Bohn T, Blackwood M, Francis D, Tian Q, Schwartz SJ, Clinton SK. 2013. Bioavailability of phytochemical constituents from a novel soy fortified lycopene rich tomato juice developed for targeted cancer prevention trials. Nutr Cancer. 65(6):919-29.
Studies suggest that tomato and soy foods may contribute to a lower risk of certain cancers. We developed a novel soy germ tomato juice to be used in controlled cancer prevention trials. This study describes an initial test of compliance, phytochemical bioavailability, and effects on biomarkers of blood lipids. Healthy men and women (n = 18) consumed a soy germ-fortified juice daily (300 mL supplying 66 mg isoflavones and 22 mg lycopene) for 8 wk. A single-dose bioavailability study was completed on day 1 and isoflavones in plasma and urine, and lycopene in the plasma, were measured. All subjects completed the trial, with 97.7% ± 3.5% (mean ± SD) of the scheduled juice consumed. No adverse effects were documented. The postprandial study indicated that 3.1% ± 2.3% of lycopene was absorbed and that 49.3% ± 12.1% isoflavones ingested were recovered in 24-h urines. Lycopene plasma concentration changed from 0.60 ± 0.22 to 1.24 ± 0.30 μmol/L during 8 wk of consumption. Juice consumption significantly improved resistance of LDL+VLDL-C to Cu(2+)-mediated oxidation (P = 0.039), HDL-C (47.3 ± 15.8 to 51.7 ± 14.8 mg/dL, P < 0.001), and the ratio of total-C/HDL-C (4.25 ± 1.59 to 3.63 ± 1.16, P < 0.001) at 8 wk. A well-characterized soy-fortified tomato juice can be produced in large scale for multiinstitutional long-term cancer prevention trials and showed excellent compliance with no toxicity, while demonstrating absorption of biologically active phytochemicals.
Grainger EM, Schwartz SJ, Wang S, Unlu NZ, Boileau TW, Ferketich AK, Monk JP, Gong MC, Bahnson RR, DeGroff VL, Clinton SK. A combination of tomato and soy products for men with recurring prostate cancer and rising prostate specific antigen. Nutr Cancer 2008 Mar;60(2):145-54.
Tomato and soy products are hypothesized to reduce the risk of prostate cancer or enhance efficacy of therapy. A study was completed to determine if men with active prostate cancer will adhere to a dietary intervention rich in tomato products and a soy protein supplement men (n = 41) with recurrent, asymptomatic prostate cancer were randomized among 2 groups: Group A (n = 20) consumed tomato products (no soy) for Weeks 0 through 4, targeting a minimum of 25 mg of lycopene/day. Group B (n = 21) consumed soy (no tomatoes) for Weeks 0 through 4, providing 40 g of soy protein/day. For Weeks 4 through 8, all men consumed a combined tomato-rich diet and soy supplements. No grade II through IV toxicities were observed. During Weeks 0 through 4, mean daily lycopene intake for Group A was 43 mg (+/- 15 mg) and mean soy intake for Group B was 39 g (+/- 1 g), remaining similar during Weeks 4 through 8. Serum lycopene increased from 0.72 +/- 0.09 micromol/l to 1.21 +/- 0.10 micromol/l (P < 0.0001) and urinary isoflavone excretion increased from not detectable to 54.1 +/- 5.7 micromol/l (P < 0.05) with 8 wk of diet intervention. Serum prostate-specific antigen decreased between Weeks 0 and 8 for 14 / 41 men (34%). Mean serum vascular endothelial growth factor for the entire group was reduced from 87 to 51 ng/ml (P < 0.05) over 8 wk. In conclusion, prostate cancer patients will consume diets rich in tomato products and soy with excellent compliance and bioavailability of phytochemicals. Further studies combining tomato and soy foods to determine efficacy for prostate cancer prevention or management are encouraged.
Stoner GD, Sardo C, Apseloff G, Mullet D, Wargo W, Pound V, Singh A, Sanders J, Aziz R, Casto B, Sun X. Pharmacokinetics of anthocyanins and ellagic acid in healthy volunteers fed freeze-dried black raspberries daily for 7 days. J Clin Pharmacol 2005.
Eleven subjects completed a clinical trial to determine the safety/tolerability of freeze-dried black raspberries (BRB) and to measure, in plasma and urine, specific anthocyanins-cyanidin-3-glucoside, cyanidin-3-sambubioside, cyanidin-3-rutinoside, and cyanidin-3-xylosylrutinoside, as well as ellagic acid. Subjects were fed 45 g of freeze-dried BRB daily for 7 days. Blood samples were collected predose on days 1 and 7 and at 10 time points postdose. Urine was collected for 12 hours predose on days 1 and 7 and at three 4-hour intervals postdose. Maximum concentrations of anthocyanins and ellagic acid in plasma occurred at 1 to 2 hours, and maximum quantities in urine appeared from 0 to 4 hours. Overall, less than 1% of these compounds were absorbed and excreted in urine. None of the pharmacokinetic parameters changed significantly between days 1 and 7. In conclusion, 45 g of freeze-dried BRB daily are well tolerated and result in quantifiable anthocyanins and ellagic acid in plasma and urine.