SP 19 Blog Post #4

Spring 2019 Annotated Bibliography

Ballengee-Morris, C. & Stuhr, P (2001). Multicultural Art and Visual Culture Education in a Changing World. Art Education, pp. 6-13.

Ballengee-Morris and Stuhr right in the beginning of their article share how the school reform movement, termed multiculturalism, requires us to think deeply about our roles as elementary, secondary, and arts teachers. Since prehistoric times, all people have had informal and, at times, formal teachers who have helped the younger generation to understand and create meanings of and for life. They share how multicultural education as well as art and visual culture’ education as a school reform, which are processes and not products. It is necessary for us, as teachers, to continually consider and question how this school reform movement can best affect our current classroom practices (Ballengee-Morris & Stuhr, 6). In this article, the authors provide consideration for a discussion of culture and cultural diversity, a brief historical perspective on multicultural education, and an example of curriculum appropriate to this reform movement. This article although written in 2001 is a great read for art educators teaching today. We, as educators, agree that it is part of our responsibility to provide for the investigation of multiple perspectives and options for living life to its fullest and that fact has not changed since 2001.


Collins, P. (1993). Toward a new vision: Race, class and gender as categories of analysis and connection. Race, Sex & Class, 1(1), 25-45.

Collin’s journal “Toward a New Vision: Race, Class, and Gender as Categories of Analysis and Connection”  dives into the immense need of new patterns of thought and action to achieve social change. She explains that we first must recognize race, class and gender as interlocking categories of analysis that together cultivate profound differences in our personal biographies. But then we must transcend those very differences by reconceptualizing race, class and gender in order to create new categories of connection (Collins 27). This journal from 1993 is still very relevant in our 2019 classrooms.


Crenshaw, K. Demarginalizing the intersection of race and sex: A Black feminist critique of antidiscrimination doctrine, feminist theory and antiracist politics. University of Chicago Legal Forum, Volume 1989 (1), Article 8.

Kimberle Crenshaw discusses the interlocking categories of race, class and gender in her written work, “Demarginalizing the Intersection of Race and Sex: A Black Feminist Critique of Antidiscrimination Doctrine, Feminist Theory and Antiracist Politics.” Crenshaw goes into detail of the multidimensionality of Black women’s experience with the single-axis analysis that distorts these experiences. She writes that Black women are sometimes excluded from feminist theory and antiracist discourse because both are predicted on a discrete set of experiences that don’t accurately reflect the interaction of race and gender. “In order to include Black women, both movements must distance themselves from earlier approaches in which experiences are relevant only when they are related to certain clearly identifiable causes (for example, the oppression of Blacks is significant when based on race, of women when based on gender). The praxis of both should be centered on the life chances and life situations of people who should be cared about without regard to the source of their difficulties (Crenshaw 29).” This idea of intersectionality is prevalent in our classrooms, our school communities, and our larger macro levels.


Ladson-Billings, G (2004). Handbook on research on Multicultural Education. Chapter 3. New Directions in Multicultural Education: Complexities, Boundaries, and Critical Race    Theory. pp. 50-65.

Landon- Billings introduces the connection between critical multiculturalism and Critical Race Theory in the context of education.  Using the metaphor of jazz music, the chapter “New Directions in Multicultural Education” by Gloria Ladson-Billings “examines the ways current ideas about the term multicultural must give way to new expressions of human and social diversity” (p. 50).  In an attempt to reconceptualize curriculum, multicultural education has been appropriated to support the dominant culture, as in the cases of conservative multiculturalism, liberal multiculturalism, and left-liberal multiculturalism, thus pushing scholars to critical multiculturalism.  With critical multiculturalism, one must be able to recognize the manipulation of multicultural education and seek social justice. Without this reading I would not have been introduced to these theories as well as be able to identify them and give names to the ideas.


Sleeter, C. (2015). White Bread Weaving Cultural Past into the Present. Rotterdam: Sense.

Through the author, Sleeter, we find moments where the characters within this social fiction novel are dealing with connecting identity to larger contexts of privilege, power, and socioeconomic hierarchies. Readers accompany Jessica on a journey into her family’s past, into herself, and into the bicultural community she teaches but does not understand. Jessica, a fictional White fifth-grade teacher, is prompted to explore her family history by the unexpected discovery of a hundred-year-old letter. Simultaneously, she begins to grapple with culture and racism, principally through discussions with a Mexican American teacher. The storyline alternates between past and present, acquainting readers with German American communities in the Midwest during the late 1800s and early 1900s, portraits based on detailed historic excavation. As our course demonstrates this book can be used in teacher education, ethnic studies, and sociology courses. Beginning teachers may see their own struggles reflected in Jessica’s classroom. People of European descent might see themselves within, rather than outside, multicultural studies.




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