Carotenoids and Carotenoid-containing Foods

Research Publications

Return to Research Publications by Topic


Phinney DM, Frelka JC, Cooperstone JL, Schwartz SJ, Heldman DR. 2017. Effect of solvent addition sequence on lycopene extraction efficiency from membrane neutralized caustic peeled tomato waste. Food Chem. 215:354-61.

Thomas SE, Harrison EH. 2016. Mechanisms of selective delivery of xanthophylls to retinal pigment epithelial cells by human lipoproteins. J Lipid Res. Epub ahead of print.

Smith JW, Ford NA, Thomas-Ahner JM, Moran NE, Bolton EC, Wallig MA, Clinton SK, Erdman JW. 2016. Mice lacking β-carotene-15,15’-dioxygenase (BCO1) exhibit reduced serum testosterone, prostatic androgen receptor signaling, & prostatic cellular proliferation. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. Epub ahead of print.

Costabile BK, Kim YK, Iqbal J, Zuccaro MV, Wassef L, Narayanasamy S, Curley RW, Harrison EH, Hussain MM, Quadro L. 2016. β-Apo-10’-carotenoids modulate placental microsomal triglyceride transfer protein expression and function to optimize transport of intact β-carotene to the embryo. J Biol Chem. 291(35):18525–35.

Dela Seña C, Sun J, Narayanasamy S, Riedl KM, Yuan Y, Curley RW, Schwartz SJ, Harrison EH. 2016. Substrate specificity of purified recombinant chicken β-carotene 9’,10′-oxygenase (BCO2). J Biol Chem. 291(28):14609–19.

Cooperstone JL, Francis DM, Schwartz SJ. 2016. Thermal processing differentially affects lycopene and other carotenoids in cis-lycopene containing, tangerine tomatoes. Food Chem. 210:466-72.

DiSilvestro RA, Thomas S, Harrison E, Epitropoulos A. 2015. A pilot comparison of phospolipidated lutein to conventional lutein for effects on plasma lutein concentrations in adult people. Nutr J, 14, 104.

Moran NE, Cichon MJ, Riedl KM, Grainger EM, Schwartz SJ, Novotny JA, Erdman JW, Clinton SK. 2015. Compartmental and noncompartmental modeling of 13C-lycopene absorption, isomerization, and distribution kinetics in healthy adults. Am J Clin Nutr. 102(6):1436-49.

Mah E, Sapper TN, Chitchumroonchokchai C, Failla ML, Schill KE, Clinton SK, Bobe G, Traber MG, Bruno RS. 2015. Αlpha-tocopherol bioavailability is lower in adults with metabolic syndrome regardless of dairy fat co-ingestion: A randomized, double-blind, crossover trial. Am J Clin Nutr. 102(5):1070-80.

Kopec RE, Schick J, Tober KL, Riedl KM, Francis DM, Young GS, Schwartz SJ, Oberyszyn TM. 2015. Sex differences in skin carotenoid deposition and acute UVB-induced skin damage in SKH-1 hairless mice after consumption of tangerine tomatoes. Mol Nutr Food Res. 59(12):2491-501.

Grainger EM, Hadley CW, Moran NE, Riedl KM, Gong MC, Pohar K, Schwartz SJ, and Clinton SK. 2015. A comparison of plasma and prostate lycopene in response to typical servings of tomato soup, sauce or juice in men before prostatectomy. Br J Nutr. 114(4):596-607.

Raghuvanshi S, Reed V, Blaner W, Harrison E. 2015. Cellular localization of β-carotene 15,15′ oxygenase-1 (BCO1) and β-carotene 9′,10′ oxygenase-2 (BCO2) in rat liver and intestine. Arch Biochem Biophys. 572:19-27.

Wang C, Jiang H, Yuen J, Lee S, Narayanasamy S, Curley R, Harrison E, Blaner WS. 2015. Actions of β-apo-carotenoids in differentiating cells: Differential effects in P19 cells and 3T3-L1 adipocytes.. Arch Biochem Biophys. 572:2-10

Cooperstone JL, Ralston RA, Riedl KM, Haufe TC, Schweiggert RM, King SA, Schwartz SJ. 2015. Enhanced bioavailability of lycopene when consumed as cis-isomers from tangerine compared to red tomato juice, a randomized, cross-over clinical trial. Mol Nutr Food Res. 59(4):658-669.

