July 26, 2013

Good afternoon,

I hope you have been enjoying the cooler weather we’ve been having this week. This week three Western Bean Cutworm Traps have been placed around Hardin County for monitoring. So far I have not found any adult WBC moths in the traps. I have attached a fact sheet about this corn pest that does most of its damage as a larva during the tassel or silk stage of corn growth. Although most WBC moths have been detected in extreme northwest or west central Ohio, they are moving eastward so we are monitoring them before they may become an economic factor.

OSU WBC fact sheet

Ag Council is scheduled for Friday, August 2 at Henry’s Restaurant in Kenton. We will have breakfast at 7:00 am and then the program is on “How OSU Extension impacts Ohio Agriculture and Natural Resources.” We hope you can join us for this as well as other reports from agribusiness and county officials. We have plenty of extra seats and the meal is only $5.00. Ag Council is held monthly in the banquet room in the back of the restaurant.

The most popular horticulture calls to the Extension office remain Japanese Beetle damage that has been occurring to trees and landscape plants. I have also received several calls about issues with Maple trees so I am looking into these problems. There was a very interesting educational program held this week at the Field Crops Field Day at the Northwest Ohio Agricultural Research Development Center station near Hoytville. There have only been a few Hardin County people at these programs, so it would be great to see some more local farmers at upcoming events.

I have been working to get information posted on the Ohio Foodshed website to promote locally grown fruit and vegetables. So far, the Scioto Valley Produce Auction information has been included. Hopefully addition information about our Farmers Markets around the county will be listed. Support the local growers when you can for high quality locally grown produce at reasonable prices. You can access the website at Ohiofoodshed.org/wordpress.




Gateway Garden Jubilee– August 3 – 8:30 – 1:30 pm – 4400 Gateway Blvd., Springfield
OSU Extension, Clark County and the Master Gardener Volunteers of Clark County will hold the final Garden Jubilee at the current location (4400 Gateway Blvd., Springfield, Ohio). The event is from 8:30 a.m. – 1:30 p.m. and is held rain or shine. For additional information, go to http://bygl.osu.edu/content/come-gateway-garden-jubilee-springfield-ohio-0.



Corn Pollination Overview – Peter Tomlinson
Pollination is well underway in most Ohio corn fields. According to the National Agricultural Statistics Service for the week ending 7-21-13, 63% of the state’s corn was silking. The pollination period, the flowering stage in corn, is the most critical period in the development of a corn plant from the standpoint of grain yield determination. Stress conditions (such as hail damage and drought) have the greatest impact on yield potential during the reproductive stage. Check out the rest of this article at http://corn.osu.edu/newsletters/2013/2013-23/corn-pollination-overview-1 for some key steps in the corn pollination process.



Management of Frogeye leaf spot on Susceptible Varieties in Ohio – Anne Dorrance
Several reports and samples this past week with frogeye leaf spot on leaves in the upper/mid canopy. You will be able to find pictures and a detailed factsheet of this soybean disease at http://www.oardc.ohio-state.edu/ohiofieldcropdisease/t01_pageview3/Soybean_images.htm And for those that prefer facebook https://www.facebook.com/OsuSoybeanPathology. To read more about Frogeye leaf spot, click on http://corn.osu.edu/newsletters/2013/2013-23/management-of-frogeye-leaf-spot-on-susceptible-varieties-in-ohio.



Mark A. Badertscher
Agriculture and Natural Resources Educator
OSU Extension Hardin County
1021 W. Lima Street, Suite 103, Kenton, OH 43326
419-674-2297 Office

July 19, 2013

Good Evening,

Now that the wheat is harvested and the straw is baled, it is time to turn our attention to the upcoming field days and events in August. There are many Extension events planned for this coming month, so be sure to select one that interests you and make the trip. If you are staying at home and plan to work in the heat, be sure to read the article submitted by Hancock County OSU Extension Educator Ed Lentz. We often are aware of how dangerous the equipment, livestock, and chemicals can be in agriculture but overlook the environmental conditions.

I would like to draw your attention to the opportunity to host an exchange student. I have worked with Hardin County’s own Pam Shirk-Hamilton in the past as an agricultural education teacher as we placed two outstanding students in our local FFA chapter. One student from Serbia and another from Ukraine became a part of our community and it turned out to be a great experience for all. See the article below if you are willing to think about hosting a student or are just curious how the process works.

This week we completed the soybean leaf sampling and first round of scouting in the fields that are a part of the statewide Soybean Yield-Limiting Factor study here in the county. It seemed like the hottest three days of the summer, but we survived with plenty of water and sun blocker. See the related article about soybean diseases that are starting to occur due to the wet conditions. Then, be sure to check your fields and inputs to help decide whether spraying should be done or whether you might consider selecting varieties next season that are more resistant.

Have a good weekend.


Agricultural Host Families Needed for World Link – World Link is an international exchange student program with headquarters in Iowa. Pam Shirk-Hamilton from the Kenton area is a placement coordinator for these students. High school students are placed with farm families for a year-long, semester, or even temporary placement in order to get them into the United States until a permanent host family is located. It is recommended that the student is placed in a local school system and enrolled in agricultural education and FFA. These are high quality students and individuals who are here on U.S. Department of State scholarships. While in our country, they must maintain a ‘B’ average, do presentations about their home country, and be involved in community service and leadership activities.

