Ohio State University faculty detail below the benefits of LATE-SEASON FERTILIZATION for golf courses, sports fields, lawns and other high quality turfgrass areas. They emphasize that the application of nitrogen fertilizers in late fall results in turfgrass that is visibly greener in color through spring/summer of the following year, and without the excessive shoot growth that typically may occur with higher than necessary fertilization in the spring. More importantly, overall plant/turfgrass physiological health is improved for the following season.
Picture taken in spring: LSF applied the previous fall (R), no LSF applied the previous fall (L)
LATE-SEASON NITROGEN FERTILIZATION
Late-season nitrogen fertilization has been practiced by professionals for some time, but the wisdom of this technique continually needs to be reviewed and this fall more than ever due to the dry fall weather and recuperation/recovery needed on many turf areas.
It is important that late-season fertilization not be confused with dormant and/or winter fertilization. Late-season nitrogen fertilization, sometimes referred to as fall fertilization, has been utilized by turf managers for years. This type of fertility program involves the application of much of the season’s nitrogen during the late season months of September through December. It is important that late season fertilization not be confused with dormant and/or winter fertilization. The latter method implies that fertilizer applications are made after the turf has lost most or all of its green color and is not actively growing. This differs notably from the “late- season concept”, which requires that nitrogen be applied before the turf loses its green color in the late fall.
Late-season fertilization has become popular because many of the agronomic and aesthetic advantages attributed to its use supposedly are not realized when mostly spring and/or summer fertilization are practiced. Purported advantages of the late season fertilization include: better fall and winter color; earlier spring green-up; increased shoot density; improved fall, winter, and spring root growth; and enhanced storage of energy reserves (carbohydrates) within the turf plant (“A BIG PLANT HEALTH BENEFIT”) . “Looking for a pill for plant health this is it!” Some claimed disadvantages include: increased chance of snow mold injury and decreased cold tolerance.
The effects of late-season nitrogen applications on creeping bentgrass (Agrostis palustrus Huds.) were documented by Powell et al. (2 & 3) and Snyder and Schmidt (3) in research conducted in Virginia during the late 60s and early 70s. In those studies, it was clearly shown that the quality and root production of creeping bentgrass grown in the transition zone could be enhanced by using late-season nitrogen applications and avoiding early aggressive spring nitrogen fertilization.
While researchers and turfgrass practitioners alike have demonstrated that the year-around quality of cool-season grasses like Kentucky bluegrass and bentgrass can be enhanced by late- season nitrogen fertilization, research efforts concerning effects on root growth and plant carbohydrate status have been lacking. This article will review past studies which have examined late-season nitrogen fertilization and relate those findings to the results of research at Ohio State University that assessed how the timing of nitrogen applications can influence the quality, carbohydrate status, and root growth of cool-season grasses like Kentucky bluegrass and bentgrass.
Signs of spring green-up have been shown to occur two to six weeks earlier if the turf has been fertilized during the previous fall . Turf fertilized in September and again during late October/early November, November, or December (northern, central and southern Ohio, respectively) is generally shown to possess better fall and winter color than a turf which was not fertilized at that time (1-4). In addition, signs of spring green-up have been shown to occur two to six weeks earlier if the turf has been fertilized during the previous fall. Most importantly, the enhanced rate of spring greening is realized without stimulating excessive shoot growth that accompanies the early spring nitrogen applications called for in most turf fertility programs. For superintendents, the longer greening in into the late fall and ,especially, the earlier green-up in the spring are physiological beneficial to plant health. Note! Early spring green-up for all cool-season turf is not easy to initiate from a traditional spring fertilized turf that is attempting to green-up from winter dormancy.
Turf fertilized only during the spring and summer is decidedly inferior to that of turfgrass which receives fertilizer during the previous fall. The rate of spring green-up is often slow as well, with acceptable color being attained only after nitrogen is applied during March or April. Although turf color then becomes equal to that of turf which receives late-season nitrogen applications, the excessive shoot growth that sometimes accompanies spring fertilization is undesirable.
Ohio State University research found that the spring color of late-season-fertilized turf remained quite good until late May or early June, when the effects of nitrogen applied the previous fall began to “wear off ”. A 0.75 to 1.0 lb. follow-up application of nitrogen is usually recommended at this time (late May-June) to maintain an acceptable level of turf quality throughout the summer period where turf managers are on a 6-8 week programming schedule (e.g. LCOs and sports field managers). For superintendents, this is the ideal time to initiate spoon/liquid feeding where a late season program is in place.
