CORN Newsletter

2023-08

 

Editor: Amanda Bennett

 

Warmer Weather Ahead

Author: Jim Noel

APRIL

Read more

 

Battle for the Belt: Episode 4

Authors: Laura Lindsey, Osler Ortez, Kelley Tilmon

Episode 4 of Battle for the Belt is now available: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dPPaWVMYmoQ

Read more

 

Cressleaf groundsel scouting

Authors: Alyssa Essman, Ricardo Ribeiro

Much of the state is still wet and waiting for dry conditions to resume field activities. Scouting for weeds now can help spot any issues and plan for spring burndown programs.

Read more

 

Becoming a Certified Crop Adviser and OSU Extension Online Exam Prep Course

Authors: Greg LaBarge, CPAg/CCA, Lee Beers, CCA

Why become a Certified Crop Adviser (CCA)? Being certified adds credibility and shows you are serious about the agronomic profession.

Read more

 

OSU Extension Seeks a Next Assistant Director for Agriculture and Natural Resources

Author: Elizabeth Hawkins

Ohio State University Extension is seeking applicants for our next Assistant Director, Agriculture and Natural Resources. The Assistant Director is responsible for the leadership of Ohio State University Extension’s Agriculture and Natural Resources program area.

Read more

 

About C.O.R.N. Newsletter

C.O.R.N. Newsletter is a summary of crop observations, related information, and appropriate recommendations for Ohio crop producers and industry. C.O.R.N. Newsletter is produced by the Ohio State University Extension Agronomy Team, state specialists at The Ohio State University and the Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center (OARDC). C.O.R.N. Newsletter questions are directed to Extension and OARDC state specialists and associates at Ohio State.

 

Contributors:

 

Mark Badertscher
Educator, Agriculture and Natural Resources

 

John Barker
Educator, Agriculture and Natural Resources

 

Nic Baumer
Educator, Agriculture and Natural Resources

 

Lee Beers, CCA
Educator, Agriculture and Natural Resources

 

Jocelyn Birt
Water Quality Extension Associate

 

Rachel Cochran, CCA
Water Quality Extension Associate, Defiance, Van Wert, Paulding Counties

 

Grant Davis, CCA
Extension Educator, Agriculture and Natural Resources

 

Wayne Dellinger, CCA
Educator, Agriculture and Natural Resources

 

Amanda Douridas, CCA
Educator, Agriculture and Natural Resources

 

Nick Eckel
Educator, Agriculture and Natural Resources

 

Amber Emmons
Water Quality Extension Associate

 

Alyssa Essman
Visiting Assistant Professor

 

Mike Estadt
Educator, Agriculture and Natural Resources

 

Don Hammersmith
Program Assistant, Agriculture and Natural Resources

 

Jamie Hampton
Educator, Agriculture and Natural Resources

 

Jason Hartschuh, CCA
Field Specialist, Dairy & Precision Livestock

 

Elizabeth Hawkins
Field Specialist, Agronomic Systems

 

Andrew Holden
Educator, Agriculture and Natural Resources

 

Stephanie Karhoff, CCA
Field Specialist, Agronomic Systems

 

Dean Kreager
Educator, Agriculture and Natural Resources

 

Courtney Krieger
Water Quality Extension Associate

 

Greg LaBarge, CPAg/CCA
Field Specialist, Agronomic Systems

 

Alan Leininger
Educator, Agriculture and Natural Resources

 

Laura Lindsey
State Specialist, Soybean and Small Grains

 

Horacio Lopez-Nicora
State Specialist, Soybean Pathology

 

Ryan McMichael
Educator, Agriculture and Natural Resources

 

Gigi Neal
Educator, Agriculture and Natural Resources

 

Jim Noel
National Weather Service

 

Sarah Noggle
Educator, Agriculture and Natural Resources

 

Les Ober, CCA
Educator, Agriculture and Natural Resources

 

Osler Ortez
State Specialist, Corn & Emerging Crops

 

Pierce Paul
State Specialist, Corn and Wheat Diseases

 

Jordan Penrose
Educator, Agriculture and Natural Resources

 

Richard Purdin
Educator, Agriculture and Natural Resources

 

Ricardo Ribeiro
Visiting Scholar, Federal University of Parana (Brazil)

 

Beth Scheckelhoff
Educator, Agriculture and Natural Resources

 

Matthew Schmerge
Educator, Agriculture and Natural Resources

 

Clint Schroeder
Program Manager

 

Barry Ward
Program Leader

 

Ted Wiseman
Educator, Agriculture and Natural Resources

 

Chris Zoller
Educator, Agriculture and Natural Resources

 

The information presented here, along with any trade names used, is supplied with the understanding that no discrimination is intended and no endorsement is made by Ohio State University Extension is implied. Although every attempt is made to produce information that is complete, timely, and accurate, the pesticide user bears responsibility of consulting the pesticide label and adhering to those directions.

