Electronic Structure of Atoms

The title is video link (where available). PDF file is below the description.

  • Cathode Ray Tube –  Demonstrate the deflection of an electron beam with a magnet (CRT), and the particle nature of electrons by using a beam of electrons to spin a pinwheel.
  • Diffraction of Light – Use a laser pointer and a slide containing eight different arrays of dots to simulate x-ray diffraction experiments.
  • Fireworks Balloons – Show the brilliant colors of metal cations in a fun way by igniting hydrogen balloons containing metal salts.
  • Flame Tests – Introduce various metal salts (e.g. NaCl, SrCl2, CuCl2) into an open flame to produce brilliant colors associated with exciting metal cations.
  • Gas Discharge Tubes of the Noble Gases – show that different gases give different colors when subjected to an electric discharge (H2 tube also available)
  • Paramagnetic and Diamagnetic Salts – Provide experimental evidence of electron spin by bringing a powerful magnet close to suspended test tubes of MnSO4, FeSO4, NiSO4, and ZnSO4 to show the different responses due to different numbers of unpaired electrons
  • Paramagnetic O2 – Demonstrate the paramagnetism of liquid oxygen by pouring first N2(ℓ), then O2(ℓ) between the poles of a powerful magnet on the overhead projector or document camera.
  • Pickle Electrocutor – Run an electric current through a dill pickle using a special apparatus to show students that the brine in the pickle conducts electricity, and the current heats and excites the sodium atoms present to a higher energy level. The emission of photons as the sodium returns to the ground state accounts for the yellow color of the light.