World Link asks that they be brought into the family as a ‘member of the family.’ The host family is responsible to make sure that the student has three meals a day, a bed to sleep in, and be involved with that family’s daily life. The students will have spending money and will foster lasting friendships with people in our country as the host family develops friendships with the student’s family. Currently there is a Ukrainian girl back in the area to visit with her host family who would be available to talk to groups about the World Link program and what the experience is like. If you are interested, contact Pam Shirk-Hamilton at pamelaahamilton@yahoo.com. More information about the World Link program can be found at http://worldlinkinc.org.

Double Cropping Soybeans – Each year when wheat is being harvested, the question comes up about whether or not it is a good idea to double crop soybeans into wheat acres. This year the delayed harvest helped several producers answer this question, but the thought is often considered as a possibility with cash bids over $12.00 per bushel. Things to consider when making this decision are soil moisture and rainfall, relative maturity of the soybeans, row spacing and seeding rate, and a weed control plan. See the attached article from Dr. Laura Lindsey, Ohio State Soybean specialist offers suggestions.

Double Crop Soybeans

Manure Application

Western Ohio Manure Application Technology Field Day – July 31 – 1:00 – 4:00 pm & Repeated 6:00 – 9:00 pm – corner of Stelzer and Olding Roads (½ Mile East of US 127 & a Mile South of SR 274), Mercer County.
Livestock producers and others interested in learning more about manure application technology are encouraged to attend the Western Ohio Manure Application Technology Field Day. This field day is being organized by the Mercer County Extension office, the Grand Lake St Mary/Wabash River Watershed Alliance, and the Mercer County Soil & Water Conservation office. Participants will have an opportunity to see cutting-edge manure application equipment being demonstrated.

The newest manure application tool being demonstrated will be the Nutrient Boom. This tool has been developed for the application of dairy manure to standing corn. The toolbar is pulled across the field by a Cadman hose while manure is being pumped through the system. Manure can be applied multiple times during the growing season to increase silage or grain yields while making excellent use of the dairy manure nutrients. The tool could also be used to apply manure to wheat in the spring or to forages during the summer with minimal crop damage.

Several farmers in Ohio have started side-dressing corn with livestock manure using a manure tanker and incorporation toolbar. Manure tankers can be adapted for corn rows by utilizing narrow wheels and wheel spacers. At this field day corn will be side-dressed using a tanker and Dietrich toolbar.
The field day will also discuss Cover Crops as a 2nd Forage. Presenters will discuss cover crops that livestock producers can utilize that make great use of the nutrients in livestock manure and can be also harvested later in the season. While cover crops are great for soil erosion control, they can also be a good source of additional livestock feed.

The field day has been approved for Certified Crop Advisor Credits (one in nutrient management and two in soil & water) and three Certified Livestock Manager credits. There is no cost to attend the Western Ohio Manure Application Technology Field Day and preregistration is not necessary. Participants are asked to sign-in upon arrival to the site. Feel free to bring a lawn chair. For more information contact the Mercer County OSU Extension office at 419-586-2179 or the Mercer County SWCD office at 419-586-3289. A flyer can be found attached to this email.

Manure Application Field Day 7 31 2013

The Heat is On – Ed Lentz
Farm and city folks both enjoy working and being outdoors. However as we move into the middle of summer we need to be reminded that extreme hot weather can also be a major health concern. Working in extreme heat for long periods of time can increase the risk of a heat stress injury such as heat exhaustion or heat stroke. These types of injuries can occur when the body cannot regulate its temperature and can become serious medical emergencies if precautions are not taken. Individuals with pre-existing conditions, such as limited mobility, heart disease, and taking certain medications are at an even higher risk to a heat stress injury and should consult with their local health care provider before working for an extended period in extreme heat. See the attached article for tips about getting your work done safely in the heat.




Midseason soybean diseases: brown spot, frogeye leafspot, white mold, and Phytophthora – Anne Dorrance
The water has hopefully found its way off of the fields. Flooding for greater than 2 days may reduce soybean yield by as much 20% compared to 1 day flooding events on soils with higher clay content. If I do some quick math here – 20% from a field that typically produces 50bu/A soybeans – is 10 bu. Matt Roberts may have some issues with my math but this is approximately a $120 loss ($12/bu, estimated price for fall soybean). It is time to check the costs of your inputs to determine if you can put additional inputs into this crop. Fields where soybeans were submerged, covered with silt etc, will not recover, and those should be forgotten about. I think I have said this several times this year, work on the drainage issues for that field, that will be money better spent.

