Improved sensory qualities
Min S, Yu Y, Yoo S, St Martin SK. Effect of soybean varieties and growing locations on the flavor of soymilk. J Food Sci 2005.
The volatile compounds of soymilk prepared from 5 soybean varieties grown in 2 locations were isolated and separated by a dynamic headspace analyzer and capillary gas chromatography. The coefficient of variation for the quantitative analysis of volatile compounds of soymilk by dynamic headspace analysis was less than 3.0%. Soybean varieties and growing locations had significant effects on the volatile compounds of the batches of soymilk at alpha = 0.05. The higher the soybean protein, the higher the volatile compounds in the soymilk. The correlation coefficient between the protein content and the volatile compounds of the milk was 0.99. Thirty-eight volatile compounds of soymilk were identified by a combination of mass spectrometry and gas chromatographic retention times of standard compounds. Most of the identified compounds were formed by the lipid oxidation of soymilk. However, 2-pentylfuran, dimethyl disulfide, and dimethyl sulfide were formed by singlet oxygen. The beany or green flavor that makes soymilk unpleasant or unacceptable to some Westerners may be due to 2-pentylfuran, which is formed from linoleic acid by singlet oxygen. The beany flavor can be eliminated by processing the soymilk with a minimum exposure to light and air.
Wszelaki A, Delwiche JF, Walker S, Liggett RE, Miller SA, Kleinhenz M. Consumer liking and descriptive analysis of six varieties of organically grown edamame-type soybean. Food Qual and Preference 2005.
Six commercial varieties of organically grown edamame-type soybeans were compared using consumer testing and descriptive analysis. In the affective tests, 54 panelists rated pods and beans for appearance, and beans for aroma, taste, texture, aftertaste, and overall acceptability on a nine-point hedonic scale and willingness to buy on a nine-point category scale. The taste of ‘Sayamusume’ was liked significantly better than all varieties except ‘Kenko’ and ‘Sapporo Midori’. ‘Kenko’ was also rated higher than ‘Sapporo Midori’, ‘Misono Green’, and ‘Early Hakucho’ for pod appearance. The texture of ‘Misono Green’ was liked less than that of all other varieties except ‘White Lion’. In the descriptive analysis, 10 trained panelists rated the beaniness, sweetness, nuttiness, and chewiness of the same six varieties. ‘Kenko’ was rated significantly sweeter than all other varieties except ‘Sapporo Midori’. ‘White Lion’ was rated as significantly lower in chewiness than all other varieties. Beaniness and nuttiness could not be consistently differentiated among varieties. The data suggest that consumer liking of bean taste varies, though subtly, among these six commercial edamame varieties and that preferences may differ between men and women. Results from descriptive analysis also suggest that panelists relied on texture (i.e., chewiness) and sweetness to differentiate edamame varieties. These results are particularly important in overall product quality management strategies as chewiness and sweetness may be influenced by production practices and harvest timing.