CFAES provides research and related educational programs to clientele on a nondiscriminatory basis. For more information, visit cfaesdiversity.osu.edu. For an accessible format of this publication, visit cfaes.osu.edu/accessibility.

Poison Hemlock is No Joke

From BYGL Newsletter:

Authors: Joe Boggs

Published on
Poison Hemlock

Poison hemlock (Conium maculatum L.) was imported into the U.S. as an ornamental in the late 1800s from Europe, West Asia, and North Africa.  Rogue plants remained relatively rare until around 30 years ago.  Since that time, poison hemlock has elevated its profile from an uncommon oddity to a common threat.

 

This dangerous non-native invasive plant is currently in the growth stages in southern Ohio which makes it susceptible to early-season management options.  Seeds have germinated and last season’s rosettes are beginning to “bolt.”   Killing the seedlings will reduce next year’s rosettes and killing the bolting rosettes will prevent seed production later this season.  Eliminating these plants now can significantly reduce infestations.

 

Poison hemlock

 

 

 

Life Cycle and Identification

Poison hemlock is a member of the carrot family, Apiaceae.  The old name for the family was Umbelliferae which refers to the umbel flowers.  The flowers are a key family feature with short flower stalks rising from a common point like the ribs on an umbrella.

 

Poison hemlock has a biennial life cycle.  The first year is spent in the vegetative stage as a low-growing basal rosette.  The rosettes use carbohydrates acquired through photosynthesis to produce a robust root system.

 

Plants “bolt” during the second-year reproductive stage to produce erect multi-branched stems topped with umbrella-like flowers.  Mature poison hemlock plants can tower as much as 6 – 10 ft. tall.  Plants die after producing seeds.

 

Poison hemlock

 

Poison hemlock

 

It’s important to note that the graphic above provides a generalized view of a biennial life cycle.  In reality, there can be considerable variability in the timing of events meaning that the growth stages within a group of poison hemlock plants are seldom synchronized.  It’s common for first-season vegetive plants to be mixed with second-season reproductive plants.

 

Also, the literature notes that some plants may occasionally behave as monocarpic perennials spending more than one year in the vegetative stage before flowering once and then dying.  This could help to explain the rapid rise in asynchronous life cycles in developing poison hemlock infestations.

 

Poison hemlock

 

Seed viability as well as the timing of seed germination also affects what we see.  Poison hemlock is a prolific seed producer.  Research has shown that seed production ranges from 1,700 to as high as 39,000 seeds per plant with seed germination rates averaging around 85%.  Seeds remain viable for 4 – 6 years.  This means that management tactics must account for new plants arising annually from the “seed bank” until there are no longer any viable seeds to contribute to infestations.

 

Poison hemlock

 

Poison hemlock

 

New and old seeds may germinate in late summer, early fall, to early spring.  As a result, first-year rosettes commonly range in size from small plants if seeds germinated in the spring to larger plants if seeds germinated in the fall.

 

Poison hemlock

 

Poison hemlock

 

Poison hemlock

 

All stages of the poison hemlock plant have dark-green to bluish-green leaves that are 3-4 times pinnately compound.  The deeply cut parsley or carrot-like leaflets have sharp points.  The characteristic leaf structure is even evident on newly germinated seedlings.

 

Poison hemlock

 

Poison hemlock stems are hairless, light-green to bluish-green, and covered with obvious purplish blotches; maculatum means ‘spotted’.  The purplish-blotched stems are first evident as the rosettes begin to bolt and become even more obvious on mature plants.

 

Poison hemlock

 

Poison hemlock produces white flowers on stalks that create a more rounded look compared to other members of the carrot family.  For example, the non-native Queen Anne’s Lace (Daucus carota), with its umbels producing a flat-topped flower arrangement, is often used as the poster child for carrot family flowers.

 

Poison hemlock

 

Queen Annes Lace

 

Various online reports also claim Queen Anne’s lace is often mistaken for poison hemlock and vice versa.  Queen Anne’s lace has hairy stems and blooms much later in the season after poison hemlock plants are producing seed.

 

Poison hemlock

 

 

 

Toxicity

Poison hemlock is one of the deadliest plants found in North America.  It is the plant used to kill Socrates as well as the Greek statemen Theramenes and Phocion.  All parts of the plant are poisonous: the leaves, stems, seeds, and roots. However, the toxins must be ingested or enter our body through our eyes, nasal passages, or cuts in our skin to induce poisoning.  The toxins do not cause skin rashes or blistering.