Biddle MJ, Lennie TA, Bricker GV, Kopec RE, Schwartz SJ, Moser DK. 2015. Lycopene dietary intervention: A pilot study in patients with heart failure. J Cardiovasc Nurs. 30(3):205-12.

Wan L, Tan H-L, Thomas-Ahner JM, Pearl DK, Erdman JW, Moran NE, Clinton SK. 2014. Dietary tomato and lycopene impact androgen signaling- and carcinogenesis-related gene expression during early TRAMP prostate carcinogenesis. Cancer Prev Res. 2014.7(12):1228–39.

Sun J, Narayanasamy S, Curley RW, Harrison EH. 2014. β-Apo-13-carotenone regulates retinoid X receptor transcriptional activity through tetramerization of the receptor. J Biol Chem. 289(48):33118–24.

Lee S-A, Jiang H, Trent CM, Yuen JJ, Narayanasamy S, Curley RW, Harrison EH, Goldberg IJ, Maurer MS, Blaner WS. 2014. Cardiac dysfunction in β-carotene-15,15’-dioxygenase-deficient mice is associated with altered retinoid and lipid metabolism. Am J Physiol Hear. Circ Physiol. 307(11):H1675-84.

Kopec RE, Cooperstone JL, Schweiggert RM, Young GS, Harrison EH, Francis DM, Clinton SK, Schwartz SJ. 2014. Avocado consumption enhances human postprandial provitamin A absorption and conversion from a novel high-carotene tomato sauce and from carrots. J Nutr. 144(8):1158-66.

Berni P, Chitchumroonchokchai C, Canniatti-Brazaca SG, De Moura FF, Failla ML. 2014. Impact of genotype and cooking style on the content, retention, and bioacessibility of beta-carotene in biofortified cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) conventionally bred in Brazil. J Agric Food Chem. 62(28): 6677–86.

Failla ML, Chitchumronchokchai C, Ferruzzi MG, Goltz SR, Campbell WW. 2014. Unsaturated fatty acids promote bioaccessibility and basolateral secretion of carotenoids and α-tocopherol by Caco-2 cells. Food Funct. 5:1101–12.

Dela Seña C, Riedl KM, Narayanasamy S, Curley RW, Schwartz SJ, Harrison EH. 2014. The human enzyme that converts dietary provitamin a carotenoids to vitamin A is a dioxygenase. J Biol Chem. 289:13661-6.

Carta G, Murru E, Cordeddu L, Ortiz B, Giordano E, Belury MA, Quadro L, Banni S. 2014. Metabolic interactions between vitamin A and conjugated linoleic acid. Nutrients. 6(3):1262–72.

Tan HL, Moran NE, Cichon MJ, Riedl KM, Schwartz SJ, Erdman JW Jr, Pearl DK, Thomas-Ahner JM, Clinton SK. 2014. β-carotene-9′,10′-oxygenase status modulates the impact of dietary tomato and lycopene on hepatic nuclear receptor-, stress-, and metabolism-related gene expression in mice. J Nutr. 144(4):431-9.

Zu K, Mucci L, Rosner BA, Clinton SK, Loda M, Stampfer MJ, Giovannucci E. 2014. Dietary lycopene, angiogenesis, and prostate cancer: A prospective study in the prostate-specific antigen era. J Natl Cancer Inst. 106(2):djt430.

Schweiggert RM, Kopec RE, Villalobos-Gutierrez MG, Högel J, Quesada S, Esquivel P, Schwartz SJ, Carle R. 2014. Carotenoids are more bioavailable from papaya than from tomato and carrot in humans: a randomised cross-over study. Br J Nutr. 111(3):490-8.

Dela Sena C, Narayanasamy S, Riedl KM, Curley RW, Schwartz SJ, Harrison EH. 2013. Substrate specificity of purified recombinant human β-carotene 15,15’-oxygenase (BCO1). J Biol Chem. 288(52):37094-103.

Moran NE, Clinton SK, Erdman JW. 2013. Differential bioavailability, clearance, and tissue distribution of the acyclic tomato carotenoids, lycopene and phytoene, in Mongolian gerbils. J Nutr. 143(12):1920-6.

Riedl KM, Choksi K, Wyzgoski FJ, Scheerens JC, Schwartz SJ, Reese RN. 2013. Variation in lycopene and lycopenoates, antioxidant capacity, and fruit quality of buffaloberry (Shepherdia argentea [Pursh]Nutt). J Food Sci. 78(11):C1673–9.

