Vermamoeba 18S rRNA references

Following are the references from which sequences associated with Vermamoeba or “Hartmannella” have been extracted for analysis.  Included are direct links to Pubmed for each publication, as well as links to sequences in Genbank:  (updated May 2015).


Adamska, M., Leonska-Duniec, A., Lanocha, N., Skotarczak, B.  2014.  Thermophilic potentially pathogenic amoebae isolated from natural water bodies in Poland and their molecular characterization.  Acta Parasitologica 59: 433-441.  (Acc #  JQ408999 – JQ409014).

Behnke,A., Barger,K.J., Bunge,J. and Stoeck,T.  2010.  Spatio-temporal variations in protistan communities along an O/HS gradient in the anoxic Framvaren Fjord (Norway).  FEMS Microbiology Ecology 72 (1), 89-102. (Acc #  EF526997).

Boere,A.C., Rijpstra,W.I.C., de Lange,G.J., Sinninghe Damste,J.S. and Coolen,M.J.L.  2009.  Fossil DNA of planktonic microbial eukaryotes preserved in Eastern Mediterranean sapropels helps to reconstruct paleoenvironmental conditions. Unpublished.  (Acc # FJ785937).

Brown,P.B. and Wolfe,G.V.  2006.  Protist genetic diversity in the acidic hydrothermal environments of Lassen Volcanic National Park, USA.  Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology 53 (6), 420-431. (Acc # DQ512701, DQ512702, DQ512705, DQ512707, DQ512775).

Buse,H.Y., Lu,J., Struewing,I.T., Santo Domingo,J.W. and Ashbolt,N.J.  2012.  Occurrence of free-living amoebae in cold and hot drinking water over a one year period. Unpublished.  (Acc # JQ779844 – JQ779851).

Cabello-Vilchez,A.M. and Lorenzo-Morales,J.  2013.  Hartmannella vermiformis from a nasal swab of an HIV patient from Lima, Peru. Unpublished.  (Acc # KF470967).

Charnock, C., Otterholt, E. and Nordlie, A.-L.  2012. Tap Inner Surfaces as Vectors of Microbial Transmission. Unpublished. (acc # JQ361080,  JQ361082,  JQ361083)

Conza,L., Casati,S. and Gaia,V.  2012.  Presence of Legionella and free-living amoebae in composts and bioaerosols produced from composting facilities. Unpublished. (Acc # KC164231,  KC164243,  KC164244,  KC164245,  KC164250KC210138,  KC210139).

Conza,L., Casati,S. and Gaia,V.  2012. Influence of climate and geography on the occurrence of Legionella and amoebae in composting facilities. Unpublished. (Acc # KC346966)

Corsaro,D., Feroldi,V., Saucedo,G., Ribas,F., Loret,J.F. and Greub,G.  2009.  Novel Chlamydiales strains isolated from a water treatment plant.  Environmental Microbiology 11 (1), 188-200. (Acc # EU377598 – EU377600, EU683883).

Corsaro D, Pages GS, Catalan V, Loret JF, Greub G. 2010.  Biodiversity of amoebae and amoeba-associated bacteria in water treatment plants.  International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health. 213(3): 158-66. (Acc # FJ628002 – FJ628004).

Coskun, KA , Ozcelik, S, Tutar, L, , Elaldi, N,  Tutar, Y. 2013. Isolation and Identification of Free-Living Amoebae from Tap Water in Sivas, Turkey. Biomed Research International 2013: Article Number: 675145.  (24 isolate sequences not deposited).

Delafont,V., Mougari,F., Cambau,E., Joyeux,M., Bouchon,D., Hechard,Y. and Moulin,L. 2014.  First evidence of amoebae-mycobacteria association in drinking water network. Environmental Science and Technology 48 (20), 11872-11882.  (Acc # Delafont2014).

De Jonckheere,J.F., Gryseels,S. and Eddyani,M.  2012.  Knowledge of morphology is still required when identifying new amoeba isolates by molecular techniques.  European Journal of Protistology 48 (3), 178-184. (Acc #  HE617192 – HE617194).

Dillon,A., Achilles-Day,U.E.H., Singhrao,S.K., Pearce,M., Morton,L.H.G. and Crean,S.  2014.  Biocide sensitivity of Vermamoeba vermiformis isolated from dental-unit-waterline systems. International Biodeterioration and Biodegradation 88, 97-105.  (Acc # KC161965, KC188996).

Dykova,I., Pindova,Z., Fiala,I., Dvorakova,H. and Machackova,B. 2005. Fish-isolated strains of Hartmannella vermiformis page, 1967: morphology, phylogeny and molecular diagnosis of the species in tissue lesionsFolia Parasitologica 52 (4), 295-303.  (Acc # DQ084363 – DQ084366).

Dykova,I., Kostka,M., Wortberg,F., Nardy,E. and Peckova,H.  2010.  New data on aetiology of nodular gill disease in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykissFolia Parasitologica 57 (3), 157-163.  (Acc # HM363626 – HM363627). 

Dykova,I. and Kostka,M.  2015.  Illustrated Guide to Culture Collection of Free-living Amoebae.  Unpublished.  (Acc # JQ271687 – JQ271689).

Fucikova, K. and Lahr, D.J.  2015.  Uncovering Cryptic Diversity in Two Amoebozoan Species Using Complete Mitochondrial Genome Sequences. J. Eukaryot. Microbiol. In press.  (Acc#  KT185625).

Garcia, A., Goni, P., Clavel, A., Lobez, S., Fernandez, M.T. and Ormad, M.P.  2011. Potentially pathogenic free-living amoebae (FLA) isolated in Spanish wastewater treatment plants.  Environmental Microbiology Reports 3 (5), 622-626.  (Acc # HQ007037).