For those fields with less flooding, we have several issues that are “brewing”. Here is the link that has a nice set of pictures to help in the identification diseases discussed below. (There are also additional diseases to the ones listed) http://www.oardc.ohio-state.edu/ohiofieldcropdisease/t01_pageview3/Soybean_images.htm

1. White mold. Plants with symptoms caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, stem rot were found in NE Ohio. This is unusually early. In a previous article, several fungicides were listed. These were listed for preventative spraying at R1 growth stage. I don’t have any data on spraying fungicides once infections have developed to the point of symptoms. But we can tell you that Approach (DuPont) is not recommended for these situations. If your fields are at R2, have a susceptible variety and no symptoms, and this field is a historic white mold field, Approach may still be used. If your soybeans are at R2, symptoms are visible then one of the triazole fungicides, Domark (Valent) or Proline (Bayer), are alternative choices; we do not have any data from these situations so leave untreated strips. If you have a variety that has a good score for resistance to Sclerotinia. It is best to leave it alone, double check with your seedsman to see what they are saying about that varieties genetics.

2. Frogeye leafspot: It is time to scout. If you find frogeye lesions in the field, conditions are expected to continue to favor repeat infections. Applications should begin at R3 followed by a second application at R5. So this would be a good year to protect your crop. Again, if the variety has a good score for resistance, a fungicide is not needed.

3. Brown spot. Brown spot caused by Septoria glycines, is very prevalent in many fields this summer. But is still in the lower canopy and we have very thick canopies early this year. From previous studies, we documented that in the worst case scenario, brown caused no more than 5 bu/A and most times it was between 2 to 3 bu/A, @ the projected price of $12/bu that is only $24 to $36/Acre. Our studies showed that applications at R3 of a strobilurin were the most effective at reducing brown spot. However, the variety resistance package should keep this from moving up the plant. Going after the 2 to 3 bu will be dependent on what your input costs are for this field right now coupled with the amount of flooding injury that occurred. Visit the Enterprise worksheets on the AgManager Website to determine if this is a worthwhile decision. http://aede.osu.edu/research/osu-farm-management/enterprise-budgets . This is determining the economic threshold for this disease in this type of year.

4. Soybean Rust. We have been scouting this year due to the weather patterns – but everything is negative to date. Soybean rust was found in central Alabama and in western Mississippi, which are both a long way off, and levels are still low. From the scouting that occurred in previous years, it takes at least 3 cycles of infection at 7 to 10 days each, prior to rust being detectable.

5. Phytophthora stem rot. You can definitely tell this year where the Rps genes are not working and where the partial resistance levels are too low for Ohio conditions. The fields have a choppy appearance with holes randomly spaced in the field. And the plants will keep dying now throughout the summer, especially if we hit a dry spell. Go back and look at the seed catalogues and see what you bought for resistance to this disease – make a note to buy something with more resistance in the future.

Northwest Ohio Precision Ag Technology Day – August 6 – Fulton County – 8:15 am to 3:30 pm- Fairgrounds in Wauseon
This year the event will focus on precision planter technology and will feature discussions and demonstrations from leading equipment, seed and technology professionals. In morning sessions, producers will hear from Peter Thomison (OSUE), Jeff Taylor (DuPont Pioneer), Scott Shearer (OSU Ag Engineering), and Greg LaBarge (OSUE) and in the afternoon, Case IH, Horsch, John Deere and Kinze planters will provide live demonstrations. The event is free to the public but registration to richer.5@osu.edu or 419-337-9210 is needed for accurate lunch count. Go to http://fulton.osu.edu/top-stories/precision-ag-technology-day-to-be-held-by-osu-extension for further information about this Precision Ag Technology Day.



Northern Ohio Tomato Field Night – August 6 – 6:00-8:00 pm – North Central Agricultural Research Station – 1165 County Road 43, Fremont, OH 43420
The program for the evening will be:
-What’s new in tomato disease control
-Insect pests in tomatoes and how to control them
-Controlling tough weeds in tomatoes
-Herbicide repercussions
-What’s new in tomato breeding
-Value added markets

The Speakers for the evening will be:
-Doug Doohan, Horticulture and Crop Science, OARDC and OSU Extension
-David Francis, Horticulture and Crop Science, OARDC
-Sally Miller, Plant Pathology, OARDC and OSU Extension
-Celeste Welty, Entomology, OARDC and OSU Extension

For more information about this Tomato Field Night, see the attached flier.




Spray Technology Field Day – August 8 – 5:00-7:00 pm – Western Agricultural Research Station – 7721 South Charleston Pike, South Charleston, OH 45368
Program includes Review 2012 air assist sprayer results on pumpkin, Field demonstrations of different nozzle types (flat fan, twin fan, hollow cone) with and without air assist using water sensitive cards. Pumpkin is the target crop, but may apply to other vegetable crops with large complex canopy. There will be a Sprayer Calibration Clinic immediately following the air assist sprayer results and field demonstrations. For more information, see the attached flier.


Farm Pesticide Recycling Days – Cindy Folck
The Ohio Department of Agriculture is sponsoring a collection for farmers to dispose of unwanted pesticides. The dates and locations are:

Fulton County
August 14, 10:00 – 2:00
Fulton County Fairgrounds
8514 State Route 108
Wauseon, Ohio 43567

Shelby County
August 20, 10:00 – 2:30
Shelby County Fairgrounds
655 South Highland Ave.
Sidney, Ohio 45365

Richland County
August 23, 10:00 – 2:30
Hawkins Plaza
2131 Park Avenue West
Ontario, Ohio, 44906

The pesticide collection and disposal service is free of charge, but only farm chemicals will be accepted. Household pesticides, paints, solvents, antifreeze or other non-farm pesticides will NOT be accepted. No pesticides will be accepted from commercial companies.