Gushchina L V, Yasmeen R, Ziouzenkova O. 2013. Moderate vitamin A supplementation in obese mice regulates tissue factor and cytokine production in a sex-specific manner. Arch Biochem Biophys. 539(2):239–47.

Moran NE, Erdman JW Jr, Clinton SK. 2013. Complex interactions between dietary and genetic factors impact lycopene metabolism and distribution. Arch Biochem Biophys. 539(2):171-80.

Eroglu A, Harrison EH. 2013. Carotenoid metabolism in mammals, including man: formation, occurrence, and function of apocarotenoids. J Lipid Res. 54(7):1719–30.

Sacolick DA, Curley RW. 2013. An improved synthesis of retinal (vitamin A aldehyde). Organic Preparations and Procedures International. 45(4):325–7.

Bohn T, Blackwood M, Francis D, Tian Q, Schwartz SJ, Clinton SK. 2013. Bioavailability of phytochemical constituents from a novel soy fortified lycopene rich tomato juice developed for targeted cancer prevention trials. Nutr Cancer. 65(6):919-29.

Kopec RE, Schwartz SJ. 2013. Carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase and presence of apo-carotenoids in biological matrices. In: Carotenoid Cleavage Products, ACS Symposium Series 1134. Eds. Winterhalter P, Ebeler SE. American Chemical Society, Washington DC. p. 31–41.

Kopec RE, Schweiggert RM, Riedl KM, Carle R, Schwartz SJ. 2013. Comparison of high-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry and high-performance liquid chromatography/photo-diode array detection for the quantitation of carotenoids, retinyl esters, α-tocopherol and phylloquinon in chylomicron-rich fractions of human plasma. Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom. 27(12):1393-1402.

Victoria-Campos CI, Ornelas-Paz J de J, Yahia EM, Failla ML. 2013. Effect of the interaction of heat-processing style and fat type on the micellarization of lipid-soluble pigments from green and red pungent peppers (Capsicum annuum). J Agric Food Chem. 61(15):3642–53.

Merk HL, Yarnes SC, Van Deynze A, Tong N, Menda N, Mueller LA, Mutschler MA, Loewen SA, Myers JR, Francis DM. 2012. Trait diversity and potential for selection indices based on variation among regionally adapted processing tomato germplasm. Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science. 137(6):427–37.

Curley RW. 2012. Retinoid chemistry: synthesis and application for metabolic disease. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta. 1821(1):3–9.

Goltz SR, Sapper TN, Failla ML, Campbell WW, Ferruzzi MG. 2013. Carotenoid bioavailability from raw vegetables and a moderate amount of oil in human subjects is greatest when the majority of daily vegetables are consumed at one meal. Nutr Res. 33(5):358-66.

Zuniga K, Clinton SK, Erdman JW. 2013. The interactions of dietary tomato powder and soy germ on prostate carcinogenesis in the TRAMP model. Cancer Prev Res. 6(6):548-557.

Moran NE, Rogers RB, Lu C, Conlon LE, Lila MA, Clinton SK, Erdman JW Jr. 2013. Biosynthesis of highly enriched 13C-lycopene for human metabolic studies using repeated batch tomato cell culturing with 13C-glucose. Food Chem. 139(1-4):631-9.

Curley RW. 2012. Retinoid chemistry: synthesis and application for metabolic disease. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta. 1821(1):3–9.

Harrison EH, dela Sena C, Eroglu A, Fleshman MK. 2012. The formation, occurrence, and function of beta-apocarotenoids: beta-carotene metabolites that may modulate nuclear receptor signaling. Amer J Clin Nutr. 96(5):1189s-1192s.

Goltz SR, Campbell WW, Chitchumroonchokchai C, Failla ML, Ferruzzi MG. 2012. Meal triacylglycerol profile modulates postprandial absorption of carotenoids in humans. Mol Nutr Food Res. 56(6):866-877.

Ford NA, Moran NE, Smith JW, Clinton SK, Erdman JW. 2012. An interaction between carotene-15,15′-monooxygenase expression and consumption of a tomato or lycopene-containing diet impacts serum and testicular testosterone. International Journal of Cancer. 131(2):E143-E148.

