Ohio Vector-Borne Disease Update: October 5, 2020

From the Ohio Department of Health:

As of 10/01/2020, mosquito collection data has been shared by local partners in Ashland, Athens, Carroll, Clark, Clermont, Crawford, Cuyahoga, Fairfield, Franklin, Gallia, Greene, Hamilton, Hancock, Hocking, Lake, Licking, Lorain, Lucas, Mahoning, Medina, Meigs, Miami, Montgomery, Muskingum, Perry, Pickaway, Portage, Richland, Ross, Scioto, Shelby, Stark, Summit, Tuscarawas, Union, Vinton and Wood counties. The following are results of pooled mosquito samples tested for West Nile virus (WNV):

  • Clark County: 13,495 total mosquitoes tested; 22 positive samples
  • Cuyahoga County: 1,057 total mosquitoes tested; 2 positive samples
  • Fairfield County: 1,686 total mosquitoes tested; 1 positive sample
  • Franklin County (including Columbus City): 125,728 total mosquitoes tested; 531 positive samples
  • Hamilton County (including Cincinnati City): 1,643 total mosquitoes tested; 1 positive sample
  • Lake County: 4,642 total mosquitoes tested; 12 positive samples
  • Lucas County: 6,320 total mosquitoes tested; 66 positive samples
  • Portage County (including Kent City): 13,019 total mosquitoes tested; 2 positive samples
  • Richland County (including Shelby City): 16,592 total mosquitoes tested; 4 positive samples
  • Summit County: 2,311 total mosquitoes tested; 2 positive samples
  • Union County: 4,233 total mosquitoes tested; 2 positive samples

This brings the total number of WNV positive mosquito samples in Ohio to 645.

As of 10/05/2020, the Ohio Department of Health reported 2 human cases of WNV. Cases include 2 males between the ages of 41 -62 years (median: 52 years) reported from Franklin (1) and Montgomery (1) counties with onset of symptoms between 08/25/2020 – 09/11/2020. There are several additional suspect cases under investigation.

The Ohio Department of Health also reported 21 cases of La Crosse virus. Cases include 14 males and 7 females between the ages of 3 -15 years (median: 6 years) reported from Carroll (1), Coshocton (2), Delaware (2), Fairfield (1), Harrison (1), Hocking (1), Holmes (3), Marion (1), Perry (1),  Pickaway (1), Summit (1), Trumbull (1), Warren (1), Washington (2) and Wayne (2) counties with onset of symptoms between 07/02/2020 – 08/21/2020. There are several additional suspect cases under investigation.

More details are at: www.odh.ohio.gov/vectorupdate.

Please do not hesitate to contact the Zoonotic Disease Program (614-752-1029, option 1) if you have any questions.

Ohio Vector-Borne Disease Update: September 22, 2020

Please see the latest information from Ohio Department of Health:

As of 09/17/2020, mosquito collection data has been shared by local partners in Ashland, Athens, Carroll, Clark, Clermont, Crawford, Cuyahoga, Fairfield, Franklin, Gallia, Hamilton, Hancock, Hocking, Lake, Licking, Lorain, Lucas, Mahoning, Medina, Meigs, Miami, Montgomery, Muskingum, Perry, Pickaway, Portage, Richland, Ross, Scioto, Shelby, Stark, Summit, Tuscarawas, Union, Vinton and Wood counties.

The following are results of pooled mosquito samples tested for West Nile virus (WNV):

  • Clark County: 13,495 total mosquitoes tested; 22 positive samples
  • Cuyahoga County: 1,057 total mosquitoes tested; 2 positive samples
  • Fairfield County: 1,558 total mosquitoes tested; 1 positive sample
  • Franklin County (including Columbus City): 122,261 total mosquitoes tested; 521 positive samples
  • Lake County: 4,642 total mosquitoes tested; 12 positive samples
  • Lucas County: 5,934 total mosquitoes tested; 59 positive samples
  • Portage County (including Kent City): 12,811 total mosquitoes tested; 2 positive samples
  • Richland County: 16,512 total mosquitoes tested; 4 positive samples
  • Summit County: 2,157 total mosquitoes tested; 2 positive samples
  • Union County: 2,999 total mosquitoes tested; 1 positive samples

This brings the total number of WNV positive mosquito samples in Ohio to 626. No human cases of WNV have been reported.