NITROGEN FERTILIZER SOURCES
It is important to remember that the nitrogen sources for the late fall applications be relatively independent of microbial activity to insure adequate nitrogen release due to colder air and soil temperatures. This means that urea, sulfur-coated urea (SCU), IBDU, ammonium sulfate and the more highly active methylene ureas are the most efficient nitrogen sources for the late season applications. Although SCU and IBDU are referred to as controlled-release fertilizers, the rate at which nitrogen is released from these fertilizers is mainly dependent upon soil moisture level and not on degree of the microbial activity. Microbially, temperature dependent nitrogen sources (e.g., UF-types, polymer-coated ureas and natural organics ) for late- season nitrogen applications may not elicit the desired fall/winter color response because they do not provide enough available nitrogen for plant uptake when soil temperatures are low. However, these latter slow-release nitrogen sources are ideal for spring and summer use.
CARBOHYDRATE RELATIONS (KEY TO PLANT HEALTH)
Plant carbohydrate levels during early fall do not appear to be greatly affected by timing of nitrogen application. From December to February, however, the carbohydrate content of late season- fertilized turf may be lower than that of turf fertilized only during the spring and summer. This probably occurs because: (1) energy must be expended to take up and assimilate fall-applied nitrogen; and (2) nitrogen applied during the fall and winter has been shown to increase respiration during the winter months (5). Regardless of timing of nitrogen applications, carbohydrates are accumulated by the slowly-growing turf plant during the fall and winter months, reaching a peak sometime during the December-February period.
The early-spring (March-April-May) carbohydrate content of turfgrass plants fertilized the previous fall is often higher than that of those plants which did not receive late season nitrogen. The ability to store carbohydrate (energy) at this time is a result of the earlier greening (2 to 6 weeks) realized through the use of late-season nitrogen fertilization. Photosynthesis occurs in the slowly-growing turf plant at this tme, thus allowing it to accumulate carbohydrates (energy). In fact, green turfgrass tissue will continue to photosynthesize at air temperatures close to freezing but of course at a much slower rate. SO, GREENING WITHOUT GROWING IS A KEY CULTURAL AND MANAGEMENT STRATEGY TO IMPROVE OVERALL PLANT HEALTH.
As root and shoot activity and plant respiration rates increase during the late winter and early spring, plant carbohydrate content generally decreases. This decline may be quite significant when the turf receives an early season (February-April) nitrogen application, as compared to grass that has not been fertilized since the previous fall. The rapid decline occurs because carbohydrates are needed to support the increased shoot growth resulting from nitrogen applications made early in the season. Conversely, the more slowly-growing, late-season-fertilized turfgrass plants may develop a larger carbohydrate pool during the spring period. As will be discussed later, the process of spring root production can benefit from this greater concentration of carbohydrates from a late-season nitrogen application.
Another possible advantage resulting from late-season fertilization is that the levels of stored carbohydrates are higher than those found in spring-fertilized turf as summer approaches. The higher levels of carbohydrates are desirable at this time of the year since greater stress tolerance and/or the increased ability to recover from pests, traffic, or stress-induced damage may be realized. (Note! Key in summer stress enhancement!)
For years, researchers have claimed that fall and winter root growth of cool-season turfgrass species should be stimulated by late-season and/or winter nitrogen applications. This stimulation should occur as fall temperatures decline to the point that root growth is favored over shoot growth. Previous research at Ohio State University has shown that root growth of cool-season turfgrass species does indeed occur during the fall after shoot growth has slowed or ceased. This situation develops because roots grow quite well when soil temperatures are between 40 to 65 degrees F, while shoot growth is favored at air temperatures in the 60-75 F degree range. In fact, some root growth will occur as long as the soil remains unfrozen based on our OSU rhizotron research (underground root observation lab) conducted by R. Kuharski and A. Koski in the 1980’s.
In the Virginia study conduced by Powell and his associates (2 &3) on creeping bentgrass, no significant stimulation of winter root production by late-season nitrogen applications was observed. In fact, heavy and/or frequent nitrogen applications during the winter months (December and February) appeared to reduce the amount of roots produced during the winter. Research at Ohio State has similarly revealed no noticeable stimulation of fall or winter root growth in response to late- season nitrogen applications.
Three possible reasons for the absence of increased root production can be offered here. The first is that soil temperatures optimal for root growth may not be sustained for a long enough period of time in the fall and early winter, thus preventing any noticeable stimulation by late nitrogen applications from occurring. Secondly, it is possible that the fall “hardening-off ” process (during which rapid accumulation and storage of carbohydrates occurs) effectively competes with the roots for available energy stores. Finally, uptake and assimilation of fall-applied nitrogen is an energy-consuming processes that may also compete for carbohydrates. It is conceivable that singly, or in combination, these factors may prevent the stimulation of root activity that many thought would occur with late-season nitrogen fertilization.