Li L, Yang Y, Xu Q, Owsiany K, Welsch R, Chitchumroonchokchai C, Lu S, Van Eck J, Deng XX, Failla M, Thannhauser TW. 2012. The Or gene enhances carotenoid accumulation and stability during post-harvest storage of potato tubers. Mol Plant. 5(2):339-352.

Failla ML, Chitchumroonchokchai C, Siritunga D, De Moura FF, Fregene M, Manary MJ, Sayre RT. 2012. Retention during processing and bioaccessibility of beta-carotene in high beta-carotene transgenic cassava root. J Agric Food Chem. 60(15):3861-3866.

Garzon GA, Narvaez-Cuenca CE, Kopec RE, Barry AM, Riedl KM, Schwartz SJ. 2012. Determination of carotenoids, total phenolic content, and antioxidant activity of arazá (Eugenia stipitata McVaugh), an Amazonian fruit. J Agric Food Chem. 60(18):4709-4717.

Harrison EH. 2012. Mechanisms involved in the intestinal absorption of dietary vitamin A and provitamin A carotenoids. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1821(1):70-77.

Fleshman MK, Riedl KM, Novotny JA, Schwartz SJ, Harrison EH. 2012. An LC/MS method for d8-beta-carotene and d4-retinyl esters: Beta-carotene absorption and its conversion to vitamin A in humans. J Lipid Res. 53(4):820-827.

Kopec RE, Cooperstone JL, Cichon MJ, Schwartz SJ. 2012. Analysis methods of carotenoids. In: Analysis of Antioxidant Rich Phytochemicals. Eds. Xu Z, Howard LR. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., Hoboken. 105-148.

Ziouzenkova O, Harrison EH. 2012. Retinoid and lipid metabolism preface. Biochimica Et Biophysica Acta-Molecular and Cell Biology of Lipids. 1821(1):1-2.

Eroglu A, Hruszkewycz DP, Dela Sena C, Narayanasamy S, Riedl KM, Kopec RE, Schwartz SJ, Curley RW, Jr., Harrison EH. 2012. Naturally-occurring eccentric cleavage products of provitamin a beta-carotene function as antagonists of retinoic acid receptors. J Biol Chem. 287(19):15886-15895.

Pickworth CL, Loerch SC, Kopec RE, Schwartz SJ, Fluharty FL. 2012. Concentration of pro-vitamin A carotenoids in common beef cattle feedstuffs. J Anim Sci. 90(5):1553-1561.

Barona J, Jones JJ, Kopec RE, Comperatore M, Andersen C, Schwartz SJ, Lerman RH, Fernandez ML. 2012. A Mediterranean-style low-glycemic-load diet increases plasma carotenoids and decreases LDL oxidation in women with metabolic syndrome. J Nutr Biochem. 23(6):609-615.

Engelmann NJ, Clinton SK, Erdman JW, Jr. 2011. Nutritional aspects of phytoene and phytofluene, carotenoid precursors to lycopene. Adv Nutr. 2(1):51-61.

Lee JH, Schwartz SJ. 2011. Analysis of carotenoids and chlorophylls in foods. In: Methods of Analysis of Food Components and Additives. 2nd edition. Ed. Otles S. CRC Press, Boca Raton. 231-252.

McLaughlin JM, Olivo-Marston S, Vitolins MZ, Bittoni M, Reeves KW, Degraffinreid CR, Schwartz SJ, Clinton SK, Paskett ED. 2011. Effects of tomato- and soy-rich diets on the IGF-I hormonal network: A crossover study of postmenopausal women at high risk for breast cancer. Cancer Prev Res. 4(5):702-710.

Gupta R, Kopec RE, Schwartz SJ, Balasubramaniam VM. 2011. Combined pressure-temperature effects on carotenoid retention and bioaccessibility in tomato juice. J Agric Food Chem. 59(14):7808-7817.

Fleshman MK, Lester GE, Riedl KM, Kopec RE, Narayanasamy S, Curley RW, Jr., Schwartz SJ, Harrison EH. 2011. Carotene and novel apocarotenoid concentrations in orange-fleshed Cucumis melo melons: Determinations of beta-carotene bioaccessibility and bioavailability. J Agric Food Chem. 59(9):4448-4454.

Tan HL, Thomas-Ahner JM, Grainger EM, Wan L, Francis DM, Schwartz SJ, Erdman JW, Jr., Clinton SK. 2010. Tomato-based food products for prostate cancer prevention: What have we learned? Cancer Metastasis Rev. 29(3):553-568.