All collections will run from 10:30 A.M. to 2:30 P.M. For more information, contact Ohio Department of Agriculture, Pesticide Regulation Section, (614) 728-6987.


alfalfa harvesting 1

Western Ohio Forage Day – August 21 – 9:00-3:00 pm – Western Agricultural Research Station of the Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center – 7721 S. Charleston Pike, South Charleston, OH 45368
The program includes research demonstrations and wagon tour with topics such as:

• Grass interseeded into alfalfa
• Leafhopper resistant alfalfa trials
• Annual forage alternatives after wheat — conventional, no-till and slurry seeded
• Nutritional aspects of warm season annuals and corn silage and forage preservation
• Alfalfa management inputs for high yield
• Red and white clover variety trials
• Native grasses for forage and biofuel
• Grass variety trials

See the attached flier for further details.

Western Ohio Forage field day

2013 Farm Bill Update – July 2013 – Carl Zulauf, Professor, Ohio State University, and Gary Schnitkey, Professor, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.
Both the U.S. Senate and U.S. House of Representatives have passed farm bills. As expected, differences exist. Some are notable. This post briefly reviews the current farm bill situation and looks at possible paths forward. It examines the farm bill situation from three perspectives: politics, process, and content. Go to http://ohioagmanager.osu.edu/farm-policy/2013-farm-bill-update-july-2013/ for updated information about the 2013 Farm Bill.



Mark A. Badertscher
Agriculture and Natural Resources Educator
OSU Extension Hardin County
1021 W. Lima Street, Suite 103, Kenton, OH 43326
419-674-2297 Office

July 17, 2013


I thought I would send you information regarding upcoming events that might interest you.  I have also included some recent updates to bring to your attention.  If you have any questions, feel free to contact me by email or at the Hardin County OSU Extension office phone number listed below.  I have two farms that have spoken for the Western Bean Cutworm traps to monitor this corn pest.  I still have two more traps that I would like to place around the county and check for this insect locally.  Let me know if you would like me to place a trap near one of your fields.  I plan to check these traps weekly and report information to a state specialist this growing season for recommendations that will appear in the C.O.R.N. newsletter.  Also, make sure you listen in on the “At Issue” program this Saturday morning, June 22 at 7:30 am on WKTN 95.3 FM as I discuss OSU Extension with Dennis Beverly.


Wheat Field Day – June 20 – 9:00-11:30 am at the Northwest Agricultural Research Station of the Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center (OARDC), 4240 Range Line Road, in Custar. The event is free and open to the public.  Variety development, fungicide and insects will be among the topics discussed by experts from Ohio State University’s College of Food, Agricultural, and Environmental Sciences.  For more information, go to http://extension.osu.edu/news-releases/archives/2013/June/wheat-field-day-is-june-20


Fruit and Vegetable Good Agricultural Practices Program – June 20 – 1:00-4:00 pm at 4053 State Route 41 South, in Bainbridge.  The program will consist of such topics as:

•             Foodborne illness

•             Contamination

•             Water safety

•             Soil safety

•             Good handling practices

•             Worker training

•             Hands & hygiene

•             Ideas for traceability

•             On the farm records

•             Standard operating procedures

See the attached flier for more information.

GAP Program Flyer

Cover Crop Field Day – July 2 – 9:00-11:00 am – OARDC NW Ag Research Station 4240 Range Line Road Custar, OH 43511. View demo cover crop plantings, cereal rye no-till soybean, crimper/roller demo, cover crop supplies discussion.  For more information regarding this upcoming field day, see http://agcrops.osu.edu/calendar/cover-crop-field-day


Crop Insurance – Since the planting date of June 5 has passed for corn and the soybean planting date of June 20 is coming soon, I have attached some information about crop insurance.  There are some options of you missed the planting date.  See the attached document for more information.  You can also visit the USDA Risk Management Agency at http://www.rma.usda.gov/

Darke County Extension Crop Insurance News Release

Ohio Agriculture Women of the Year Award – Nominations are due June 21.  Winners will be selected on the basis of their outstanding contributions to Ohio agriculture, leadership and advocacy in the agricultural community and significant impact on the agriculture industry as a whole. This past year, Stephanie Jolliff of Hardin County was a 2012 Women of the Year Honoree.  Read Stephanie’s bio and If you would like to nominate someone forms and information are available at http://www.agri.ohio.gov/TopNews/AgricultureWomenOfTheYear/


An Evening Garden Affair – will be held Monday, June 24 from 6:00-9:00 pm at the Friendship Garden of Hardin County, 960 Kohler Street, Kenton.  It will feature a presentation titled “Diagnosing Plant Problems in the Landscape” by Pam Bennett, who is the Clark County Horticulture Educator and Ohio Master Gardener Coordinator.  This event is open to the public and also includes viewing of the garden as well as door prizes and refreshments.  See the attached flier for more information. 

