Ohio BEEF Cattle Letter

Dear Ohio BEEF Cattle letter subscribers,

Five new articles have been posted in this week’s issue number 1337 of the Ohio BEEF Cattle letter: http://u.osu.edu/beef/

When considering the value in each pound of feeder calf that is being sold today and will be sold into the foreseeable future, can you afford not to have a breeding soundness exam performed on your bull? This week Brooks Warner discusses the value of investing in a BSE for your bulls.

Articles this week include:

  • Breeding Soundness of Bulls
  • Antibiotic Stewardship-What to do Now to Prepare for Changes Ahead
  • Not all protein sources are the same
  • Beef Cow, Heifer, and Steer Cattle Slaughter
  • Assuming reduced supply, can beef demand remain resilient throughout 2023?

CORN Newsletter

March 28, 2023 – April 3, 2023


Editor: Matthew Schmerge


Can Root-Knot Nematodes be a Problem in Ohio?

Author: Horacio Lopez-Nicora

Don’t Miss Travis Faske’s Seminar on a Very Serious Pathogen of Soybean.

Read more


When and How Much Nitrogen to Apply to Wheat

Authors: Ed Lentz, CCA, Laura Lindsey

Wheat has already reached green-up across the state so spring N may be applied anytime fields are fit. Keep in mind that research has shown no yield benefit to early N applications as long as the application was made by Feekes GS 6 (one visible node).

Read more


Battle for the Belt: Episode 3

Authors: Laura Lindsey, Osler Ortez, Aaron Wilson

Episode 3 of Battle for the Belt is now available: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Tbj62wuyr-4

Read more


Early Spring Weed Identification

Author: Alyssa Essman

Winter annual, biennial, and perennial weeds are starting to become more noticeable up as fields green up across the state. Identification of these species can help in planning for spring burndown programs.

Read more


About C.O.R.N. Newsletter

C.O.R.N. Newsletter is a summary of crop observations, related information, and appropriate recommendations for Ohio crop producers and industry. C.O.R.N. Newsletter is produced by the Ohio State University Extension Agronomy Team, state specialists at The Ohio State University and the Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center (OARDC). C.O.R.N. Newsletter questions are directed to Extension and OARDC state specialists and associates at Ohio State.