Rubio-Diaz DE, Santos A, Francis DM, Rodriguez-Saona LE. 2010. Carotenoid stability during production and storage of tomato juice made from tomatoes with diverse pigment profiles measured by infrared spectroscopy. J Agric Food Chem. 58(15):8692-8698.

Polar-Cabrera K, Huo TY, Schwartz SJ, Failla ML. 2010. Digestive stability and transport of norbixin, a 24-carbon carotenoid, across monolayers of Caco-2 cells. J Agric Food Chem. 58(9):5789-5794.

Shmarakov I, Fleshman MK, D’Ambrosio DN, Piantedosi R, Riedl KM, Schwartz SJ, Curley RW, Jr., von Lintig J, Rubin LP, Harrison EH, Blaner WS. 2010. Hepatic stellate cells are an important cellular site for beta-carotene conversion to retinoid. Arch Biochem Biophys. 504(1):3-10.

Marsh RS, Yan Y, Reed VM, Hruszkewycz D, Curley RW, Harrison EH. 2010. {beta}-Apocarotenoids do not significantly activate retinoic acid receptors {alpha} or {beta}. Exp Biol Med (Maywood). 235(3):342-348.

Long AC, Bomser JA, Grzybowski DM, Chandler HL. 2010. All-trans retinoic acid regulates cx43 expression, gap junction communication and differentiation in primary lens epithelial cells. Curr Eye Res. 35(8):670-679.

Gupta R, Balasubramaniam VM, Schwartz SJ, Francis DM. 2010. Storage stability of lycopene in tomato juice subjected to combined pressure-heat treatments. J Agric Food Chem. 58(14):8305-8313.

Eroglu A, Hruszkewycz DP, Curley RW, Jr., Harrison EH. 2010. The eccentric cleavage product of beta-carotene, beta-apo-13-carotenone, functions as an antagonist of RXRalpha. Arch Biochem Biophys. 504(1):11-16.

Story EN, Kopec RE, Schwartz SJ, Harris GK. 2010. An Update on the Health Effects of Tomato Lycopene. Annual Review of Food Science and Technology, Vol 1. 1:187-210.

Kopec RE, Riedl KM, Harrison EH, Curley RW, Hruszkewycz DP, Clinton SK, Schwartz SJ. 2010. Identification and quantification of apo-lycopenals in fruits, vegetables, and human plasma. J Agric Food Chem. 58(6):3290-3296.

Novotny JA, Harrison DJ, Pawlosky R, Flanagan VP, Harrison EH, Kurilich AC. 2010. beta-Carotene conversion to vitamin A decreases as the dietary dose increases in humans. J Nutr. 140(5):915-918.

Rubio-Diaz DE, De Nardo T, Santos A, de Jesus S, Francis D, Rodriguez-Saona LE. 2010. Profiling of nutritionally important carotenoids from genetically-diverse tomatoes by infrared spectroscopy. Food Chemistry. 120(1):282-289.

Ford NA, Clinton SK, von Lintig J, Wyss A, Erdman JW, Jr. 2010. Loss of carotene-9′,10′-monooxygenase expression increases serum and tissue lycopene concentrations in lycopene-fed mice. J Nutr. 140(12):2134-2138.

Failla ML, Thakkar SK, Kim JY. 2009. In Vitro Bioaccessibility of beta-Carotene in Orange Fleshed Sweet Potato (Ipomoea batatas, Lam.). J Agric Food Chem. 57(22):10922-10927.

Thakkar SK, Huo TY, Maziya-Dixon B, Failla ML. 2009. Impact of style of processing on retention and bioaccessibility of beta-carotene in cassava (Manihot esculanta, Crantz). J Agric Food Chem. 57(4):1344-1348.

De Nardo T, Shiroma-Kian C, Halim Y, Francis D, Rodriguez-Saona LE. 2009. Rapid and Simultaneous Determination of Lycopene and beta-Carotene Contents in Tomato Juice by Infrared Spectroscopy. J Agric Food Chem. 57(4):1105-1112.