The true advantage that late-season fertilization provides to turfgrass root growth is realized during the following spring
The true advantage that late-season fertilization provides to turfgrass root growth is realized during the following spring. It has been shown that the root growth of turf fertilized during the late winter/early spring declines soon after the nitrogen application (3 & 5). Conversely, turf fertilized using the late- season concept becomes green early and rapidly, without the need for an early spring nitrogen application, and root growth continues at a maximum rate. It appears that the excessive shoot growth encouraged by early spring nitrogen applications utilizes carbohydrates that may otherwise be used for growing roots.
DISEASE AND WINTER INJURY
It has been claimed that late-season fertilization reduces turfgrass cold hardiness and may increase the risk of winter damage by the snow mold diseases. Ledeboer and Skogley (1) and Powell et al. (2) reported that late-season nitrogen applications caused neither problem in their respective studies. Observations over two winters at Ohio State University detected no damage caused by either disease or cold injury. However, both types of injury potentially can occur when high nitrogen rates are used and/or applications are not timed properly resulting in excessive growth going into the late fall or winter.
WHY IS TIMING IMPORTANT
For the late-season fertilization concept to work successfully, it is essential that the turf be green when the late-season nitrogen (late October early November/ November/December)) application is made. In central Ohio, this means that 0.75 to 1.0 lb of nitrogen be applied per 1,000 sq. ft. of in September in a single or in equivalent mutilple feed applications (spoon feeding) to enhance fall recovery and sustain greening for the late-season fertilization. This will ensure that the turf remains green late into the fall when the actual late-season fertilizer application is made. The late-season nitrogen application should be applied with top growth stoppage (but the turf still green) at 0.75 to 1.0 lb of nitrogen per1,000 sq.ft. using a nitrogen source that is not highly dependent on soil temperature for nitrogen release (such as urea, ammonium sulfate, urea/PCSCU, urea/IBDU, highly-active MU, etc.). It is also important, however, that excessive shoot growth not be encouraged by over-application of nitrogen during September. The production of lush, succulent growth then may decrease cold tolerance and increase the incidence of the snow mold diseases during the winter and following spring. For the same reasons, the late season application should be delayed if extended periods of unusually warm weather (average daily temperatures greater than 55-60 F degrees) are being experienced, or are forecast. In Ohio, the general timing recommendation is late October/early November, November and late November/December in northern, central and southern Ohio, respectively. Now, the higher nitrogen fertilizer rate for late-season fertilization may raise a red flag for superintendents on greens where spoon feeding at light rates is the standard program. However, the late-season fertilization program will truly benefit the superintendent’s number one strategy “PLANT HEALTH” and will not produce the surge growth commonly associated with the later rate(s) at this time of year or even in the early spring. It is truly a win-win for the superintendent ( and no, a nitrogen rate below ½ lb/M is not going to provide the full advantage offered by LSF).
SUMMARY – YOUR SPRING PLANT HEALTH PROGRAM SHOULD START NOW!!
Late-season fertilization lengthens the fall/winter green period and enhances the rate of spring green-up without stimulating excessive shoot growth, thus allowing the turf plant to maintain higher levels of carbohydrates than when spring/summer fertilization is used. This provides both aesthetic and physiological benefits to the plant and turf manager. Nitrogen applied during early spring increases shoot growth rates and decreases the levels of available carbohydrates in the plant, resulting in depressed root growth rates. Late-season nitrogen applications have no similar negative effects on root growth and, in fact, increase root growth during mid winter to early spring. Better carbohydrate storage in the plant and increased root growth ultimately result in a “healthier, more stress tolerant turfgrass plant during stress periods. No winter damage or snow mold injury occurred as a result of late-season nitrogen applications in OSU research.
1. Ledeboer, F. B. and C.R. Skogley, 1973. Effects of various nitrogen sources, timing, and rates on quality and growth rate of cool-season turfgrasses. Agron. J. 65:243-246.
2. Powell, A.J, R.E. Blaser, and R.E. Schmidt, 1967. Physiological and color aspects of turfgrasses with fall and winter nitrogen. Agron. J. 59:303-307.
3. Powell, A.J., R.E. Blaser, and R.E. Schmidt, 1967. Effect of nitrogen on winter root growth of bentgrass. Agron. J. 59:529-530.
4. Snyder, V. and R.E. Schmidt, 1973. Nitrogen and iron fertilization of bentgrsss. P176-185 in E. C. Roberts (ed.) Proc. 2nd INt. Res. Conf. Amer. Soc. Of Agronomy., Madison, Wisconsin.
5. Koski, A. J. and J. R. Street. Effect of Late Season Fertilization on the Seasonal Quality and Root Growth of Kentucky Bluegrass. 1989. Masters Degree Thesis, The Ohio State University (OSU Libraries).
Authors: Dr. John R. Street, Pamela J. Sherratt and Dr. Karl T. Danneberger, The Ohio State University, OSU Extension and OARDC