 

Poison hemlock

 

Regardless, this plant should not be handled because sap on the skin can be rubbed into the eyes or accidentally ingested while handling food.  Immediate emergency medical attention should be sought if accidental poisoning from this plant is suspected.

 

 

Mow, Pull, or Spray?

Unfortunately, poison hemlock has become too widespread for it to be eradicated from Ohio.  However, infestations that present a clear and present danger to the public should be targeted for elimination.

 

Poison hemlock

 

Poison hemlock

 

Timing is everything!  The graphic below shows the best and worst times to implement management tactics. However, it’s important to note that regardless of management strategies, poison hemlock infestations are not likely to be eliminated in a single season.

 

Poison hemlock

 

Mowing poison hemlock just after plants begin to bolt but before they bloom can be highly effective although mowers may pass over the low-growing first-year rosettes.  However, equipment operators should approach mowing large poison hemlock infestations with caution (see “Cautionary Case Study” below).  Equipment with unshrouded blades should not be used.  PPE should be considered even if brush or flail mowers are shrouded.

 

Poison hemlock

 

Hand-pulling poison hemlock plants just after they bolt can be effective on small infestations.  However, it’s strongly recommended that hands are protected with gloves, arms protected with long sleeves, and eyes protected with safety goggles.  Plants should not be burned but disposed of using a method with limited exposure to animals and people.

 

Herbicides may be the safest option given the problematic nature of controlling poison hemlock by physical removal (see Case Study below).  Fortunately, the non-native weed is susceptible to a wide range of selective and non-selective postemergent herbicides.

 

Poison hemlock

 

Poison hemlock

 

Non-selective herbicides with the active ingredients glyphosate (e.g., Roundup) or pelargonic acid (e.g., Scythe) are effective but can also eliminate plants that compete with poison hemlock.  Herbicidal openings produced by non-selective herbicides provide perfect opportunities for poison hemlock to spring forth from previously deposited seed.  Thus, it’s important to have a plan for establishing competitive plants such as over-seeding with grasses (family Poaceae).

 

Grasses are effective competitors against poison hemlock and a range of selective post-emergent herbicides can be used that will preserve grasses but kill the poison hemlock.  These include clopyralid (e.g., Transline), metsulfuron (e.g., Escort XP), triclopyr (e.g., Triclopyr 4), and products that contain a combination of 2,4-D, dicamba, mecoprop, and dichlorprop.

 

Of course, as with using any pesticide, it’s important to closely read and follow label directions.  Some post-emergent herbicides can seriously damage trees if applied over the root zone.

 

A CAUTIONARY CASE STUDY:  Beware of Aerosolized Sap.  A story titled, “Hiding in Plain Sight” published in the “Life + Health” section of Good Housekeeping (April 2022, pgs. 21-25) described a disastrous encounter with poison hemlock in 2021 in southwest Ohio.  A landowner was using an electric chainsaw to cut down large weeds with thick stems on his property.  He didn’t know what kind of weeds he was cutting, but the stems defied string trimming.

 

Poison hemlock

 

The landowner began to feel ill and was having trouble breathing.  He was taken to a hospital emergency room where he tested negative for COVID-19.  His symptoms worsened, so he was admitted to the hospital.  Various diagnoses were considered and eliminated by his physicians including pneumonia.

 

Poison hemlock exposure was not considered because the landowner was not familiar with the dangerous plant and the health risks it presented.  He had just been “cutting down weeds.”  The link to his symptoms was eventually made when his daughter showed him images of poison hemlock and he identified it as the weed he was cutting down.  He spent 109 days in the hospital ultimately needing heart surgery.

 

The plight of the landowner is not proof-positive he had inhaled poison hemlock sap that had been aerosolized by the chainsaw.  The toxins may have found their way into his system via another route.  However, his physicians believe the mode of entry was through inhalation based on the symptoms and the damage to the landowner’s lungs.  Regardless, it’s a cautionary tale that should be considered while weighing management options.

 

Ohio BEEF Cattle Letter

Dear Ohio BEEF Cattle letter subscribers,

Five new articles have been posted in this week’s issue number 1337 of the Ohio BEEF Cattle letter: http://u.osu.edu/beef/

When considering the value in each pound of feeder calf that is being sold today and will be sold into the foreseeable future, can you afford not to have a breeding soundness exam performed on your bull? This week Brooks Warner discusses the value of investing in a BSE for your bulls.