Mills JP, Tumuhimbise GA, Jamil KM, Thakkar SK, Failla ML, Tanumihardjo SA. 2009. Sweet Potato beta-Carotene Bioefficacy Is Enhanced by Dietary Fat and Not Reduced by Soluble Fiber Intake in Mongolian Gerbils. J Nutr. 139(1):44-50

Thakkar SK, Failla ML. 2008. Bioaccessibility of Pro-Vitamin A Carotenoids Is Minimally Affected by Non Pro-Vitamin A Xanthophylls in Maize (Zea mays sp.). J Agric Food Chem. 56(23):11441-11446.

During A, Doraiswamy S, Harrison EH. 2008. Xanthophylls are preferentially taken up compared with beta-carotene by retinal cells via a SRBI-dependent mechanism. J Lipid Res. 49(8):1715-24.

Grainger EM, Canene-Adams K, Erdman JW, Jr., Clinton SK. 2008. Tomatoes and components as modulators of experimental prostate carcinogenesis. In: Tomatoes and tomato products: Nutritional, medicinal, and therapeutic properties. Eds. Preedy VR, Watson RR. Science Publishers, Inc, Enfield.

Darrigues A, Hall J, Dujmovic N, Gray E, van der Knaap E, Francis DM. 2008. Tomato analyzer-color test: a new tool for efficient digital phenotyping. J Amer Soc Hort Sci. 133(4):579-586.

Failla ML, Chitchumroonchokchai C, Ishida B. 2008. In vitro micellarization and intestinal cell uptake of cis isomers of lycopene exceed those of all-trans lycopene. J Nutr. 138(3):482-6.

Grainger EM, Schwartz SJ, Wang S, Unlu NZ, Boileau TW, Ferketich AK, Monk JP, Gong MC, Bahnson RR, DeGroff VL, Clinton SK. 2008. A combination of tomato and soy products for men with recurring prostate cancer and rising prostate specific antigen. Nutr Cancer. 60(2):145-54.

Failla ML, Huo T, Thakkar SK. In vitro screening of relative bioaccessibility of carotenoids from foods. Asian Pacific J Clin Nutr 2008 Feb;17(S1):200-3.

Ornelas-Paz JD, Failla ML, Yahia EM, Gardea-Bejar A. Impact of the stage of ripening and dietary fat on in vitro bioaccessibility of beta-carotene in ‘Ataulfo’ mango. J Agric Food Chem 2008 Feb;56(4):1511-6.

Darrigues A, Schwartz SJ, Francis DM. Optimizing sampling of tomato fruit for carotenoid content with application to assessing the impact of ripening disorders. J Agric Food Chem 2008 Jan;56(2):483-7.

Gorocica-Buenfil MA, Fluharty FL, Bohn T, Schwartz SJ, Loerch SC. Effect of low vitamin A diets with high-moisture or dry corn on marbling and adipose tissue fatty acid composition of beef steers. J Anim Sci 2007 Dec;85(12):3355-66.

Van Deynze A, Stoffel K, Buell CR, Kozik A, Liu J, van der Knaap E, Francis D. Diversity in conserved genes in tomato. BMC Genomics 2007 Dec;8(465):1-9.

During A, Harrison EH. Mechanisms of provitamin A (carotenoid) and vitamin A (retinol) transport into and out of intestinal Caco-2 cells. J Lipid Res 2007 Oct;48(10):2283-94.

Huo T, Ferruzzi MG, Schwartz SJ, Failla ML. Impact of fatty acyl composition and quantity of triglycerides on bioaccessibility of dietary carotenoids. J Agric Food Chem 2007 Oct;55(22):8950-7.

McIntyre AC, Francis DM, Hartz TK, Gunter C. Fertility influence of the US Midwestern soils on yellow shoulder disorder in processing tomatoes. Hortscience 2007 Oct;42(6):1468-72.

Thakkar SK, Maziya-Dixon B, Dixon AG, Failla ML. Beta-carotene micellarization during in vitro digestion and uptake by Caco-2 cells is directly proportional to beta-carotene content in different genotypes of cassava. J Nutr 2007 Oct;137(10):2229-33.

Francis DM, Clivati-McIntyre A, Kleinhenz M. Grafting tomato improves yield potential but presents challenges in rootstock-scion compatibility and retention of desirable scion traits [Abstract]. In: Hortscience; Jul; Alexandria, VA: American Society of Horticultural Science; 2007. p. 851.

