During the time period of April 15-30, Extension rainfall reporters recorded an average of 4.08 inches of rain in Hardin County. Last year, the average rainfall for the same time period was 1.56 inches. Rainfall for the April 15-30 time period is 1.92 inches more than the ten-year average rainfall during the same dates. That really sums things up for the past month. The constant rains have kept people out of the fields as it gets later into what should be the planting season. See the attached April 15-30 Extension Rainfall Report for details about township rainfall. According to the most recent USDA Ohio Crop Weather Report, only 4% of the corn is planted compared to 50% this time last year. There are only 2% of the soybeans in the ground compared to 28% in 2018. I have attached both the May 6 and May 13 reports for your convenience. Because of the late start, there have been a lot of related articles in the CORN Newsletter related to this topic, some of which I have included below.
The previous e-newsletter included a fertilizer records form. This time I have included a record form that you can use to record pesticide use. Remember to keep these records for three years in case you get asked to see them during a possible ODA inspection visit. Other forms of records are acceptable such as notebooks, spreadsheets, apps, etc. as long as you have the required information. Another good resource to review are the regulations for fertilizer and manure application in the Lake Erie Watershed. I have attached a copy of this information along with an Ohio Agricultural Fertilizer Applicator Certification Requirements brochure for your reference. Remember that if you still need fertilizer recertification for this year (fertilizer certificate expires May 31), I am having an evening class at 7:00 pm on Thursday, May 30 at the Extension office. You can go online at http://www.cvent.com/events/may-30-2019-hardin-county-fertilizer-applicator-recertification-training/event-summary-90c45f4883c54d58883e1f56af197505.aspx or call to register for this class. If you still need to get your fertilizer certification for the first time, Marion County Extension is having a 3-Hour certification class on August 22 (740-223-4040). Your other option would be to study on your own and take a test at an ODA testing site. You can find out more information at https://nutrienteducation.osu.edu.
The Ohio Department of Agriculture (ODA) is accepting nominations to honor Ohio farm families who are leaders in conservation for the 2019 Conservation Farm Family Awards. The Conservation Farm Family Award program has recognized Ohio farm families since 1984 for their efforts in managing natural and human resources while meeting both production and conservation goals. Five area finalists will be selected from across the state and will be recognized at the annual Farm Science Review in September. They will also receive a $400 award, courtesy of the Ohio Farm Bureau Federation, and be featured in the September issue of Ohio Farmer Magazine. Nomination forms can be obtained from local county soil and water conservation districts or by visiting ODA’s website at www.agri.ohio.gov. Upcoming local events include a Soil and Water Conservation District meeting Thursday, May 16 starting at 7:30 am at the SWCD office, Hardin County Fair Dairy Beef Feeder Weigh-n Saturday, May 25 from 8:00-10:30 am at the fairgrounds, and a Master Gardener Volunteers meeting Monday, May 27 starting at 7:00 pm at HARCO Industries. See the articles below for ag crops information while you are waiting for field conditions to improve.
Delayed Planting Effects on Corn Yield: A “Historical” Perspective – Allen Geyer, Peter Thomison
According to the USDA/NASS, for the week ending May 5, only 2% of Ohio’s projected corn acreage was planted – compared to 20% last year and 27% for the five-year average. Persistent rains and saturated soil conditions have delayed corn planting. The weather forecast this week indicates the likelihood of more rain, so it is probable that many soggy fields may not dry out soon. Long-term research by universities and seed companies across the Corn Belt gives us a pretty good idea of planting date effects on relative yield potential. The recommended time for planting corn in northern Ohio is April 15 to May 10 and in southern Ohio, April 10 to May 10. Read more at https://agcrops.osu.edu/newsletter/corn-newsletter/2019-12/delayed-planting-effects-corn-yield-%E2%80%9Chistorical%E2%80%9D-perspective.