Articles this week include:

  • Breeding Soundness of Bulls
  • Antibiotic Stewardship-What to do Now to Prepare for Changes Ahead
  • Not all protein sources are the same
  • Beef Cow, Heifer, and Steer Cattle Slaughter
  • Assuming reduced supply, can beef demand remain resilient throughout 2023?

CORN Newsletter

March 28, 2023 – April 3, 2023

 

Editor: Matthew Schmerge

 

Can Root-Knot Nematodes be a Problem in Ohio?

Author: Horacio Lopez-Nicora

Don’t Miss Travis Faske’s Seminar on a Very Serious Pathogen of Soybean.

Read more

 

When and How Much Nitrogen to Apply to Wheat

Authors: Ed Lentz, CCA, Laura Lindsey

Wheat has already reached green-up across the state so spring N may be applied anytime fields are fit. Keep in mind that research has shown no yield benefit to early N applications as long as the application was made by Feekes GS 6 (one visible node).

Read more

 

Battle for the Belt: Episode 3

Authors: Laura Lindsey, Osler Ortez, Aaron Wilson

Episode 3 of Battle for the Belt is now available: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Tbj62wuyr-4

Read more

 

Early Spring Weed Identification

Author: Alyssa Essman

Winter annual, biennial, and perennial weeds are starting to become more noticeable up as fields green up across the state. Identification of these species can help in planning for spring burndown programs.

Read more

 

About C.O.R.N. Newsletter

C.O.R.N. Newsletter is a summary of crop observations, related information, and appropriate recommendations for Ohio crop producers and industry. C.O.R.N. Newsletter is produced by the Ohio State University Extension Agronomy Team, state specialists at The Ohio State University and the Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center (OARDC). C.O.R.N. Newsletter questions are directed to Extension and OARDC state specialists and associates at Ohio State.

 

Contributors:

 

Glen Arnold, CCA
Field Specialist, Manure Nutrient Management

 

Mark Badertscher
Educator, Agriculture and Natural Resources

 

John Barker
Educator, Agriculture and Natural Resources

 

Nic Baumer
Educator, Agriculture and Natural Resources

 

Bruce Clevenger, CCA
Field Specialist, Farm Management

 

Grant Davis, CCA
Extension Educator, Agriculture and Natural Resources

 

Nick Eckel
Educator, Agriculture and Natural Resources

 

Amber Emmons
Water Quality Extension Associate

 

Alyssa Essman
Visiting Assistant Professor

 

Ken Ford
Educator, Agriculture and Natural Resources

 

Allen Gahler
Educator, Agriculture and Natural Resources

 

Mike Gastier, CCA
Educator, Agriculture and Natural Resources

 

Don Hammersmith
Program Assistant, Agriculture and Natural Resources

 

Jamie Hampton
Educator, Agriculture and Natural Resources

 

Jason Hartschuh, CCA
Field Specialist, Dairy & Precision Livestock

 

Elizabeth Hawkins
Field Specialist, Agronomic Systems

 

Andrew Holden
Educator, Agriculture and Natural Resources

 

Stephanie Karhoff, CCA
Field Specialist, Agronomic Systems

 

Dean Kreager
Educator, Agriculture and Natural Resources

 

Alan Leininger
Educator, Agriculture and Natural Resources

 

Laura Lindsey
State Specialist, Soybean and Small Grains

 

Horacio Lopez-Nicora
State Specialist, Soybean Pathology

 

Kendall Lovejoy
Educator, Agriculture and Natural Resources

 

Ryan McMichael
Educator, Agriculture and Natural Resources

 

Gigi Neal
Educator, Agriculture and Natural Resources

 

Sarah Noggle
Educator, Agriculture and Natural Resources

 

Les Ober, CCA
Educator, Agriculture and Natural Resources

 

Osler Ortez
State Specialist, Corn & Emerging Crops

 

Jordan Penrose
Educator, Agriculture and Natural Resources

 

Beth Scheckelhoff
Educator, Agriculture and Natural Resources

 

Clint Schroeder
Program Manager

 

Abby Welsh
Pest Education

 

Ted Wiseman
Educator, Agriculture and Natural Resources

 

Chris Zoller
Educator, Agriculture and Natural Resources

 

The information presented here, along with any trade names used, is supplied with the understanding that no discrimination is intended and no endorsement is made by Ohio State University Extension is implied. Although every attempt is made to produce information that is complete, timely, and accurate, the pesticide user bears responsibility of consulting the pesticide label and adhering to those directions.

