Pharmacokinetics and dose response

Return to Phase I and Phase II Human Clinical Trials / Human Translational Research

Abstract Examples


Unlu NZ, Bohn T, Francis DM, Clinton SK, Schwartz SJ. Carotenoid absorption in humans consuming tomato sauces obtained from tangerine or high-beta-carotene varieties of tomatoes. J Agric Food Chem 2007.

Tomato sauces were produced from unique tomato varieties to study carotenoid absorption in humans. Tangerine tomatoes, high in cis-lycopene, especially prolycopene (7Z,9Z,7’Z,9’Z), and high-beta-carotene tomatoes as an alternative dietary source of beta-carotene were grown and processed. Sauces were served after 2 week washout periods and overnight fasting for breakfast to healthy subjects (n = 12, 6M/6F) in a randomized crossover design. The serving size was 150 g (containing 15 g of corn oil), tangerine sauce containing 13 mg of lycopene (97.0% as cis-isomers) and high-beta-carotene sauce containing 17 mg of total beta-carotene (1.6% as the 9-cis-isomer) and 4 mg of lycopene. Blood samples were collected 0, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, and 9.5 h following test meal consumption and carotenoids determined in the plasma triacylglycerol-rich lipoprotein fraction by HPLC-electrochemical detection. Baseline-corrected areas under the concentration vs time curves (AUC) were used as a measure of absorption. AUC0-9.5h values for total lycopene in the tangerine sauce group were 870 +/- 187 (nmol.h)/L (mean +/- SEM) with >99% as cis-isomers (59% as the tetra-cis-isomer). The AUC0-9.5h values for total beta-carotene and lycopene after consumption of the high-beta-carotene sauce were 304 +/- 54 (4% as 9-cis-carotene) and 118 +/- 24 (nmol.h)/L, respectively. Lycopene dose-adjusted triacylglycerol-rich lipoprotein AUC responses in the tangerine sauce group were relatively high when compared to those in the literature and the high-beta-carotene group. The results support the hypothesis that lycopene cis-isomers are highly bioavailable and suggest that special tomato varieties can be utilized to increase both the intake and bioavailability of health-beneficial carotenoids.


Chitchumroonchokchai C, Riedl KM, Suksumrarn S, Clinton SK, Kinghorn AD, Failla ML. 2012. Xanthones in mangosteen juice are absorbed and partially conjugated by healthy adults. J Nutr. 142(4):675-680.

The proposed health-promoting effects of the pericarp from mangosteen fruit have been attributed to a family of polyphenols referred to as xanthones. The purpose of this study was to determine the bioavailability of xanthones from 100% mangosteen juice in healthy adult participants (n = 10). Pericarp particles accounted for 1% of the mass and 99% of the xanthone concentration in the juice. The juice provided 5.3 ± 0.1 mmol/L total xanthones with α-mangostin, garcinones (C, D, and E), γ-mangostin, gartanins, and other identified xanthones accounting for 58, 2, 6, 4, and 5%, respectively. Participants ingested 60 mL mangosteen juice with a high-fat breakfast. Free and conjugated (glucuronidated/sulfated) xanthones were detected in serum and urine. There was marked variation in the AUC (762-4030 nmol/L × h), maximum concentration (113 ± 107 nmol/L), and time to maximum concentration (3.7 ± 2.4 h) for α-mangostin in sera during the 24-h collection. Similarly, xanthones in 24-h urine ranged from 0.9 to 11.1 μmol and accounted for 2.0 ± 0.3% (range 0.3-3.4%) of the ingested dose. There were no significant differences between female and male participants in mean pharmacokinetic values of α-mangostin in serum and urinary xanthones. Only 15.4 ± 0.7% of total xanthones in pericarp particles in the juice partitioned into mixed micelles during in vitro digestion. These results show that xanthones in mangosteen juice are absorbed when ingested along with a high-fat meal, although release of xanthones from pericarp particles during digestion may be limited.


Tian Q, Giusti MM, Stoner GD, Schwartz SJ. Urinary excretion of black raspberry (Rubus occidentalis) anthocyanins and their metabolites. J Agric Food Chem 2006.

Anthocyanins are the most abundant phenolic compounds, widely distributed in fruits and vegetables, and exhibit potent antioxidant capacity. Humans ingest a significant amount of anthocyanins in the daily diet. The objective of the current study was to examine human absorption and metabolism of black raspberry anthocyanins when administered at high doses (2.69 +/- 0.085 g/day). Ten healthy men consumed 45 g of freeze-dried black raspberries daily for 1 week. Urine samples were collected over a 12 h period in 4 h intervals at day 1 and day 7. Urinary anthocyanins were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to a photodiode array detector and a tandem mass spectrometer using precursor ion and product ion analyses. Anthocyanins were excreted in intact forms and metabolized into methylated derivatives in human urine. The urinary excretion of anthocyanins reached a maximum concentration (1091.8 +/- 1081.3 pmol/L, n = 10) during the 4-8 h period after black raspberry ingestion. As compared to the anthocyanin distribution in black raspberries, urinary cyanidin 3-xylosylrutinoside was detected at a higher concentration than that of cyanidin-3-rutinoside.