Glen Arnold, CCA
Field Specialist, Manure Nutrient Management


Mark Badertscher
Educator, Agriculture and Natural Resources


John Barker
Educator, Agriculture and Natural Resources


Nic Baumer
Educator, Agriculture and Natural Resources


Bruce Clevenger, CCA
Field Specialist, Farm Management


Grant Davis, CCA
Extension Educator, Agriculture and Natural Resources


Nick Eckel
Educator, Agriculture and Natural Resources


Amber Emmons
Water Quality Extension Associate


Alyssa Essman
Visiting Assistant Professor


Ken Ford
Educator, Agriculture and Natural Resources


Allen Gahler
Educator, Agriculture and Natural Resources


Mike Gastier, CCA
Educator, Agriculture and Natural Resources


Don Hammersmith
Program Assistant, Agriculture and Natural Resources


Jamie Hampton
Educator, Agriculture and Natural Resources


Jason Hartschuh, CCA
Field Specialist, Dairy & Precision Livestock


Elizabeth Hawkins
Field Specialist, Agronomic Systems


Andrew Holden
Educator, Agriculture and Natural Resources


Stephanie Karhoff, CCA
Field Specialist, Agronomic Systems


Dean Kreager
Educator, Agriculture and Natural Resources


Alan Leininger
Educator, Agriculture and Natural Resources


Laura Lindsey
State Specialist, Soybean and Small Grains


Horacio Lopez-Nicora
State Specialist, Soybean Pathology


Kendall Lovejoy
Educator, Agriculture and Natural Resources


Ryan McMichael
Educator, Agriculture and Natural Resources


Gigi Neal
Educator, Agriculture and Natural Resources


Sarah Noggle
Educator, Agriculture and Natural Resources


Les Ober, CCA
Educator, Agriculture and Natural Resources


Osler Ortez
State Specialist, Corn & Emerging Crops


Jordan Penrose
Educator, Agriculture and Natural Resources


Beth Scheckelhoff
Educator, Agriculture and Natural Resources


Clint Schroeder
Program Manager


Abby Welsh
Pest Education


Ted Wiseman
Educator, Agriculture and Natural Resources


Chris Zoller
Educator, Agriculture and Natural Resources


The information presented here, along with any trade names used, is supplied with the understanding that no discrimination is intended and no endorsement is made by Ohio State University Extension is implied. Although every attempt is made to produce information that is complete, timely, and accurate, the pesticide user bears responsibility of consulting the pesticide label and adhering to those directions.

CFAES provides research and related educational programs to clientele on a nondiscriminatory basis. For more information, visit cfaesdiversity.osu.edu. For an accessible format of this publication, visit cfaes.osu.edu/accessibility.

Farm Office Live Webinar – Friday, March 17

The OSU Extension Farm Office team invites you to attend the March Madness Edition of the “Farm Office Live” Webinar on Friday, March 17 from 10:00 to 11:30 a.m. This monthly webinar allows Ohio farmers and agribusiness personnel to learn more about current farm management and agricultural law issues.

In this month’s webinar, the Farm Office Team will present the following topics:

  • Federal & State Legislative Update (Peggy Hall)
  • New Postnuptial Agreement Legislation (Robert Moore)
  • Marital and Non-Marital Assets (Robert Moore)
  • Selling Timber- Call Before You Cut (Dave Apsley)
  • Update on Crop Input Costs and Crop Budget Outlook for 2023 (Barry Ward)
  • Sales Tax Exemption Issues (Jeff Lewis)
  • 2023 Spring Crop Insurance Update (Eric Richer)
  • Emergency Relief Program (David Marrison)

There is no fee to attend this webinar.  However, registration is required at go.osu.edu/farmofficelive

Alternatives to Callery Pear

Published on 
Callery Pear is now illegal to sell in Ohio. What trees are good alternatives?

As you may now know, Callery Pear, Pyrus calleryana, and its cultivars (examples include ‘Bradford’, ‘Cleveland Select’, ‘Chanticleer’, etc) are officially on the Ohio Invasive Plants List.  On Saturday, January 7, 2023 it became ILLEGAL to plant, grow, propagate, or sell Callery Pear in Ohio. It is now deemed to be an invasive species in many states and similar bans have gone into effect in Pennsylvania and South Carolina.


invasive callery pear has invaded this weedy area next to a mall

invasive callery pear


Callery Pear is a small, deciduous flowering tree native to China that that was originally brought to the U.S. as a source of resistance to the disease fire blight, Erwinia amylovora.  It became popular as a landscape tree for its white flowers, site adaptability, and compact size. Individual trees cannot self-pollinate but can and do hybridize with other Pyrus calleryana selections, native, or domesticated pears, resulting in a fertile fruit.  This resulted in the trees’ spread by birds and wildlife, which soon choked native plants and invaded disturbed areas and forests.


Under the rule:

– Nurseries and garden centers with remaining stock are not allowed to sell these trees and must destroy them.

– Homeowners and landscapers may not purchase nor install them.

– Have one in your yard? You do NOT need to remove it.


However, with an arguably stinky flower, messy fruit, weak branch angles, and its tendency to spread and invade… maybe it is worth considering a replacement tree.  But what to choose?


damaged callery pear tree showing weak branch angles in an ice storm
This photo captured by Joe Boggs illustrates the weak branch angles of Callery pear, leading to irreparable damage in an ice storm.


If you are looking for a white-flowered alternative to Callery Pear in your landscape, or just need some suggestions for a new tree, consider these!


Let’s Start with the EARLY BLOOMERS….

SERVICEBERRY, Amelanchier spp.

