Playability: Firmness

A10839_1_fullGolf has increasingly moved toward firmer surfaces primarily for putting greens but also fairways.  Increasing firmness makes golf more difficult for the better players.  Firm greens for example tend to be fast, are not as receptive to golf shots (less holding characteristics).  Firmness increases with a decrease in soil moisture.  Related to that, organic matter or thatch can reduce firmness (make greens softer) so managing or removing organic matter is important.  Measuring firmness is seen with the demonstration in the video below by Karl Danneberger: Continue reading