CFAES provides research and related educational programs to clientele on a nondiscriminatory basis. For more information, visit cfaesdiversity.osu.edu. For an accessible format of this publication, visit cfaes.osu.edu/accessibility.

Farm Office Live Webinar – Friday, March 17

The OSU Extension Farm Office team invites you to attend the March Madness Edition of the “Farm Office Live” Webinar on Friday, March 17 from 10:00 to 11:30 a.m. This monthly webinar allows Ohio farmers and agribusiness personnel to learn more about current farm management and agricultural law issues.

In this month’s webinar, the Farm Office Team will present the following topics:

  • Federal & State Legislative Update (Peggy Hall)
  • New Postnuptial Agreement Legislation (Robert Moore)
  • Marital and Non-Marital Assets (Robert Moore)
  • Selling Timber- Call Before You Cut (Dave Apsley)
  • Update on Crop Input Costs and Crop Budget Outlook for 2023 (Barry Ward)
  • Sales Tax Exemption Issues (Jeff Lewis)
  • 2023 Spring Crop Insurance Update (Eric Richer)
  • Emergency Relief Program (David Marrison)

There is no fee to attend this webinar.  However, registration is required at go.osu.edu/farmofficelive

Alternatives to Callery Pear

Published on 
Callery Pear is now illegal to sell in Ohio. What trees are good alternatives?

As you may now know, Callery Pear, Pyrus calleryana, and its cultivars (examples include ‘Bradford’, ‘Cleveland Select’, ‘Chanticleer’, etc) are officially on the Ohio Invasive Plants List.  On Saturday, January 7, 2023 it became ILLEGAL to plant, grow, propagate, or sell Callery Pear in Ohio. It is now deemed to be an invasive species in many states and similar bans have gone into effect in Pennsylvania and South Carolina.

 

invasive callery pear has invaded this weedy area next to a mall

invasive callery pear

 

Callery Pear is a small, deciduous flowering tree native to China that that was originally brought to the U.S. as a source of resistance to the disease fire blight, Erwinia amylovora.  It became popular as a landscape tree for its white flowers, site adaptability, and compact size. Individual trees cannot self-pollinate but can and do hybridize with other Pyrus calleryana selections, native, or domesticated pears, resulting in a fertile fruit.  This resulted in the trees’ spread by birds and wildlife, which soon choked native plants and invaded disturbed areas and forests.

 

Under the rule:

– Nurseries and garden centers with remaining stock are not allowed to sell these trees and must destroy them.

– Homeowners and landscapers may not purchase nor install them.

– Have one in your yard? You do NOT need to remove it.

 

However, with an arguably stinky flower, messy fruit, weak branch angles, and its tendency to spread and invade… maybe it is worth considering a replacement tree.  But what to choose?

 

damaged callery pear tree showing weak branch angles in an ice storm
This photo captured by Joe Boggs illustrates the weak branch angles of Callery pear, leading to irreparable damage in an ice storm.

 

If you are looking for a white-flowered alternative to Callery Pear in your landscape, or just need some suggestions for a new tree, consider these!

 

Let’s Start with the EARLY BLOOMERS….

SERVICEBERRY, Amelanchier spp.

Serviceberry is an Ohio native with four seasons of landscape interest. It is available as a large, multi-stemmed shrub or trained to a small tree. (Height 15-25 feet with an oval to round crown).  Like Callery pear, it has a crisp white flower in early spring, blooming at around 150-160 Growing Degree Days. This would put its bloom within hours to days of ‘Bradford’ Callery pear which blooms at 142 GDD.  In addition to flowers, the blue-green foliage of summer transforms into shades of gold to reddish-orange in autumn, making it, as Michael Dirr states, “…one of our finest native trees for fall coloration” pg 101.

Many cultivars have been selected for their fall color, some of these are: Apple Serviceberry, a hybrid (A. X grandiflora), with names such as ‘Autumn Blaze’, ‘Autumn Sunset’, and ‘Autumn Brilliance’.  ‘Ballerina’ has been selected for excellent leaf spot resistance and low occurrence of fireblight in susceptible years.

 

apple serviceberry in full bloom showing white delicate flowers
Apple Serviceberry, A. X grandiflora

 

Apple serviceberry showing red-orange fall color
Apple Serviceberry, A. X grandiflora

 

serviceberry tree showing orange fall color
Shown: Allegheny serviceberry A. laevis

 

Amelanchier 'Ballerina' displaying white flowers
Amelanchier x grandoflora ‘ballerina’ by Tom DeHaas
the berries of Amelanchier are edible to humans and wildlife
The fruit of ‘Ballerina’ by Tom DeHaas

 

White Eastern Redbud (Cercis canadensis)

Cercis canadensis var. alba is a tree that can be found growing sporadically throughout Eastern North America.  This is a naturally occurring white flowered form of the more common pinkish purple Eastern Redbud.  This small 15-25’ tree has a vase like to rounded shape.