Serviceberry is an Ohio native with four seasons of landscape interest. It is available as a large, multi-stemmed shrub or trained to a small tree. (Height 15-25 feet with an oval to round crown).  Like Callery pear, it has a crisp white flower in early spring, blooming at around 150-160 Growing Degree Days. This would put its bloom within hours to days of ‘Bradford’ Callery pear which blooms at 142 GDD.  In addition to flowers, the blue-green foliage of summer transforms into shades of gold to reddish-orange in autumn, making it, as Michael Dirr states, “…one of our finest native trees for fall coloration” pg 101.

Many cultivars have been selected for their fall color, some of these are: Apple Serviceberry, a hybrid (A. X grandiflora), with names such as ‘Autumn Blaze’, ‘Autumn Sunset’, and ‘Autumn Brilliance’.  ‘Ballerina’ has been selected for excellent leaf spot resistance and low occurrence of fireblight in susceptible years.


apple serviceberry in full bloom showing white delicate flowers
Apple Serviceberry, A. X grandiflora


Apple serviceberry showing red-orange fall color
Apple Serviceberry, A. X grandiflora


serviceberry tree showing orange fall color
Shown: Allegheny serviceberry A. laevis


Amelanchier 'Ballerina' displaying white flowers
Amelanchier x grandoflora ‘ballerina’ by Tom DeHaas
the berries of Amelanchier are edible to humans and wildlife
The fruit of ‘Ballerina’ by Tom DeHaas


White Eastern Redbud (Cercis canadensis)

Cercis canadensis var. alba is a tree that can be found growing sporadically throughout Eastern North America.  This is a naturally occurring white flowered form of the more common pinkish purple Eastern Redbud.  This small 15-25’ tree has a vase like to rounded shape.


white redbud


As a member of the Fabaceae family, Cercis have pea like flowers.  The flowers bloom just after serviceberry and along side some of the first flowering crabapples at 191 GDD.


white flowers


The flowers are followed by distinctive heart shaped 2.5” green leaves and pea like seed pods.  There are several cultivars of the white form of Eastern Redbud including the upright ‘Royal White’ and weeping ‘Vanilla Twist’ PP22744 introduced by plantsman Tim Brotzman of Madison, Ohio.



Love them or hate them, crabapples can be a suitable replacement for Callery pear!  There are HUNDREDS of types of crabapple varying in size, bloom time, color, and shape. For our purposes here, many cultivars have white flowers such as ‘Adirondack’, ‘Beverly’, ‘David’, ‘Donald Wyman’, Golden Raindrops(R), Harvest Gold(R), and, heavens! So many more.  Secrest Arboretum in Wooster, Ohio boasts a substantial crabapple collection.  If you need inspiration, feel free to browse the list and take a drive out to view them. They are a site to behold in bloom, best viewing occurring around 200 GDD. This may help you select YOUR next crabapple.


Tree Amigo, Eric Draper of Geauga County shared a few of his favorites: including ‘Adirondack’, ‘Firebird’, ‘Lollipop’, ‘Pumpkin Pie’, Sargent Crabapple (Malus sargentii), Tina (Malus sargentii ‘Tina’), ‘Calloway’, ‘King  Arthur’, ‘Guinevere’, ‘ Holiday Gold’, ‘Dolgo’ (for those wishing edible landscape types) and ‘Silver Moon’.


an arial view of the Secrest Arboretum in bloom
Secrest Arboretum Crabapple plots in bloom!



close up on the white flowers of a crabapple
Shown: Flowers of cultivar, ‘Pumpkin Pie’ which has extraordinary orange fruit!
Crabapple tree variety adirondack showing white flowers
Shown: ‘Adirondack’ Crabapple in bloom at Secrest Arboretum. Its white flowers and compact form may be a nice replacement for Callery pear.


the deeply cut foliage of golden raindrops crabapple makes it look like not an apple at all
With deeply cut and textured leaves, I would never have known THIS is a crabapple! Shown here the foliage of ‘Golden Raindrops’, a white flowering, low disease selection with golden yellow fruit.