An Evening Garden Affair


Beef Cattle Newsletter – There’s a storm brewing – no, not “fluffy cows”, we’ll tackle that one later – and it behooves us to be cautious that felled trees or other plants that could blow in don’t poison livestock. This week we discuss those concerns.  You can read this newsletter at http://beef.osu.edu/beef/beefJun1213.html


Articles this week include:

•             If You See the Derecho, Check Your Pastures!

•             Forage Focus: May Showers Brings June Hay

•             Consumer Sentiment Improves

•             Pasture and Range Conditions Improve


If you are interested in subscribing to OSU Extension Agriculture and Natural Resources news releases, you can sign up by going to http://extension.osu.edu/news-releases/subscribe 




The Ohio State University

Mark A. Badertscher

Agriculture and Natural Resources Educator

OSU Extension Hardin County

1021 W. Lima Street, Suite 103, Kenton, OH 43326

419-674-2297 Office



July 12, 2013

Good afternoon,


We’ve finally received some relief from the daily rains that have been going on.  This is good news for the Hardin County 4-H club members who are at Camp Ohio this week.  The constant rains though have done some damage to crops locally.  In addition, high winds have also blown over some corn in the area.  Wheat harvest continues to be delayed but if the weather stays clear, maybe there will be some farmers in the fields next week.  I have dedicated a big portion to this week’s email to the current crop problems that are going on so maybe this will help answer any questions you might have about the effect of the weather on the corn, soybean, and wheat crops. 


The most popular home owner problem this week has centered around the Japanese Beetles that are becoming very prevalent in the area.  I have also included information on this pest and some attached fact sheets on how to deal with this insect.  Also included in this email is information about Ridgemont School’s Environmental Education Day that I will be assisting with this coming week.  Finally, there is an article included as an attachment put together by Darke County OSU Extension Educator Sam Custer regarding the use of the Slow Moving Vehicle (SMV) sign and other items to consider when transporting farm equipment on the roadways.


I have added pictures this week for color to make this newsletter more appealing. I hope that you are able to view them with your email program as they are formatted.   Let me know if you have any questions.





Environmental Education Day at Ridgemont High School – Stephanie Jolliff


Ridgemont’s Second Summer Enrichment Program is Tuesday, July 16 at the High School! Please register by Friday for the Environmental Education Day. Lunch is included in the free educational event for youth grades 4-7!

The STEM Environmental Day will give youth hands-on experiences with stream sample analysis, soils core sample drilling, soil conservation practices, watershed impacts, and soil microbiology. Ridgemont Schools is collaborating with The Ohio State University, Hardin County Soil & Water District, The Ohio State University Extension – Hardin County, and Nutrients For Life Foundation for this educational event.

Registration can be completed by messaging Stephanie Jolliff on Facebook or calling or texting at 740.225.3955.



Japanese Beetle


There have been several calls and office visits this week regarding the Japanese Beetle and ways to control them as they invade trees, landscape plants, and gardens.  Remember that when it comes to controlling a pest, OSU recommends using integrated pest management (IPM).  IPM involves using various methods of control to receive the desired outcome if the pest is reaching the economic threshold or doing damage.  Methods of control that should be considered are cultural, mechanical, biological, and chemical.  Remember that effective control doesn’t end with the adult beetles, you also need to have a plan for the eggs that the females have laid which will become a problem later.  See the attached two files for more information on the Japanese Beetle.

Japanese Beetle

Control of Japanese Beetle Adults and Grubs in Home Lawns


Slow Moving Vehicle Emblem and Farm Equipment on the Roads – Sam Custer



The Slow Moving Vehicle (SMV) emblem celebrates its 50th Anniversary! This emblem, recognized for safety around the U.S., was developed in the Agricultural Engineering Department at The Ohio State University in the early 60’s. In 1963 this emblem was dedicated to the public by the OSU President Novice G. Fawcett. Testing was conducted by Ken Harkness, an OSU Ag Engineer, and his team of graduate students to determine the best shape and color for this roadway safety symbol. A 1/16 scale highway simulator was constructed to test human recognition rates of slow moving vehicles with most of the testing conducted outside of the Ives Hall Building (no longer standing on OSU campus).  See the attached file for further information.

SMV Emblem



Root Lodging and “Green Snap” in Corn (article written last year but has timely information)  – Peter Thomison

Scattered thunderstorms brought much needed relief to Ohio corn fields enduring blistering temperatures and drought conditions. However, the rains in some cases came at a cost. Strong winds associated with the storms caused localized crop injury – root lodging and “green snap”. The magnitude of the damage was influenced by other factors including crop stage of development and hybrid genetics.

Root lodging occurs when strong winds pull corn roots part way out of the soil. The problem is more pronounced when soil are saturated by heavy rains accompanying winds. If root lodging occurs before grain fill, plants usually recover at least partly by “kneeing up.” This response results in the characteristic gooseneck bend in the lower stalk with brace roots providing above ground support. If this stalk bending takes place before pollination, there may be little effect on yield. When lodging occurs later in the season, some yield decrease due to partial loss of root activity and reduced light interception may occur. If root lodging occurs shortly before or during pollen shed and pollination, it may interfere with effective fertilization thereby reducing kernel set. In a University of Wisconsin study, wind damage was simulated at various vegetative stages through silking (V10 to R1). Compared to hand harvested grain yields of control plants, grain yield decreased by 2 to 6%, 5 to 15% and 13 to 31% when the lodging occurred at early (V10-V12), mid (V13-V15) and late (V17-R1) stages, respectively.

