Tiziani S, Schwartz SJ, Vodovotz Y. Intermolecular interactions in phytochemical model systems studied by NMR diffusion measurements. Food Chem 2008.
Novel functional foods, such as tomato juice with soy, represent a new strategy to increase consumption of health promoting ingredients and phytochemicals. Interactions between soy protein, isoflavones, and tomato carotenoids could impact the bioaccessibility and bioavailability of individual phytochemicals. The primary objective of this study was to assess possible interactions between daidzein and daidzin, soy protein and carotenoids using proton one-dimensional and two-dimensional pulsed field gradient nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy experiments. The NMR results on phytochemical model systems indicate that the affinity between the daidzin and the soy protein isolate are higher as compared to the daidzein dissolved in the same model system. Two contributions to the interactions between the phytoestrogens and the protein were detected. The first involved intermolecular hydrogen bonding from hydroxyl groups. The second resulted in the shifting of the NMR signal related to the proton on the pyranone ring of isoflavones, suggesting a hydrophobic interaction. Diffusion NMR measurements showed that the addition of carotenoids to the soy isoflavolies/protein mixture did not affect the diffusion coefficient of the polyphenols.
Lodi A, Abduljalil AM, Vodovotz Y. Characterization of water distribution in bread during storage using magnetic resonance imaging. Magn Reson Imaging 2007.
A soy bread of fully acceptable quality and containing 49% soy ingredients (with or without 5% almond powder) has been recently developed in our laboratory. An investigation on water distribution and mobility, as probed by proton signal intensity and T2 magnetic resonance images, during storage was designed to examine possible relations between water states and hindered staling rate upon soy or soy-almond addition. Water proton distribution throughout soy-containing loaves was found to be very homogeneous in fresh breads with and without almond, with minimal water migration occurring during prolonged storage. In contrast, traditional wheat bread displayed an inhomogeneous water proton population that tended to change (with higher moisture migration towards the outer perimeter of the slice) during storage. Similar results were found for water mobility throughout the loaves, as depicted in T2 images. On intensity images of all considered bread varieties, the outer perimeter corresponding to the crust exhibited lower signal intensity due to decreased water content. Higher T2 values were found in the crust of soy breads with and without almond, which were attributed to lipids. The results indicated that the addition of soy to bread improved the homogeneous distribution of water molecules, which may hinder the staling rate of soy-containing breads. However, incorporation of almond had little effect on the water proton distribution or mobility of soy breads.
Tiziani S, Schwartz SJ, Vodovotz Y. Profiling of carotenoids in tomato juice by one- and two-dimensional NMR. J Agric Food Chem 2006.
Epidemiological data have shown a link between dietary intake of tomatoes and tomato products (rich in carotenoids) and a decreased risk of chronic diseases. The carotenoid profile in tomato products depends on tomato variety as well as the thermal conditions used in processing. The final carotenoid profile may affect the bioaccessibility and bioavailability of these biomolecules. Therefore, nondestructive, reliable methods are needed to characterize the structural and stereochemical variation of carotenoids. CDCl(3) rapid extraction was used to extract carotenoids from tomato juice as an alternative rapid procedure that minimizes solvents and time consumption prior to NMR analysis. The profile of these biomolecules was characterized by application of high-resolution multidimensional NMR techniques using a cryogenic probe. The combination of homonuclear and heteronuclear two-dimensional NMR techniques served to identify (all-E)-, (5Z)-, (9Z)-, and (13Z)-lycopene isomers and other carotenoids such as (all-E)-beta-carotene and (15Z)-phytoene dissolved in the extracted lipid mixture. The use of one-dimensional NMR enabled the rapid identification of lycopene isomers, thereby minimizing further isomerization of (all-E)-lycopene as compared to HPLC data. On the basis of the assignments accomplished, the carotenoid profile of typical tomato juice was successfully determined with minimal purification procedures.