But why limit yourself to white flowers when we’re talking crabapples! So many beautiful red and pink varieties exist too. This article by Jim Chatfield gives just a few highlights of the stunning pinks and reds of crabapples.  https://bygl.osu.edu/node/1560


IMPORTANTLY… when selecting a crabapple pay attention to disease resistance. The problem many people have with crabapple is apple scab which can cause premature leaf drop and an unsightly mess early in the season. However, many cultivars now have good to excellent resistance for apple scab and fireblight to keep your landscape plants in good appearance most years.



Carolina Silverbells
Photo: The Alliance for Historic Hillsborough Shared CC by 2.0

Carolina Silverbell (Halesia carolina)

An underused native, Carolina Silverbells, is a small to medium size tree with beautiful, showy bell-shaped flowers. A member of the styracaceae, it has no serious pest issues unlike some members of the rosaceae.  However, it can be susceptible to chlorosis issues in higher pH as it prefers slightly acidic soil. It does not do well in drought conditions.


Bloom occurs between 213 – 266 GDD. The fall color is nothing to write home about, but does have a slightly attractive yellow autumn color. It attracts hummingbirds and can host several species of moth and butterfly caterpillars. It will bloom after only a few years and has a long life expectancy.  It has the potential to have a dramatic leaning and twisting trunk as it really matures up.

silver bells tree


Dogwood (Cornus spp.)

Michael Dirr notes that there are over 50 species of Dogwood from ground cover to trees.

Cornus kousa is a favorite as a four-season tree with its exfoliating bark, edible pink fruit, and white flowers. It reaches15-20’ in size with a rounded form. The 2-5″ showy white “flower petals” are actually bracts that ring the smaller yellow-green true flowers at the center, which produce beautiful raspberry-like reddish fruit that last into autumn and attract wildlife. Leaves generally have good scarlet to red-purple color in fall and the bark exfoliates with age to reveal several shades of orange, tan and gray for all season interest.

Kousa also carries more resistance to many of the pests that affect flowering dogwood, C.florida. This plant has better disease resistance to anthracnose and better cold hardiness than flowering dogwood, Cornus florida, and is an excellent alternative to flowering dogwood in areas where dogwood anthracnose is a problem.While non-native, it has NOT been found invasive. It is cold hardy in Ohio, possibly up to zone 4.

There are white and pink flowering forms as well as selections with variegated leaves. ‘Milky Way Select’ very larger flowers, good orange red fall color best resistance to anthracnose

Florida dogwood starts to blooms around 263 GDD.

Kousa dogwood starts to bloom around 593 GDD for mid-season interest.


kousa dogwood
Kousa Dogwood, Photo: Ann Chanon
kousa bark
Kousa Dogwood has exfoliating bark, Ann Chanon
kousa fruit
Fruit of Kousa Dogwood, Photo Ann Chanon



Sweet Bay Magnolia , Magnolia virginiana

Sweet Bay Magnolia blooms later in the season, between 566-717 Growing Degree Days.

This small tree is native from Massachusetts to Florida and is a nice selection for wetter sites. The tree reaches a height of 10-25’ tall with vase forms or spreading forms which makes a great specimen tree.

The cup-shaped 2-3” creamy white flowers have 9-12 petals with a sweet lemon fragrance. Yum. The elliptic to lanceolate leaves are shiny dark green above and silver green underneath give the tree a two toned appearance when the wind blows. Cone-like fruits with bright red seeds mature in fall and can be showy.


sweet bay magnolia flower
Sweet Bay Magnolia, by Ann Chanon

sweet bay moagnolia flower


It can be a faster growing tree. As with any tree, plan for the space it will need when it matures.

This plant has no serious pests or diseases but it can be host to the puffy and honeydew spewing Magnolia Scale (Neolecanium cornuparvum). While a big and showy scale, catching it early is always the best bet. Read more about magnolia scale here. 

This species prefers organic acidic soils, but tolerates heavy clay or wet soils unlike other magnolias. It is susceptible to chlorosis in alkaline soils.


*WHITE FRINGETREE, Chionanthus virginicus

*If you’re willing to try… we know that EAB can use this as a host tree… see below.