As of 09/17/2020, the Ohio Department of Health reported 19 cases of La Crosse virus. Cases include 12 males and 7 females between the ages of 3 -15 years (median: 6 years) reported from Carroll (1), Coshocton (2), Delaware (2), Fairfield (1),Harrison (1), Hocking (1), Holmes (2), Marion (1), Perry (1),  Pickaway (1), Summit (1), Trumbull (1), Warren (1), Washington (2) and Wayne (1) counties with onset of symptoms between 07/02/2020 – 08/21/2020. There are several additional suspect cases under investigation.

More details are at: www.odh.ohio.gov/vectorupdate or call the Ohio Department of Health Zoonotic Disease Program (614-752-1029, option 1).

Educational Resources for Bed Bugs, Ticks, Mosquitoes, Rodents, Stinging Insects and Head Lice

The NE IPM Center recently offered a list of public educational tools for the following:

  • bed bugs
  • head lice
  • rodents
  • mosquitoes
  • ticks
  • stinging insects

These resources are available posters, pocket cards, and guides. These resources are targeted at school nurses, but they are easily modifiable for all general audiences.

Find information for these resources at: https://www.northeastipm.org/schools/resources-for-school-nurses/

Ohio Vector-Borne Disease Update: August 24, 2020

The Ohio Department of Health (ODH) has been recording mosquito collection data from local partners in order to monitor for diseases transmitted by mosquitoes in Ohio. The ODH worked with partners in Ashland, Athens, Carroll, Clark, Clermont, Crawford, Cuyahoga, Fairfield, Franklin, Hamilton, Hancock, Hocking, Lake, Licking, Lorain, Lucas, Mahoning, Medina, Meigs, Miami, Montgomery, Muskingum, Perry, Pickaway, Portage, Richland, Ross, Scioto, Shelby, Stark, Summit, Tuscarawas, Union, Vinton and Wood counties in order to collect data from around the state.

Please see below for results of pooled mosquito samples tested for West Nile Virus as of 8/21/20:

  • Clark County: 9,365 total mosquitoes tested; 11 positive samples
  • Cuyahoga County: 1,057 total mosquitoes tested; 2 positive samples
  • Fairfield County: 810 total mosquitoes tested; 1 positive sample
  • Franklin County (including Columbus City): 92,773 total mosquitoes tested; 290 positive samples
  • Lake County: 2,826 total mosquitoes tested; 6 positive samples
  • Lucas County: 2,358 total mosquitoes tested; 24 positive samples
  • Richland County: 15,282 total mosquitoes tested; 3 positive samples

The total number of mosquito samples positive with West Nile Virus is now 337. As of 8/21/20, no human cases of West Nile Virus have been reported.

 

The ODH reported 4 cases of La Crosse Virus during the week of 8/17/20, which were Ohio’s first cases of La Crosse Virus for 2020. Cases include:

  • 3 males
  • 1 female
  • All between the ages of 6-15 year, median age: 9 years

The cases were reported in:

  • Carroll County: 1 case
  • Harrison County: 1 case
  • Trumbull County: 1 case
  • Warren County: 1 case

Onset of symptoms for those cases of La Crosse Virus were between 7/4/20-7/11/20. There are several additional suspect cases under investigation.

For additional information, please visit www.odh.ohio.gov/vectorupdate or call the Ohio Department of Health Zoonotic Disease Program (614-752-1029, option 1).

 

Nootkatone a New Active Ingredient Potential Repellent Now Registered by EPA

From the Environmental Protection Agency:

“A new active ingredient, discovered and developed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), has been registered by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for use in insecticides and insect repellents… the new ingredient, nootkatone, they may repel and kill ticks, mosquitoes, and a wide variety of other biting pests. Nootkatone is responsible for the characteristic smell and taste of grapefruit and is widely used in the fragrance industry to make perfumes and colognes. It is found in minute quantities in Alaska yellow cedar trees and grapefruit skin….Nootkatone can now be used to develop new insect repellents and insecticides for protecting people and pets. CDC’s licensed partner, Evolva, is in advanced discussions with leading pest control companies for possible commercial partnerships… products could be commercially available as early as 2022.”

EPA Press Release: https://www.epa.gov/pesticides/nootkatone-now-registered-epa

CDC Press Release at: https://www.cdc.gov/media/releases/2020/p0810-nootkatone-registered-epa.html

Evolva Press Release at: https://evolva.com/press-releases/evolva-receives-us-epa-registration-for-nootkatone-a-next-generation-protection-against-vector-borne-diseases-spread-by-insects  and https://nootkashield.com/2020/08/evolva-receives-us-epa-registration-for-nootkatone/ and https://nootkashield.com/2020/08/citrus-flavoring-is-weaponized-against-insect-borne-diseases/

Further information regarding this new repellent active ingredient is below.