Huo T, Ferruzzi M, Schwartz SJ, Failla ML. Impact of trigacylglyceride structure on micellarization and intestinal cell uptake of dietary carotenoids [Abstract]. In: IFT Annual Mtg Tech Program; Jul; Chicago, IL: Institute of Food Technologists; 2007. p. 010-14.

Thakkar SK, Failla ML. In vitro screening of β-carotene bioavailability from cassava genotypes using the coupled digestion/CaCo-2 cell model [Abstract]. In: IFT Annual Mtg Tech Program; Jul; Chicago, IL: Institute of Food Technologists; 2007. p. 146-36.

Unlu NZ, Bohn T, Francis DM, Nagaraja HN, Clinton SK, Schwartz SJ. Lycopene from heat-induced cis-isomer-rich tomato sauce is more bioavailable than from all-trans-rich tomato sauce in human subjects. Br J Nutr 2007 Jul;98(1):140-6.

Pullakhandam R, Failla ML. Micellarization and intestinal cell uptake of b-carotene and lutein from drumstick (Moringa oleifera) leaves. J Medicinal Foods 2007 Jun;10(2):252-7.

Darrigues A, Clivati-McIntyre A, Francis DM, Schwartz SJ. Increasing the carotenoid content of tomato by managing variety choice and soil fertility for color and color uniformity. Acta Hort 2007;744:323-8.

Canene-Adams K, Jeffery EH, Clinton SK, Erdman JW,Jr. Mechanisms behind anti-tumor activity in Dunning R3327-H prostate adenocarcinomas as a result of tomato & broccoli consumption [Abstract]. In: FASEB J; Apr; Bethesda, MD: Federation Amer Soc Exp Biol; 2007. p. A59.

Huo T, Ferruzzi MG, Belury MA, Schwartz SJ, Failla ML. Impact of amount and triglyceride (TG) structure on micellarization of dietary carotenoids during simulated digestion [Abstract]. In: FASEB J; Apr; Bethesda, MD: Federation Amer Soc Exp Biol; 2007. p. A730-1.

Kohut AR, Failla ML, Watkins BA, Ferruzzi MG. The impact of lipid quantity and type of carotenoid bioaccessibility from vegetables [Abstract]. In: FASEB J; Apr; Bethesda, MD: Federation Amer Soc Exp Biol; 2007. p. A350.

Trasino SE, Wang TTY, Harrison EH. Lycopene and androgen effects on LNCaP cell growth and gene expression [Abstract]. In: Apr; FASEB J; Bethesda, MD: Federation Amer Soc Exp Biol; 2007. p. A165.

Unlu NZ, Bohn T, Francis DM, Clinton SK, Schwartz SJ. Carotenoid absorption in humans consuming tomato sauces obtained from tangerine or high-beta-carotene varieties of tomatoes. J Agric Food Chem 2007 Feb;55(4):1597-603.

Canene-Adams K, Lindshield BL, Wang S, Jeffery EH, Clinton SK, Erdman JW,Jr. Combinations of tomato and broccoli enhance antitumor activity in Dunning R3327-H prostate adenocarcinomas. Cancer Res 2007 Jan;67(2):836-43.

Barret KE, Ghishan FK, Merchant JL, Said HM, Wood JD, Johnson LR, editors. Physiology of the Gastrointestinal Tract. Fourth ed. Academic Press; 2006. During A, Harrison EH. Digestion and intestinal absorption of dietary carotenoids and vitamin A.

Handbook of Nutraceuticals and Functional Foods. 2nd ed. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press; 2006. Bruno RS, Wildman REC, Schwartz SJ. Lycopene: food sources, properties and health.

Halim Y, Schwartz SJ, Francis DM, Baldauf NA, Rodriguez-Saona LE. Direct determination of lycopene content in tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum) by attenuated total reflectance infrared spectroscopy and multivariate analysis. J AOAC Int 2006 Oct;89(5):1257-62.

Teratanavat RP, Hooker NH. Consumer valuations and preference heterogeneity for a novel functional food. J Food Sci 2006 Sep;71(7):S533-41.

Lee K. Functional killer tomatoes. Food Prod Des. 2006 Aug;16(8):87.

Tiziani S, Schwartz SJ, Vodovotz Y. Profiling of carotenoids in tomato juice by one- and two-dimensional NMR. J Agric Food Chem 2006 Aug;54(16):6094-100.

