Roasting is the process which turns the coffee beans to the rich dark brown color beans we know (“Ten Steps to Coffee”). It is a chemical process by aromatics, acids, and other flavor components alter in a way that augment the flavor, acidity, aftertaste, and body of the coffee. The first stage of the roasting process is endothermic. The green beans, which is the original color of the bean, slowly dry and turn to a yellow color. The smell given off is similar to toast or popcorn. The next step is often called the first crack. This occurs at approximately 200 degrees Celsius. The beans double in size, become a light brown color, and lose approximately 5% of their weight. The next step is followed by a short endothermic period which is followed by another exothermic step called second crack. This occurs between 225 and 230 degrees celsius. The roast color is a medium dark brown. The beans take on an oily sheen at this stage. For best coffee results, it is necessary to stop the roast somewhere between the end of the first crack and less than half way through the second crack (“Coffee Roasting”). Once the coffee beans are roasted, they are cooled and blended into various flavor and strength combinations. The blends are then packaged and prepared for distribution (“Overview of the Supply Chain”).
The top ten Coffee Roasters in the Nation are:
10. Klatch Coffee
9. Dogwood Coffee
8. Four Barrel Coffee
7. Verve Coffee Roasters
6. PT’s Coffee
5. Heart Rosters
3. Madcap Coffee
1. Counter Culture Coffee
(“The top Ten Coffee Roasters in the Nation, as voted by Super-serious Coffee Nerds”)
The Roasters go through a lot of troubles believe it or not. They have a lot of pressure on their job. They have the rent of the building, the utilities, the maintenance on the machines, office supplies, packing and printing material, the taxes, the marketing, etc. They also have room for shipping errors, processing failure, holdups in customs, unexpectedly diminished green coffee quality upon arrival, and other issues that can cause financial loss that can be accounted somewhere and cause problems for the company (“The Hidden Costs of Coffee”).