Green snap or “brittle snap” are terms used to characterize pre-tassel stalk brakeage caused by wind . Corn plants are more prone to green snap during the rapid elongation stage of growth between V8 and tasseling, especially during the two week period prior to tasseling. Breaks in the stalk usually occur at nodes (along nodal plates) below the ear. When soil moisture and temperature conditions are favorable for growth during this stage of plant development, plants elongate rapidly but stalks are unusually brittle. Stalk brittleness is greatest in rapidly growing corn under high temperature, high soil moisture conditions. There is speculation that rapidly growing plants are more susceptible to snapping-off for several days during the few weeks before tasseling because there has been little time for plants to develop lignified tissues at the nodes.

Although we encounter green snap problems periodically in Ohio, it’s usually a more serious problem in the western Corn Belt. Vulnerability to green snap damage varies among hybrids. However, all hybrids are at risk from such wind injury when they are growing rapidly prior to tasseling. Once the crop tassels green snap problems generally disappear. Back in the 1990’s, Nebraska researchers observed that it was often the most productive fields with the highest yield potential that experienced the greatest green snap injury. They concluded that factors promoting rapid growth early in the growing season also predisposed corn to greater green snap injury.

According to Dr. Emerson Nafziger at the University of Illinois  “Yield effects of green snap depend on the number of plants snapped and where the breakage takes place. Stalks that break above the ear will usually produce an ear, but if nearby plants are intact, they will shade the broken-off plants and reduce ear size. When plants break at the node below the top ear, dormancy will break and allow the next ear down to develop, but it may not receive enough pollen to produce a lot of kernels. Plants that break near the ground won’t produce yield, of course, but will allow more light to reach intact plants, which in turn will produce more grain. Loss of plants thus typically reduces overall yield less than the percentage of broken plants might suggest.”


What can we expect after a week of rain? Is it Phytophthora, flooding or both?  – Anne Dorrance

Rainfall this past week around the Midwest was extensive.  We know that a week after a rain, we will start to see the above ground symptoms of Phytophthora root rot on susceptible varieties.  So, this week will be a good time to scout to see if the Rps genes in your varieties are still effective and if the field resistance/partial resistance levels are high enough.  From tours around the state last week, there was also ponding & flooding.  When soil is saturated for more than 3 days and anoxia – low oxygen, high carbon dioxide sets up, flooding injury occurs.  Some plants will die and others will be set back until new roots form.

To separate flooding injury from Phytophthora, dig up symptomatic plants.  Pull on the outer epidermis of the roots.  If it collapses between your fingers, it is Phytophthora or root rot caused by another watermold, Pythium.  If you can pull off the epidermis and the nodules on the root and find the white root stele, it is flooding injury.  

If it is Phytophthora, the final check to see if this is a highly susceptible variety is to look for the chocolate brown canker on the main stem.  Leaves will be yellow and wilted.  Go back to your seed catalogue and see what the field resistance levels were listed for that variety.  Make a note, because you will want a better score for the next time you plant soybeans in that field.  Read the fine print, every company has bit different scoring system.  Ohio State uses the score from 1 to 9 – 1 is for no root rot and 9 is dead.  Other companies use the reverse, in reality they are all close.  For scoring systems of 1 to 9 where 9 is dead, you want a score of 3 to 5; for scoring systems where 9 is best – you want 5 to 7.  The reason why I am not recommending scores of 1 to 2 or 8 to 9, is that this means the R-genes was expressed.  An effective R-gene will mask the presence of partial resistance.

Lots of flooding and ponding on our clay soils also indicate that it is time to have the field checked for drainage.  The longer the field is saturated that is also the amount of time available for the watermolds to infect plants.  The drier the field, the less time for infections to occur.    

For flooding injury, there will be yield loss, the plants will re-root and new nodules will have to form.  So the plants will look at bit yellow for a while.  But the plants will recover.  Phytophthora, those plants are gone.  If you decide to replant, take the time to pick a variety with better levels of partial resistance and use a seed treatment.



Late-season Rainfall, Late Harvest and Wheat Grain Quality –  Laura Lindsey, Pierce Paul, Ed Lentz


The month of June was fairly cool which resulted in an extended grain fill period. Combined with low disease levels and low grain contamination with vomitoxin, wheat quality is expected to be good this season. However, growers are now finding it hard to get their crop harvested. It has rained consistently across most of the state over the last two weeks and growers are understandably concerned about grain quality. Indeed, rain and late harvest can certainly reduce test weights, increase fungal colonization of the heads, and cause pre-harvest sprouting.      