Adapting Burndown Herbicide Programs to Wet Weather Delays – Mark Loux
While it’s not terribly late yet, the wet soils and wet forecast could keep most of us out of the fields for a while. The questions about how to deal with burndown herbicide treatments in delayed planting situations are rolling in. One of the most common ones, predictably, is how to kill glyphosate-resistant marestail and giant ragweed and generally big weeds in soybeans when it’s not possible to delay planting long enough to use 2,4-D ester (Enlist soybeans excluded). While we wrote last week about marestail populations being on the decline, this does not mean it’s gone by any means. Overwintered marestail plants become tougher to kill in May, and the fact that fall weather was not conducive for herbicide applications makes the situation worse in some fields. The good news is that we have some additional herbicide/trait options for help with burndown since the last time we wrote an article covering this in 2016, although our experience is that nothing we suggest here is infallible on large marestail. For more about late season burndowns, go to https://agcrops.osu.edu/newsletter/corn-newsletter/2019-11/adapting-burndown-herbicide-programs-wet-weather-delays.
Getting Corn Off to a Good Start – Planting Depth Can Make a Difference – K. Nemergut, Alexander Lindsey, Peter Thomison
Planting depth recommendations for Ohio are 1.5 to 2 inches deep to ensure adequate moisture uptake and seed-soil contact. Deeper planting may be recommended as the season progresses and soils become warmer and drier, however planting shallower than 1.5 inches is generally not recommended at any planting date or in any soil type. According to some field agronomists, shallow plantings increase stress and result in less developed roots, smaller stalk diameters, smaller ears and reduced yields. In a 2011-2012 Ohio evaluation of planting depth, grain yields were about 14% greater for the 1.5-inch and 3-inch planting depths than the 0.5-inch planting depth in 2011, and 40% greater in 2012. The lower yields of the shallow planting were associated with reduced final stands and 6 to 7 times as many “runt” plants as the other two planting depths. Finish reading this article about corn planting depth at https://agcrops.osu.edu/newsletter/corn-newsletter/2019-12/getting-corn-good-start-planting-depth-can-make-difference.
Establishing New Forage Stands – Mark Sulc
This month provides one of the two preferred times to seed perennial cool-season forages, the other being late summer. Two primary difficulties with spring plantings are finding a good window of opportunity when soils are dry enough before it gets too late and managing weed infestations that are usually more difficult with spring plantings. The following 10 steps will help improve your chances for successful forage establishment in the spring. Make sure soil pH and fertility are in the recommended ranges. Follow the Tri-state Soil Fertility Recommendations (https://forages.osu.edu/forage-management/soil-fertility-forages). Forages are more productive where soil pH is above 6.0, but for alfalfa it should be 6.5 – 6.8. Soil phosphorus should be at least 15 ppm for grasses and 25 ppm for legumes, while minimum soil potassium in ppm should be 75 plus 2.5 x soil CEC. If seedings are to include alfalfa, and soil pH is not at least 6.5, it would be best to apply lime now and delay establishing alfalfa until late summer (plant an annual grass forage in the interim). Finish reading this article at https://agcrops.osu.edu/newsletter/corn-newsletter/2019-10/establishing-new-forage-stands.
Will Planting Delays Require Switching Corn Hybrid Maturities? – Peter Thomison
According to the USDA/NASS, for the week ending May 5, only 2% of Ohio’s projected corn acreage was planted – compared to 20% last year and 27% for the five-year average. Persistent rains and saturated soil conditions have delayed corn planting. The weather forecast this week indicates the likelihood of more rain so it is probable that many soggy fields may not be drying out soon. Given this outlook, is there a need to switch from full season to shorter season hybrids? Probably not. In most situations, full season hybrids will perform satisfactorily (i.e. will achieve physiological maturity or “black layer” before a killing frost) even when planted as late as May 25, if not later, in some regions of the state. Find out more about corn hybrid maturity selection at https://agcrops.osu.edu/newsletter/corn-newsletter/2019-12/will-planting-delays-require-switching-corn-hybrid-maturities.
Mark A. Badertscher
Agriculture and Natural Resources Educator
OSU Extension Hardin County
1021 W. Lima Street, Suite 103, Kenton, OH 43326