 

white redbud

 

As a member of the Fabaceae family, Cercis have pea like flowers.  The flowers bloom just after serviceberry and along side some of the first flowering crabapples at 191 GDD.

 

white flowers

 

The flowers are followed by distinctive heart shaped 2.5” green leaves and pea like seed pods.  There are several cultivars of the white form of Eastern Redbud including the upright ‘Royal White’ and weeping ‘Vanilla Twist’ PP22744 introduced by plantsman Tim Brotzman of Madison, Ohio.

 

WHITE CRABAPPLE (Malus spp)

Love them or hate them, crabapples can be a suitable replacement for Callery pear!  There are HUNDREDS of types of crabapple varying in size, bloom time, color, and shape. For our purposes here, many cultivars have white flowers such as ‘Adirondack’, ‘Beverly’, ‘David’, ‘Donald Wyman’, Golden Raindrops(R), Harvest Gold(R), and, heavens! So many more.  Secrest Arboretum in Wooster, Ohio boasts a substantial crabapple collection.  If you need inspiration, feel free to browse the list and take a drive out to view them. They are a site to behold in bloom, best viewing occurring around 200 GDD. This may help you select YOUR next crabapple.

 

Tree Amigo, Eric Draper of Geauga County shared a few of his favorites: including ‘Adirondack’, ‘Firebird’, ‘Lollipop’, ‘Pumpkin Pie’, Sargent Crabapple (Malus sargentii), Tina (Malus sargentii ‘Tina’), ‘Calloway’, ‘King  Arthur’, ‘Guinevere’, ‘ Holiday Gold’, ‘Dolgo’ (for those wishing edible landscape types) and ‘Silver Moon’.

 

an arial view of the Secrest Arboretum in bloom
Secrest Arboretum Crabapple plots in bloom!

 

 

close up on the white flowers of a crabapple
Shown: Flowers of cultivar, ‘Pumpkin Pie’ which has extraordinary orange fruit!
Crabapple tree variety adirondack showing white flowers
Shown: ‘Adirondack’ Crabapple in bloom at Secrest Arboretum. Its white flowers and compact form may be a nice replacement for Callery pear.

 

the deeply cut foliage of golden raindrops crabapple makes it look like not an apple at all
With deeply cut and textured leaves, I would never have known THIS is a crabapple! Shown here the foliage of ‘Golden Raindrops’, a white flowering, low disease selection with golden yellow fruit.

 

But why limit yourself to white flowers when we’re talking crabapples! So many beautiful red and pink varieties exist too. This article by Jim Chatfield gives just a few highlights of the stunning pinks and reds of crabapples.  https://bygl.osu.edu/node/1560

 

IMPORTANTLY… when selecting a crabapple pay attention to disease resistance. The problem many people have with crabapple is apple scab which can cause premature leaf drop and an unsightly mess early in the season. However, many cultivars now have good to excellent resistance for apple scab and fireblight to keep your landscape plants in good appearance most years.

NEXT… MID SEASON BLOOMS

 

Carolina Silverbells
Photo: The Alliance for Historic Hillsborough Shared CC by 2.0

Carolina Silverbell (Halesia carolina)

An underused native, Carolina Silverbells, is a small to medium size tree with beautiful, showy bell-shaped flowers. A member of the styracaceae, it has no serious pest issues unlike some members of the rosaceae.  However, it can be susceptible to chlorosis issues in higher pH as it prefers slightly acidic soil. It does not do well in drought conditions.

 

Bloom occurs between 213 – 266 GDD. The fall color is nothing to write home about, but does have a slightly attractive yellow autumn color. It attracts hummingbirds and can host several species of moth and butterfly caterpillars. It will bloom after only a few years and has a long life expectancy.  It has the potential to have a dramatic leaning and twisting trunk as it really matures up.

silver bells tree

 

Dogwood (Cornus spp.)

Michael Dirr notes that there are over 50 species of Dogwood from ground cover to trees.

Cornus kousa is a favorite as a four-season tree with its exfoliating bark, edible pink fruit, and white flowers. It reaches15-20’ in size with a rounded form. The 2-5″ showy white “flower petals” are actually bracts that ring the smaller yellow-green true flowers at the center, which produce beautiful raspberry-like reddish fruit that last into autumn and attract wildlife. Leaves generally have good scarlet to red-purple color in fall and the bark exfoliates with age to reveal several shades of orange, tan and gray for all season interest.

