blog post. All that’s left is to finalize the list at the bottom of the page:

 

If you want to add more content, you can continue to add more panels by clicking the blue “add panel” button. If you want to edit the display buttons on your accordion list, you can do so with the check boxes. If you are finished and want to see the completed list, click the pink “save” button.

Saving will take you to a finalized version of your accordion list. If you want to make edits to your list, you can do so by clicking the “edit” button. If you want to download a copy of your list or get the embed code, you can do so by clicking the respective buttons. If you don’t want the option to have download or embed buttons, you can remove them by deselecting the check boxes on the previous screen. For assistance using the H5P accordion list in your classroom, please contact the CON IT Department for support.

The other two learning domains

Pearls of wisdom from the STTI 43rd Biennial Convention

What comes to mind when you hear the words “Bloom’s Taxonomy”? You probably think of the typical pyramid illustrating the stages of learning in the cognitive domain.  The most basic level of learning, according to Bloom, is Remembering. As learning deepens and broadens, the student works toward the highest level: Creating. What you may not realize or remember is that there are two other learning domains with their own progressive stages.

New Blooms Pyramid

In the nursing discipline, we sometimes refer to “knowledge, skills, and attitudes,” or KSAs, which align fairly closely with Bloom’s three domains of learning: cognitive, psychomotor, and affective. (See Donald Clark’s website for more information and a plain-English explanation.) In nursing education, we tend to focus heavily on the cognitive and psychomotor domains of learning because that is (or seems to us to be) the nature of our discipline. I was reminded in a session at the STTI 43rd Biennial conference that we need to give the affective domain the attention it deserves and students need.

KSAs Bloom’s
Domains
Realm
Knowledge Cognitive Intellectual
What do you know?
Skills Psychomotor Physical
What can you do?
Attitudes Affective Emotional
How do you feel?

Why does the affective domain matter to nursing?  Because when we use phrases like “quality and safety” or “cultural competence,” we are really referring to values that change behavior and affect nursing decisions on a daily basis.  That leads to more questions for the educator:  how do we assess students in the affective domain?  For example, how do we know when a nurse is exhibiting behavior that provides evidence that they have achieved the level of cultural competence expected of them in the workplace?

When we write objectives for any learning domain, we look for measurable, observable signs to show stakeholders the objectives have been met.  These signs will be products or performances we (as educators) and our stakeholders (administrators, accreditors, students and classmates) can perceive with one or more of our five senses to confirm that a learner has achieved a certain specific benchmark.

For example, if the instructional objective is for the learner to administer IM medication safely, it is fairly easy for us to identify the cognitive component of that objective (mental knowledge of medication and technique) and the psychomotor component of the objective (physical demonstration of procedure), but what is the affective part of the objective?  It’s an attitude of quality and safety.

What metric do we use to measure that attitude?  That is the piece that makes the affective domain so difficult.  It’s one thing to know the standards by which quality is measured and the procedures necessary to ensure patient safety related to an IM injection; it’s quite another to internalize that knowledge so that it transforms a nurse’s attitude toward medication administration and the whole patient.

Verbs such as appreciate and value express the affective domain, but they are not technically measurable. However, it is possible to describe a learner’s behavior when they appreciate cultural differences and value patient safety.  They may demonstrate sensitivity to diversity through respectful communication or prioritize elements of nursing care according to changing patient status and safety principles.

Writing objectives in the affective domain is a difficult concept to grasp fully.  See Donald Clark’s page on the affective domain to get a solid start on making sure you have measurable objectives in all three domains for your class.

Clark, D.R. (2015). Bloom’s taxonomy: The affective domain. Retrieved from http://www.nwlink.com/~donclark/hrd/Bloom/affective_domain.html

Clark, D.R. (2015). Learning: Knowledge, skills, and attitudes. Retrieved from http://www.nwlink.com/~donclark/learning/ska.html

Qualtrics in the College of Nursing

Welcome to Qualtrics! Follow these steps to begin using this new survey tool at OSU.  (These instructions are for faculty, staff, and students affiliated with the College of Nursing.  If you are affiliated with a different department or college at Ohio State, please contact the technology team in your area to obtain access to Qualtrics.)

  1. First go to osu.qualtrics.com and log in with your OSU name.#
  2. Explore this software option to see if it fits your educational needs!
  3. If it does, please visit this page and log in with your CON username and password for the upgrade code.
  4. In the upper right, click on your name and then choose account settings.Screen-Shot-2015-04-01-at-3.42.35-PM-23dnly2
  5. Then choose Upgrade and enter your code.Screen-Shot-2015-04-01-at-3.45.09-PM-2lz5x7m-1024x378
  6. Now follow these Qualtrics video and text instructions if you want to learn this new system –> http://www.qualtrics.com/university/researchsuite/misc-pages/misc/learn-qualtrics-in-5-steps/