Gunter C, Francis DM, McIntyre AC. Supplemental potassium source and processing tomato quality [Abstract]. In: Hortscience; Jul; Alexandria, VA: Amer Soc Horticultural Science; 2006. p. 1016.

Ferruzzi MG, Lumpkin JL, Schwartz SJ, Failla ML. Digestive stability, micellarization, and uptake of beta-carotene isomers by Caco-2 human intestinal cells. J Agric Food Chem 2006 Apr;54(7):2780-5.

Chitchumroonchokchai C, Failla ML. Hydrolysis of zeaxanthin esters by carboxyl ester lipase during digestion facilitates micellarization and uptake of the xanthophyll by Caco-2 human intestinal cells. J Nutr 2006 Mar;136(3):588-94.

Canene-Adams K, Clinton SK, Wang SH, Erdman JW,Jr. Effects of diets containing lycopene, tomato, and/or broccoli upon tumor growth and biomarkers in the Dunning R3327-H prostate adenocarcinoma model [Abstract]. In: FASEB J; Mar; Bethesda, MD: Amer Society Nutritional Science; 2006. p. A150.

Failla ML. Coupled in vitro digestion/Caco2 intestinal cell model for screening the relative bioavailability of carotenoids from foods and supplements. Proceedings of 2005 International Symposium on Nutraceuticals and Food Safety for Well-being Life; YongPyong, Korea. 2005. p. 14-22.

Failla ML; Chitchumroonchokchai C. In vitro models as tools for screening the relative bioavailabilities of provitamin A carotenoids in foods [Internet]. Washington DC: HarvestPlus; 2005. 36 p. HarvestPlus Technical Monograph Series #3. Available from:

Methods of Analysis of Food Components and Additives. New York, NY: Taylor and Francis Group; 2005. Lee JH, Schwartz SJ. Analysis of carotenoids and chlorophylls in foods.

Miller EC, Boileau TWM, DeGroff VL, Bray T, Unlu NZ, Schwartz SJ, Clinton SK. Combined dietary intervention with tomato-based foods and soy in men with recurrent asymptomatic prostate cancer [Abstract]. Print. In: J;Nutr; Dec; Bethesda, MD: Amer Society Nutritional Science; 2005. p. 3046S-7S.

Chang S, Erdman JW,Jr, Clinton SK, Vadiveloo M, Strom SS, Yamamura Y, Duphorne CM, Spitz MR, Amos CI, Contois JH, Gu X, Babaian RJ, Scardino PT, Hursting SD. Relationship between plasma carotenoids and prostate cancer. Nutr Cancer 2005 Nov;53(2):127-34.

Tiziani S, Vodovotz Y. Rheological characterization of a novel functional food: Tomato juice with soy germ. J Agric Food Chem 2005 Sep;53(18):7267-73.

Clinton SK. Tomatoes or lycopene: A role in prostate carcinogenesis? J Nutr 2005 Aug;135(8):2057S-9S.

Schwartz SJ. How can the metabolomic response to lycopene (exposures, durations, intracellular concentrations) in humans be adequately evaluated? J Nutr 2005 Aug;135(8):2040S-1S.

Schwartz SJ. Absorption and bioavailability of carotenoids [Meeting Abstract]. Papers of the Amer Chem Society 230; Aug; Washington, DC: American Chemical Society; 2005. p. U63-4.

Bohn T, Blackwood M, Schwartz SJ, Clinton SK, Vodovotz Y, Failla ML, Bomser JA, Hooker NH, Francis DM. Improved blood lipid and antioxidant status in healthy subjects consuming soy fortified high lycopene tomato juice [Abstract]. In: FASEB J; Mar; Bethesda, MD: Federation Amer Soc Exp Biol; 2005. p. A998.

Canene-Adams K, Clinton SK, Erdman JW,Jr. Effects of dietary lycopene, tomato, and broccoli powders on the growth of Dunning R3327-H prostatic adenocarcinoma tumors [Abstract]. In: FASEB J; Mar; Bethesda, MD: Federation Amer Soc Exp Biol; 2005. p. A79.

Unlu NZ, Bohn T, Clinton SK, Schwartz SJ. Carotenoid absorption from salad and salsa by humans is enhanced by the addition of avocado or avocado oil. J Nutr 2005 Mar;135(3):431-6.

Tiziani S, Vodovotz Y. Rheological effects of soy protein addition to tomato juice. Food Hydrocolloids 2005 Jan;19(1):45-52.