Kousa also carries more resistance to many of the pests that affect flowering dogwood, C.florida. This plant has better disease resistance to anthracnose and better cold hardiness than flowering dogwood, Cornus florida, and is an excellent alternative to flowering dogwood in areas where dogwood anthracnose is a problem.While non-native, it has NOT been found invasive. It is cold hardy in Ohio, possibly up to zone 4.

There are white and pink flowering forms as well as selections with variegated leaves. ‘Milky Way Select’ very larger flowers, good orange red fall color best resistance to anthracnose

Florida dogwood starts to blooms around 263 GDD.

Kousa dogwood starts to bloom around 593 GDD for mid-season interest.

 

kousa dogwood
Kousa Dogwood, Photo: Ann Chanon
kousa bark
Kousa Dogwood has exfoliating bark, Ann Chanon
​​​​​​
kousa fruit
Fruit of Kousa Dogwood, Photo Ann Chanon

LATER SEASON BLOOMS 

 

Sweet Bay Magnolia , Magnolia virginiana

Sweet Bay Magnolia blooms later in the season, between 566-717 Growing Degree Days.

This small tree is native from Massachusetts to Florida and is a nice selection for wetter sites. The tree reaches a height of 10-25’ tall with vase forms or spreading forms which makes a great specimen tree.

The cup-shaped 2-3” creamy white flowers have 9-12 petals with a sweet lemon fragrance. Yum. The elliptic to lanceolate leaves are shiny dark green above and silver green underneath give the tree a two toned appearance when the wind blows. Cone-like fruits with bright red seeds mature in fall and can be showy.

 

sweet bay magnolia flower
Sweet Bay Magnolia, by Ann Chanon

sweet bay moagnolia flower

 

It can be a faster growing tree. As with any tree, plan for the space it will need when it matures.

This plant has no serious pests or diseases but it can be host to the puffy and honeydew spewing Magnolia Scale (Neolecanium cornuparvum). While a big and showy scale, catching it early is always the best bet. Read more about magnolia scale here. 

This species prefers organic acidic soils, but tolerates heavy clay or wet soils unlike other magnolias. It is susceptible to chlorosis in alkaline soils.

 

*WHITE FRINGETREE, Chionanthus virginicus

*If you’re willing to try… we know that EAB can use this as a host tree… see below.

In the landscape, fringetree is often found as a multi-stemmed shrub or small tree. It has a wide spread and slow growth that allows it to be a great option for a small-tree space or specimen tree. Its genus name, Chionanthus comes from the greek Chion (snow) and Anthos (flower), these “SNOW FLOWERS” have slender white petals and are slightly fragrant. It leafs out and blooms (435 GDD) later than Callery pear, but still provides a gentle white flowering tree as a feature in your yard.

Like many plants it prefers moist, well drained, fertile soils but is described as being EXTREMELY ADAPTABLE, surviving well in full sun to partial shade and various soil types, including clay. This is great news for many landscapes. With few problem pests it could be a great option for many landscapes; HOWEVER, there is one notable exception. Emerald Ash Borer (EAB).  Fringetree has been found to be a secondary host for Emerald Ash Borer. In studies, it has been found that EAB can cause damage and even death of some white fringetrees. In one study in Ohio between 2015-2018, damage was severe enough to warrant removal of the tree in 7% of the examined trees (Ellison et.al., 2020). Other individual trees did not experience any die back.  So factor this into your decision to try this tree in your yard.  Emerald Ash Borer populations may have reduced after the initial die off of so many ash, but the beetle is NOT gone from Ohio. Fringetree may also be protected from EAB by the standard pesticides for the pest.

 

white fringe tree

 

White fringe tree in bloom

Close up of the smooth simple leaves of white fringe tree

close up on the thread-like flowers of white fringe tree

 

Syringa reticulata, Tree Lilac

This non-native from Japan has become a common replacement as a street tree instead of Callery Pear, at least in my neck of the woods in Northeast Ohio.   Use caution in planting a monoculture of any species.

This tree reaches a height of 20-30’ at maturity with an oval crown.  The 6-16” panicles of creamy white flowers are attractive to a variety of pollinators. The leaves are simple, ovate and dark green.  Fall color is not showy.  The bark is dark reddish brown and shiny with prominent lenticels.

This plant has low maintenance requirements.  It can tolerate salt, pollution and urban conditions and is pH adaptable.

Ivory Silk Japanese tree lilac  (Syringa reticulata ssp. Reticulata ‘Ivory Silk’) is currently one of the better known cultivars.

