Covalent Bonding


Ammonia Fountain – Show the solubility of NH3 (g) in H2O due to hydrogen-bonding.

Combustion of Candy – Contrast the oxidation of sucrose in the body (by eating some candy) with the oxidation of sucrose by KClO3 (as shown by dropping some candy into molten KClO3, producing steam and a lavender flame. Body temperature is ~37°C, and the melting point of KClO3 is 368°C

Combustion of Ethanol Vapor – Allow a small amount of ethanol to vaporize in a large carboy, pour out the excess liquid, and hold a lighted splint to the mouth of the container – the impressive reaction also demonstrates the flammability of organic vapors.

Combustion of Methane Bubbles – Use a candle on a dowel rod to ignite large soap bubbles filled with CH4 – this is very impressive! If a more intense demo is needed, try Methane Bubbles XTREME.

Graham’s Law of Diffusion – Allow concentrated NH3 and concentrated HCl to vaporize and meet in a horizontal glass tube, forming a ring of NH4Cl

H2-O2 balloons – Ignite a balloon filled with a stoichiometric mixture of hydrogen and oxygen to show the extremely exothermic reaction to produce water.

Methane Bubbles XTREME – Ignite a tower of methane-filled soap bubbles to produce a pillar of flame 3-5m high. As seen on Mythbusters!          

Production and Combustion of Carbon Monoxide – Add concentrated H2SO4 to formic acid to produce H2O and CO(g), then ignite the CO(g) to show that it burns with a blue flame.