What is test weight? Test weight is used to take into account varying densities (weight per given volume) of grain. It is an indicator of grain quality. Generally the higher the test weight the higher yields will be for flour and starch. The standard commodity weight for soft red winter wheat is 60 pounds per bushel at 13.5% moisture. If test weight is below the acceptable range (low test weight), the wheat sale could be “docked.” Depending upon the elevator, dockage for test weight generally does not occur unless the value is below 58 lb/bu. Some elevators will give a premium for test weights 60 and above. 

What causes low test weight? Grain density can vary based on weather, production practices, variety, and pests. Low test weights occur if grain is prevented from filling completely and/or maturing and drying naturally in the field. Rewetting of grain in the field prior to harvest can also reduce test weight.  When grain is rewetted, the germination process may initiate causing photosynthates (i.e., starch) to be digested. This leaves small voids inside the grain which decreases test weight. Additionally, grain will swell each time it is rewetted and may not return to its original size as it dries which will reduce test weight. Thus the enlarged kernels will take more space but weigh the same allowing fewer kernels to pack in the measuring container, lowering the test weight. If possible, for maximum test weight, it is best to harvest wheat on the first dry-down.  

Should I be concerned about sprouting? Rain and harvest delay may lead to pre-harvest sprouting in some varieties in some areas. Sprouting is characterized by the swelling of kernels, splitting of seed coats, and germination of seeds (emergence of roots and shoots) within the wheat heads. Some varieties are more tolerant to sprouting than other, and for a given variety, sprouting may vary from one field to another depending on the duration of warm, wet conditions. Sprouting affects grain quality (test weight). Once moisture is taken up by mature grain, stored reserves (sugars especially) are converted and used up for germination, which leads to reduced test weights. Even before visual signs of sprouting are evident, sugars are converted and grain quality is reduced. Since varieties differ in their ability to take up water, their drying rate, the rate at which sugars are used up, and embryo dormancy (resistance to germination), grain quality reduction will vary from one variety to another.

Why are heads turning black? In addition to sprouting, the growth of mold is another problem that may result from rain-related harvest delay. To fungi, mature wheat heads are nothing more than dead plant tissue ready to be colonized. Under warm, wet conditions, saprophytic fungi (and even fungi known to cause diseases such as wheat scab) readily colonize wheat heads, resulting in a dark moldy cast being formed over the heads and straw. This problem is particularly severe on lodged wheat. In general, the growth of blackish saprophytic molds on the surface of the grain usually does not affect the grain. However, the growth of pathogens, usually whitish or pinkish mold, could result in low test weights and poor grain quality. In particular, on scab-affected heads, molds may produce toxins such as deoxynivalenol (DON), leading to further grain quality reduction and dockage. While DON contamination is generally higher in fields with high levels of wheat scab, it is not uncommon to find DON (above 2 ppm) in late-harvested fields that have been exposed to excessive moisture. Even in the absence of visual scab symptoms, the fungi that produce DON may still colonize grain and produce toxin.



Impact Of Ponding and Saturated Soils On Corn  – Peter Thomison

Persistent rains during the past two weeks have resulted in ponding and saturated soils in many Ohio corn fields and led to questions concerning what impact these conditions will have on corn performance. 

The extent to which ponding injures corn is determined by several factors including: (1) plant stage of development when ponding occurs, (2) duration of ponding and (3) air/soil temperatures. Corn is affected most by flooding at the early stages of growth. Once corn has reached the late vegetative stages, saturated soil conditions will usually not cause significant damage. Since most corn in Ohio is approaching the silking stage, this bodes well. Although standing water is evident in fields with compacted areas, ponding has usually been of limited duration, i.e. the water has drained off quickly within a few hours, so the injury resulting from the saturated soil conditions should be minimal. Moreover temperatures have been moderate.

However, under certain conditions saturated soils can result in yield losses. Although plants may not be killed outright by the oxygen deficiency and the carbon dioxide toxicity that result from saturated soils, root uptake of nutrients may be seriously reduced. Root growth and plant respiration slow down while root permeability to water and nutrient uptake decreases. Impaired nutrient uptake may result in deficiencies of nitrogen and other nutrients during the grain filling stage. Moreover, saturated soil conditions can also result in losses of nitrogen through denitrification and leaching.

Past research at Iowa State University evaluated flood damage to corn that was inundated for variable periods of time at different stages of growth (including silking). Two different N levels (“high” N   350 lb N/ac vs. “low” N 50 lb N/ac) were also considered to determine how N affected corn response to flood injury. Low N plots yields were reduced by 16% at silking when plots were flooded for 96 and 72 hours. In the high N plots, flooding at silking had little or no effect on yields.

According to Dr. Emerson Nafziger at the University of Illinois  (http://bulletin.ipm.illinois.edu/?p=1240) “…At the time the crop reaches stage V13 (about head-high), it still has to take up 110 to 120 lb of N, and in years when June is wet, a common question is whether or not the crop might run out of nitrogen, leaving the crop short. While the need for 20 or more lb of N per week would seem to raise the possibility of a shortage, the production of plant-available N from soil organic matter through the process of mineralization is also at its maximum rate in mid-season. For a crop with a good root system growing in a soil with 3 percent organic matter, mineralization at mid-season likely provides at least half the N needed by the crop on a daily basis. This means that normal amounts of fertilizer N, even if there has been some loss, should be adequate to supply the crop.”