 

CDC on Nootkatone:

https://www.cdc.gov/os/technology/techtransfer/successstories/nootkatone.htm

 

Other Honorable Mentions of Nootkatone:

https://federallabs.org/successes/success-stories/formulation-of-nootkatone-as-repellent-and-pesticide-products-against

https://www.npr.org/2011/04/18/135468567/repelling-bugs-with-the-essence-of-grapefruit

https://search.proquest.com/openview/97e6624cecab6c1efb69041670bab056/1?pq-origsite=gscholar&cbl=2029999

https://cen.acs.org/articles/94/i14/Nootkatone-tested-mosquito-repellent.html#:~:text=CDC%20researchers%20have%20shown%20that,those%20of%20synthetic%20pesticides%20(J.

 

Studies on Nootkatone (and attached):

http://jme.oxfordjournals.org/content/jmedent/47/6/1123.full.pdf

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/22308777/

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/22299371/

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/20069863/

https://apps.dtic.mil/dtic/tr/fulltext/u2/a512887.pdf

https://lib.dr.iastate.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1402&context=ent_pubs

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3059459/

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/330722622_Insect-Repellent_and_Mosquitocidal_Effects_of_Noreremophilane-_and_Nardoaristolone-Based_Compounds

TickTalk with TickReport Webinars

A FREE series brought to you by the UMass Laboratory of Medical Zoology and UMass Extension

TickTalk with TickReport is back for 2020! Each month we will hear from Dr. Stephen Rich and the Laboratory of Medical Zoology (LMZ)! TickTalk in 2020 will also feature exciting guest speakers on tick topics that you told us were important to YOU. The series will include seasonality and life stages of ticks (key to planning intervention and prevention), emerging or invasive tick species, how ticks use vegetation and leaf litter throughout their life cycle, increasing fears of Alpha-gal allergies (allergies to certain meat and animal-related products), dispelling myths of tick control, and many more. Mosquito concerns, including life cycle, behavior, and EEE infection, will also be addressed and Dr. Rich will discuss the tens of thousands of mosquitoes the LMZ tests each year for a range of viruses. Tune in the 2nd Wednesday of the month! 

Preregistration is required to access the webinars. To be notified of upcoming webinar dates and topics, join our e-mail list at: https://ag.umass.edu/landscape/email-list

NOTE REGARDING TICK TESTING: TickReport at the UMass Laboratory of Medical Zoology is open and accepting tick samples for testing. For more details on how to submit samples, go to https://www.tickreport.com.

2020 WEBINAR SCHEDULE – 2nd Wednesday of the month

AUGUST 12, 2020 – Extinction of Deer Ticks in North America
Speaker: Dr. Stephen Rich, Professor of Microbiology, University of Massachusetts Amherst; Director the Laboratory of Medical Zoology
Dr. Stephen Rich will discuss a recent publication in Nature (June 2020) from the Laboratory of Medical Zoology that provides insight to the evolutionary and ecological origin of the primary Lyme disease vectors in North America. Register at: https://attendee.gotowebinar.com/register/7268068031726182913

SEPTEMBER 9, 2020 – Biology of Ticks and Other Tick-Borne Disease
Speaker: Daniel Sonenshine, Professor Emeritus, Old Dominion University; Laboratory of Malaria and Vector Research, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease (NIH)
Dr. Rich will host Dr. Daniel Sonenshine, preeminent tick biologist who quite literally wrote the book on ticks (Biology of Ticks in two volumes, co-authored with Dr. R. Michael Roe).  Dr. Sonenshine’s research interest in ticks precedes the discovery of Lyme disease in North America and he is thus uniquely qualified to provide a historical context for this public health challenge. Register at: https://attendee.gotowebinar.com/register/751678229293240321

OCTOBER 14, 2020 – Tick-borne Disease Surveillance in the US
Speaker: Dr. Ben Beard, Deputy Director, Division of Vector-Borne Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) 
Dr. Rich welcomes Dr. Ben Beard to the TickTalk webinar.  Dr. Beard will present the latest CDC findings on the burdens of tick-borne disease and public health trends.  Register at: https://attendee.gotowebinar.com/register/7480889502398662145

NOVEMBER 18, 2020 – Babesiosis
Speaker: Dr. Sam R. Telford III, Professor, Cummings School of Veterinary Medicine at Tufts University
Dr. Telford III joins Dr. Rich on the TickTalk webinar to discuss the second most commonly reported tick-borne disease in North America (after Lyme disease).  Babesiosis is a malaria-like illness transmitted by the same ticks as Lyme.  Dr. Telford is recognized as a global authority on this disease. Register at: https://attendee.gotowebinar.com/register/3144222128403757825