In the landscape, fringetree is often found as a multi-stemmed shrub or small tree. It has a wide spread and slow growth that allows it to be a great option for a small-tree space or specimen tree. Its genus name, Chionanthus comes from the greek Chion (snow) and Anthos (flower), these “SNOW FLOWERS” have slender white petals and are slightly fragrant. It leafs out and blooms (435 GDD) later than Callery pear, but still provides a gentle white flowering tree as a feature in your yard.

Like many plants it prefers moist, well drained, fertile soils but is described as being EXTREMELY ADAPTABLE, surviving well in full sun to partial shade and various soil types, including clay. This is great news for many landscapes. With few problem pests it could be a great option for many landscapes; HOWEVER, there is one notable exception. Emerald Ash Borer (EAB).  Fringetree has been found to be a secondary host for Emerald Ash Borer. In studies, it has been found that EAB can cause damage and even death of some white fringetrees. In one study in Ohio between 2015-2018, damage was severe enough to warrant removal of the tree in 7% of the examined trees (Ellison et.al., 2020). Other individual trees did not experience any die back.  So factor this into your decision to try this tree in your yard.  Emerald Ash Borer populations may have reduced after the initial die off of so many ash, but the beetle is NOT gone from Ohio. Fringetree may also be protected from EAB by the standard pesticides for the pest.


white fringe tree


White fringe tree in bloom

Close up of the smooth simple leaves of white fringe tree

close up on the thread-like flowers of white fringe tree


Syringa reticulata, Tree Lilac

This non-native from Japan has become a common replacement as a street tree instead of Callery Pear, at least in my neck of the woods in Northeast Ohio.   Use caution in planting a monoculture of any species.

This tree reaches a height of 20-30’ at maturity with an oval crown.  The 6-16” panicles of creamy white flowers are attractive to a variety of pollinators. The leaves are simple, ovate and dark green.  Fall color is not showy.  The bark is dark reddish brown and shiny with prominent lenticels.

This plant has low maintenance requirements.  It can tolerate salt, pollution and urban conditions and is pH adaptable.

Ivory Silk Japanese tree lilac  (Syringa reticulata ssp. Reticulata ‘Ivory Silk’) is currently one of the better known cultivars.

Tree Lilac, Syringa reticulata, has become a common street tree replacing the look and small stature of callery pear.
Syringa reticulata, Japanese Tree Lilac, by Tom DeHaas


From his series of street tree articles, Tom DeHaas suggests, “Syringa pekinensis ‘WFH2’™, Great Wall Tree Lilac is a good choice for its pest and disease resistance. Syringa pekinensis ‘Beijing Gold’™, Beijing Gold Peking Lilac makes an ideal small street tree.” (BYGL: Street Trees Part 9)



And of course there are many other trees that can be suitable alternatives to Callery Pear. These were just a few white-flowered options for the Ohio landscape. Check out the STREET TREES Series by Tom DeHaas for more inspiration and other articles and stay tuned to BYGL for more updates on all your HORT news! Have conversations with your local nursery and see what they are having success with in the area where you are located too!

Farming for Profit Workshop led by Dave Pratt

Take your farm/ranch management skills to the next level! Join Dave Pratt on Saturday April 8, 9am-4pm at the Greenacres Arts Center (8400 Blome Rd., Cincinnati, OH 45243) for insights of managing your farm or ranch. People wishing to attend will need to pay $30 and pre-register by April 1, 2023. Participants will receive information on how to transform your farm from a pile of assets and a collection of jobs into a business, financial planning for ranches, sustainable grazing practices, interactive activities and hands-on exercises, to apply what you’ve learned and networking with fellow producers. Registration can be found by scanning the QR code below. See the flyer below for full event details.


29th Southwest Ohio Perennial School Registration is Now Open!

It is time to get registered for the 29th Southwest Ohio Perennial School on April 13, 2023 at OSU Extension Clermont County, 1000 Locust Street, Owensville, OH.

