Wendel AA, Purushotham A, Liu LF, Belury MA. Conjugated linoleic acid fails to worsen insulin resistance but induces hepatic steatosis in the presence of leptin in ob/ob mice. J Lipid Res 2008.
Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) induces insulin resistance preceded by rapid depletion of the adipokines leptin and adiponectin, increased inflammation, and hepatic steatosis in mice. To determine the role of leptin in CLA-mediated insulin resistance and hepatic steatosis, recombinant leptin was coadministered with dietary CLA in ob/ob mice to control leptin levels and to, in effect, negate the leptin depletion effect of CLA. In a 2 x 2 factorial design, 6 week old male ob/ob mice were fed either a control diet or a diet supplemented with CLA and received daily intraperitoneal injections of either leptin or vehicle for 4 weeks. In the absence of leptin, CLA significantly depleted adiponectin and induced insulin resistance, but it did not increase hepatic triglyceride concentrations or adipose inflammation, marked by interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha mRNA expression. Insulin resistance, however, was accompanied by increased macrophage infiltration (F4/80 mRNA) in adipose tissue. In the presence of leptin, CLA depleted adiponectin but did not induce insulin resistance or macrophage infiltration. Despite this, CLA induced hepatic steatosis. In summary, CLA worsened insulin resistance without evidence of inflammation or hepatic steatosis in mice after 4 weeks. In the presence of leptin, CLA failed to worsen insulin resistance but induced hepatic steatosis in ob/ob mice.
Canene-Adams K, Lindshield BL, Wang S, Jeffery EH, Clinton SK, Erdman JW,Jr. Combinations of tomato and broccoli enhance antitumor activity in Dunning R3327-H prostate adenocarcinomas. Cancer Res 2007.
The consumption of diets containing 5 to 10 servings of fruits and vegetables daily is the foundation of public health recommendations for cancer prevention, yet this concept has not been tested in experimental models of prostate cancer. We evaluated combinations of tomato and broccoli in the Dunning R3327-H prostate adenocarcinoma model. Male Copenhagen rats (n=206) were fed diets containing 10% tomato, 10% broccoli, 5% tomato plus 5% broccoli (5:5 combination), 10% tomato plus 10% broccoli (10:10 combination) powders, or lycopene (23 or 224 nmol/g diet) for approximately 22 weeks starting 1 month prior to receiving s.c. tumor implants. We compared the effects of diet to surgical castration (2 weeks before termination) or finasteride (5 mg/kg body weight orally, 6 d/wk). Castration reduced prostate weights, tumor areas, and tumor weight (62%, P<0.001), whereas finasteride reduced prostate weights (P<0.0001), but had no effect on tumor area or weight. Lycopene at 23 or 224 nmol/g of the diet insignificantly reduced tumor weights by 7% or 18%, respectively, whereas tomato reduced tumor weight by 34% (P<0.05). Broccoli decreased tumor weights by 42% (P<0.01) whereas the 10:10 combination caused a 52% decrease (P<0.001). Tumor growth reductions were associated with reduced proliferation and increased apoptosis, as quantified by proliferating cell nuclear antigen immunohistochemistry and the ApopTag assay. The combination of tomato and broccoli was more effective at slowing tumor growth than either tomato or broccoli alone and supports the public health recommendations to increase the intake of a variety of plant components.
Bhaskaran S, Santanam N, Penumetcha M, Parthasarathy S. Inhibition of atherosclerosis in low-density lipoprotein receptor-negative mice by sesame oil. J Med Food 2006.
Diet has profound effects on the development of atherosclerosis. Fatty acid composition, antioxidants, and other components such as lignans have major effects on the atherosclerotic process. Sesame oil has both mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acid constituents in equal proportions. In addition, it also has high levels of numerous antioxidants and inducers of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor. The objective of this study was to determine the anti-atherosclerotic effects of sesame oil. In this study, male low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor (LDLR) -/- mice were fed an atherogenic diet or an atherogenic diet reformulated with the same level of sesame oil (sesame oil diet). Plasma lipids and atherosclerotic lesions were quantified after 3 months of feeding. The sesame oil-containing diet significantly reduced atherosclerotic lesion formation and plasma cholesterol, triglyceride, and LDL cholesterol levels in LDLR -/- mice. These findings suggest that sesame oil could inhibit atherosclerosis lesion formation effectively, perhaps due to synergistic actions of fatty acid and nonsaponifiable components.