DECEMBER 9, 2020 – Topic TBD
Register at: https://attendee.gotowebinar.com/register/2502047964154713345


ARCHIVED WEBINARS (see links below)

2020

2019

Enroll in On-Line Veterinary Entomology Certificate Courses offered by The Ohio State University Department of Entomology

Introduction to Veterinary Entomology

An introduction to the fascinating world of Veterinary Entomology and arthropod pests that impact the health of domestic animals. This course is approved for CE credit by the Ohio Veterinary Medical Licensing Board (OVMLB) on an hour per hour basis. It can be completed in 3-6 hours.

 

Veterinary Entomology:  Mites and Ticks         

The goals of this on-line course are to introduce you to mites and ticks, as well as highlight some fascinating aspects about their basic biology and the impacts they have on animal and human health (with an emphasis on domestic animals). This course is pending approval for CE credit by the OVMLB on an hour per hour basis. It can be completed in 2-3 hours.

 

Veterinary Entomology:  Mosquitoes

The goals of this on-line course are to introduce you to mosquitoes, as well as highlight somehttps://www.vectorbase.org/sites/default/files/ftp/image_gallery/Aedes%20Species/A.%20albopictus/2165.jpg.thumb fascinating aspects about their basic biology and the impacts they have on animal and human health (with an emphasis on domestic animals). This course is pending approval for CE credit by the OVMLB on an hour per hour basis. It can be completed in 1-2 hours.

 

The content for each course is delivered in a series of on-line lectures and readings. Each module has a 15 question quiz to test comprehension of the lecture and reading materials; each quiz requires a score of 70% to earn a certificate (multiple attempts are allowed).

For additional details please contact Dr. Peter Piermarini: 1@osu.edu

Efficacy of Active Ingredients From the EPA 25(B) List in Reducing Attraction of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) to Humans

Abstract

Mosquitoes of the Aedes genus are vectors for dengue, chikungunya, Zika, and yellow fever viruses. Mosquito repellents are an effective way to prevent mosquito bites and reduce the spread of mosquito-borne diseases. In the early 90s, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) published a list of active ingredients that pose minimum risk to human health that can be used as pesticides or repellents without passing the EPA registration process. The present study examined the efficacy of 21 of the active ingredients listed by the EPA 25 (B) exempt list and five commercially available sprays that only contained active ingredients from the EPA 25(B) list in repelling female Aedes aegypti (L.) females. We performed choice bioassays in a controlled laboratory environment, using a Y-tube olfactometer to determine attraction rates of humans to female Ae. aegypti in the presence of one of the 21 active ingredients and five commercially available repellent sprays. We found that cinnamon oil, peppermint oil, spearmint oil, lemongrass oil, and garlic oil reduced mosquito attraction to human odor. Of the five commercial repellent sprays, only one reduced mosquito attraction for up to 30 min in our assay. The EPA 25 (B) list contains active ingredients that under the conditions of our assay repel Ae. aegypti.

For full pdf, click HERE

Lyme Disease in Ohio Continues to Increase

By: Sarah Short and Spencer Blankenship (OSU Biology Undergraduate)

As the 2019 season wraps up, reports indicate that occurrences of Lyme disease continue to increase in Ohio.  From 2009 to 2018, the number of cases has increased over 500%! (Figure 1)

 

Data from the Ohio Department of Health https://odh.ohio.gov/wps/portal/gov/odh/know-our-programs/zoonotic-disease-program/resources/lyme-disease

Lyme has been expanding westward across Pennsylvania and occurrences in Ohio are primarily in the Eastern half of the state (Figure 2). 2019 reports indicate the worst year yet for Lyme, with 371 cases reported as of October 21st.

 

Data from the Ohio Department of Health https://odh.ohio.gov/wps/portal/gov/odh/know-our-programs/zoonotic-disease-program/resources/lyme-disease 

Lyme disease is caused by the bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi and is most commonly contracted through a bite from a nymph (an immature tick), however, adult ticks can spread the disease as well. Nymphs are only about 2 millimeters in size, leaving many people unaware that they were bitten. The tick that spreads the disease, Ixodes scapularis (more commonly referred to as the blacklegged tick or deer tick) is increasing in number and expanding its range. It is important that Ohioans be aware of the situation and take steps to prevent infection. See the resources here for information on how to protect yourself outdoors.