Featured Speakers include, in no particular order:

  •         Amy Stone – Spotted Lanternfly Update & Scavenger Hunt
    • OSU Extension Lucas County
  • Paul Koloszar – Northern Sea Oats and Other Mistakes I’ve Made; Managing Expectations for Natives
    • Cincinnati Zoo & Botanical Garden 
  • Tim McDermott – Urban Agriculture
    • OSU Extension Franklin County 
  • Pam Bennett – Pollinator Plants and Gardens: You can Please Everyone
    • OSU Extension 
  • #5 TBD
    • Stay Tuned for More Details 

Register Today!
$50 before April 1; $60 after April 1

*Lunch Will be catered by Chef Michael Scudder, owner of “Taste of the Good Life”.


Cloverbud Super Saturday

Do you have a Cloverbud? If you answered yes, then this event is for you! Sign your Cloverbud up for Cloverbud Super Saturday. Join us on Saturday March 25, 2023 in Rhonemus Hall on the Brown County Fairgrounds from 10:00am-12:00pm as we explore the science behind the greenhouses, sing songs and play games. Space is limited to the first 20 participants. There is no cost to participate. Registration can be found here. See the flyer below for full event details.

Brown Co. Junior Fair Commercial Swine Division – New for 2023

The Brown County Junior Fair is offering a new Commercial Swine division for 2023. Below is information from the Swine Department. Click here to download a PDF of this information. 

NEW FOR 2023
COMMERCIAL MARKET SWINE PROJECTTo take a commercial hog project you will need to sign up for project 139 Market Hog Project: Commercial Swine by the
April 1st enrollment deadline. 4-H members will select this in 4HOnline, FFA members will designate this on their paper
form. Those wishing to show in the traditional project will enroll in the standard 139 Market Hog Project.

  • YOU CAN NOT show in both the market swine project and the commercial swine project it is one or the other. The
    judges for these projects will be evaluating using different criteria.ALL swine department rules for market swine apply to this project.Pigs for this project will be supplied by the Jr. Fairboard.
  • Price will be based on feeder pig market at the time of pick up.
  • Exhibitor can take one or two head for this project. Youth will be contacted after the enrollment deadline to designate the
    number of hogs they would like to show.
  • You will pick up and pay for your swine project TBA at the fairgrounds.
  • Hogs will be tagged and weighed day of pick up. The same weight limits apply to ALL swine projects.
  • All pigs will be of the same quality. Each exhibitor will draw a tag number to see which pig he/she gets.
  • Commercial projects DO NOT bring their animals to tag in on June 17th.
  • The Commercial Market show will be on Wednesday morning of fair week.
  • Each exhibitor can do showmanship on Monday in their respective age class.
  • Each exhibitor is eligible for OME.
  • Commercial Market projects will sell in the sale and will also have a GRAND and RESERVE.
  • Each Commercial Market project will also be eligible for grand champion RATE OF GAIN in the commercial division.

Questions on this new division can be directed to Roger McKinzie, Swine Superintendent.

Please note there will be a Rate of Gain champion for the traditional market show in 2023 also.

Project Starter Kits

New for 2023 – the Brown County 4-H Committee is sponsoring project starter kits to help youth get started in a new project. Youth are provided with the basic materials and supplies needed to complete a project. Supplies may be provided directly or through gift cards.

Eligibility & Criteria

  • Must be a project age 4-H member in good standing in Brown County.
  • Must be the 1st time registering for the specific project.
  • Must complete the application by the specified deadline. Including Member & Parent/Guardian signatures acknowledging the youth will complete the project or repay the cost of the kit (up to $50 pending the kit).
  • Members may only request one (1) kit per year.
  • Youth must enroll by the 4-H Deadline in the project of the kit they are applying for. If they are not selected for the kit, they may choose to complete the project on their own or drop the project.
  • Youth are encouraged to sign up for additional projects in case they do not receive a kit. This will allow them to have options of projects to complete.
  • Applications are due by April 3rd, 2023, at 4:30pm to the Extension Office.
  • Members selected for a kit will be notified after the April 4-H Committee meeting.

For full details and the application visit our website here: https://brown.osu.edu/program-areas/4-h-youth-development/4-h-youth-opportunites/project-starter-kits