Tree Lilac, Syringa reticulata, has become a common street tree replacing the look and small stature of callery pear.
Syringa reticulata, Japanese Tree Lilac, by Tom DeHaas

 

From his series of street tree articles, Tom DeHaas suggests, “Syringa pekinensis ‘WFH2’™, Great Wall Tree Lilac is a good choice for its pest and disease resistance. Syringa pekinensis ‘Beijing Gold’™, Beijing Gold Peking Lilac makes an ideal small street tree.” (BYGL: Street Trees Part 9)

 

SO MANY MORE!!!!

And of course there are many other trees that can be suitable alternatives to Callery Pear. These were just a few white-flowered options for the Ohio landscape. Check out the STREET TREES Series by Tom DeHaas for more inspiration and other articles and stay tuned to BYGL for more updates on all your HORT news! Have conversations with your local nursery and see what they are having success with in the area where you are located too!

Agriculture Fertilizer 3 Hour Certification Training for NEW Applicators

Who should attend the training? Fertilizer certification is required if you apply fertilizer (other than manure) to more than 50 acres of agricultural production grown primarily for sale. If you hire a co-op or other custom applicator to make your fertilizer applications, you do not need the certification. This training is for private and commercial applicators.

What will be covered? Best management practices will be the basis of the agricultural fertilizer certification training with a focus on fertilizer applications that have the appropriate rate, timing,  placement, and source.

Note: An application & $30 fee to ODA is a separate process & is also required for the Fertilizer License.

Fayette County – Monday, February 27, 2023 – 1-4pm

Location:  OSU Extension Fayette County, 1415 US Hwy. 22 SW, Washington C.H., OH 43160

Cost: $30 payable to OSU Extension (Stop by the Fayette Co. Extension office to pay before or pay on the day of the training.)

Registration is REQUIRED and limited. Please register by calling 740-335-1150

Contacts/Hosts: Ken Ford, ANR Educator, Fayette County, ford.70@osu.edu, 740-335-1150

Butler County – Tuesday, March 28, 2023 – 1-4pm

Cost: $35 (Class Only), Checks payable to OSU Extension.

Location: OSU Extension, Butler County, 1802 Princeton Rd., Hamilton, Ohio 45011

RSVP by March 21, 2023 to: J.T. Benitez, ANR Educator @ (513) 887-3722 or benitez.6@osu.edu

OSU Extension Offering Quarterly Grain Market Update

OSU Extension invites Ohio grain producers to grab a cup of coffee and join a quarterly grain market conversation with Dr. Seungki Lee, Assistant Professor in the Department of Agricultural, Environmental and Development Economics (AEDE) from 7:30 to 8:00 a.m. on April 14, September 15, and November 17, 2023.

During these webinars held via Zoom, Dr. Lee will provide his insights on the World Agricultural Supply and Demand Estimates (WASDE) crop report. “These early morning webinars will be a great way for Ohio farmers to learn more about the factors impacting the corn, soybean, and wheat markets” said David Marrison, Interim Director for OSU Extension’s Farm Financial Management and Policy Institute.

There is no fee to attend these quarterly webinar sessions. Pre-registration can be made at go.osu.edu/coffeewithDrLee. These webinars are sponsored by: OSU Extension, Farm Financial Management & Policy Institute (FFMPI), and the Department of Agricultural, Environmental and Development Economics (AEDE) all located in The Ohio State University College of Food, Agricultural, and Environmental Sciences (CFAES).

CoffeewithSeungkiLee2023-final

Your help is needed … Ohio Cropland Values and Cash Rents 2022-2023

Complete the survey in one of these formats.

  1. Online at https://go.osu.edu/ohiocroplandvaluesandrentssurvey2223
  2. You can also access the online survey through this QR code:
  3. Paper format – Long version Ohio Cropland Values and Cash Rents Long Survey 2023
  4. Paper format – Short version Ohio Cropland Values and Cash Rents Short Survey 2023

2023 SWOH Bee School Registration is Still Open!

March 25, 2023

Oasis Conference Center
Loveland, OH

Registration is open at https://warren.osu.edu/program-areas/agriculture-and-natural-resources/2023-southwestern-ohio-beekeeper-school

Registration Information
Registration includes a continental breakfast and buffet lunch.

Registration Cost: $40

  • Registration is limited to the first 350 pre-registered participants. When the school reaches that number, the school will be closed, and no additional registrations will be accepted.
  • No walk-ins or late registrations will be accepted. There is no waiting list available.
  • Unless the conference is canceled, no refunds will be given for this conference. We have to pay for your food whether you show up or not.