Nafziger, E. 2013. Corn roots, wet soils, and nitrogen. The Bulletin. University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign. http://bulletin.ipm.illinois.edu/?p=1240

Ritter, W.R. and Beer, C.E. 1969. Yield reduction by controlled flooding of corn. Trans. ASAE 12:46-47.


The Ohio State University

Mark A. Badertscher

Agriculture and Natural Resources Educator

OSU Extension Hardin County

1021 W. Lima Street, Suite 103, Kenton, OH 43326

419-674-2297 Office




The Art of Linking – July 5, 2013

Good afternoon,

I hope you had a great 4th of July holiday. I have attached a copy of the June 2013 Rainfall Report for Hardin County to this email. Now if we could just get the rain to stop for a while so that the wheat harvest can begin. This message also includes information about the BYGL, which is the Buckeye Yard & Garden onLine. Different from the C.O.R.N. newsletter, the BYGL newsletter contains timely information on a weekly basis that is useful to horticulturists. You can check it out online and if you wish, then subscribe to the weekly emails for detailed information. Finally, I have also included a link to the latest Ohio Beef Cattle Letter. I hope you find some or all of this information useful.


Extension Rainfall Report for June 2013 – by Mark Badertscher, OSU Extension Educator

Ohio State University Extension, Hardin County – In the month of June, Extension rainfall reporters recorded an average of 4.21 inches of rain in Hardin County. Last year, the average rainfall for June was 1.63 inches. Rainfall for the current month is 0.09 inches less for the month than for the ten year average rainfall in the month of June. Cessna Township received 6.27 inches for the month, the most of any of the township sites. The least rain in June, 2.45 inches was collected in Liberty Township. For the growing season since April 15, the average precipitation in all the townships was 9.13 inches, with a wide range from 6.54 inches in Dudley Township to 12.17 inches in Cessna Township. Much needed rains came in late June as rainfall was spotty earlier in the month. Corn roots have grown out into the nitrogen bands of fertilizer and the plants have grown significantly and turned a dark green color. Soybeans have begun to canopy, but are showing stress in areas from too much rain all at once. Wheat harvest will be delayed because of wet weather and needs hot, dry days before farmers can begin to combine the crop. See the attached press release and chart for further information.

June 2013 summary

BYGL (Buckeye Yard & Garden online) – Buckeye Yard & Garden onLine provides timely information about Ohio growing conditions, pest, disease, and cultural problems. Updated weekly between April and October, this information is useful for those who are managing a commercial nursery, garden center, or landscape business or someone who just wants to keep their yard looking good all summer. Read the current issue of the BYGL at http://bygl.osu.edu/content/july-5-2013.

Items in the July 5 issue include:

1. PLANTS OF THE WEEK: Annual (Cannas or Canna Lilies); Perennial (Stokes’ Aster); Woody (Ginkgo); Vegetable (Carrots); and Weed (Birdsfoot Trefoil).
2. HORT SHORTS: What Causes Raspberry Fruits to be so Small?; Secrest Arboretum Dedication: OSUE Master Gardener Volunteers (MGVs) Turn the Table on Ken Cochran; Need to Batten Down the Hatches Against Bats?; Sssssssssnakes and More Snakes; and OSU/OARDC Researcher Recipient of Prestigious Grant.
3. BUG BYTES: Yellow Poplar Weevil – Round 2; Cottony Maple Scale Puffing-Up; Lace Bugs Revisited; Bagworm Alert; Grasshoppers Abound; and Monitor for Clipped Coneflowers (Sunflower Head-Clipping Weevil).
4. DISEASE DIGEST: Bacterial Fireblight; Disease Time Bombs Ready to Go Off!; and The Name Game of True Disease Discernment.
5. TURF TIPS: Buckeyeturf.osu.edu – Get Rough on Bluegrass.
6. INDUSTRY INSIGHTS: Black Vine Weevil Landscape Challenge; Asian Longhorned Beetle (ALB) Update; and Get Your Green Industry Fix Webinar: July 10.
7. WEATHERWATCH: Weather Update.
8. COMING ATTRACTIONS: Southwest Ohio BYGLive! Diagnostic Walk-About; Diagnostic Walkabout for the Green Industry; Thousand Canker Disease of Walnut Workshop; and Youth Scientist Adult Education Class.

Ohio BEEF Cattle Letter is now posted to the web at: http://beef.osu.edu/beef/beefJul0313.html

Many times in recent years in this publication and also during our winter Beef Cattle Management Schools, we’ve posed the somewhat rhetorical question, “Seriously . . . can we each afford to be raising our own replacement beef females?” This week, John Grimes announces a bred beef female sale for this fall where we hope to graphically answer that question.

Articles this week include:
• OCA to Host Replacement Beef Female Sale
• Transporting Cattle
• Fence Building Workshop Offered by OFGC
• Forage Focus: Spiny Pigweed in Pastures
• 2013 Cattle Markets at Mid-Year

Mark A. Badertscher
Agriculture and Natural Resources Educator
OSU Extension Hardin County
1021 W. Lima Street, Suite 103, Kenton, OH 43326
419-674-2297 Office