Garcia, A., Goni, P., Cieloszyk, J., Fernandez, M.T., Calvo-Begueria, L., Rubio, E., Fillat, M.F., Peleato, M.L. and Clavel, A.  2013.  Identification of free-living amoebae and amoeba-associated bacteria from reservoirs and water treatment plants by molecular techniques.  Environmental Science and  Technology 47 (7), 3132-3140. (Acc #  JQ678649 – JQ678670).

Garcia,A. and Goni,P.  2013. Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea study of pathogen amoebae in water and related human stool samples. Unpublished.  (Acc #  KF433827 – KF433833).

Garcia-Sanchez,A.M., Ariza,C., Ubeda,J.M., Jurado,V., Bastian,F., Alabouvette,C. and Saiz-Jimenez,C.  2011.  Identification of free-living amoebae in Lascaux cave.  Unpublished.  (Acc # FR832469).

Gast,R.J., Moran,D.M., Dennett,M.R., Wurtsbaugh,W. and Amaral-Zettler,L.  2009.  Amoebae and Legionella pneumophila in coastal marine environments. Unpublished. (Acc # GU320597).

Ghasemi,A.A., Babaei,Z., Ziaali,N., Rostami,S. and Fasihi Harandi,M.  2013.  Vermamoeba vermiformis (Hartmanella vermiformis) 18S ribosomal RNA gene, partial sequence, in environmental samples from Kerman, Iran. Unpublished.  (Acc # KC694162 – KC694177).

Gianinazzi,C., Schild,M., Wuthrich,F., Ben Nouir,N., Fuchslin,H.P., Schurch,N., Gottstein,B. and Muller,N.  2009.  Screening Swiss water bodies for potentially pathogenic free-living amoebae.  Research in Microbiology 160 (6), 367-374.  (Acc # FJ940709,  FJ940710,  FJ940716). 

Gianinazzi,C., Schild,M., Zumkehr,B., Wuthrich,F., Nuesch,I., Ryter,R., Schurch,N., Gottstein,B. and Muller,N.  2010.  Screening of Swiss hot spring resorts for potentially pathogenic free-living amoebae.  Experimental Parasitology 126:  45-53. (Acc #  GQ996535)

Glucksman,E., Snell,E.A., Berney,C., Chao,E.E., Bass,D. and Cavalier-Smith,T.  2011.  The novel marine gliding zooflagellate genus Mantamonas (Mantamonadida ord. n.: Apusozoa).  Protist 162 (2), 207-221 .  (Acc # GU001158)

Greub,G., Drancourt,M. and Raoult,D.  2003.  Broad-range PCR targeting the 18S rRNA gene for the identification of protists isolated from hospital water network. Unpublished. (Acc # AY230090 – AY230093, AY237734, AY238942).

Gunderson,J.H., Goss,S.J. and Sogin,M.L. 1994. The sequence of the Hartmannella vermiformis small subunit rRNA coding region.  Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology 41 (5), 481-482.  (Acc # M95168).

Kiss, C., Barna, Z., Vargha, M., Torok, J.K.  2014. Incidence and molecular diversity of Acanthamoeba species isolated from public baths in Hungary.  Parasitology Research 113: 2551-2557. (Acc # LN650671 – LN650676).

Kudryavtsev,A., Bernhard,D., Schlegel,M., Chao,E.E. and Cavalier-Smith,T. 2005. 18S ribosomal RNA gene sequences of Cochliopodium (Himatismenida) and the phylogeny of Amoebozoa. Protist 156 (2), 215-224. (Acc # AY680840, AY680841)

Kuiper,M.W., Wullings,B.A., Akkermans,A.D., Beumer,R.R. and van der Kooij,D. 2004. Intracellular proliferation of Legionella pneumophila in Hartmannella vermiformis in aquatic biofilms grown on plasticized polyvinyl chloride. Applied Environmental Microbiology 70 (11), 6826-6833. (Acc # AY502959, AY502960, AY502961).

Kuiper, M.W., Broeckx, P.-B., Valster, R.M., Wullings, B.A., Smidt, H., Zwietering, M.H. and van der Kooij, D.  2006.  Occurrence of and relationship between Legionella pneumophila and Hartmannella vermiformis in surface water, cooling towers and warm water systems.  Unpublished.  (Acc # DQ407525 – DQ407609).

Kuiper,M.W., Valster,R.M., Wullings,B.A., Boonstra,H., Smidt,H. and van der Kooij,D.  2006. Quantitative detection of the free-living amoeba Hartmannella vermiformis in surface water by using real-time PCR.  Applied Environmental Microbiology 72 (9), 5750-5756. (Acc # DQ190241 – DQ190273).

Lahr, D.J., Grant,J.R. and Katz,L.A.  2013.  Multigene phylogenetic reconstruction of the Tubulinea (Amoebozoa) corroborates four of the six major lineages, while additionally revealing that shell composition does not predict phylogeny in the Arcellinida. Protist 164 (3), 323-339. (Acc # JQ519505).

Lasjerdi, Z., Niyyati, M., Haghighi, A., Shahabi, S., Biderouni, F.T., Taghipour, N., Eftekhar, M. and Nazemalhosseini Mojarad, E.  2011.  Potentially pathogenic free-living amoebae isolated from hospital wards with immunodeficient patients in Tehran, Iran.  Parasitology Research 109 (3), 575-580.  (Acc # HQ833442 – HQ833444;  JN608797 – JN608801).

Leonska-Duniec,A. and Skotarczak,B.  2010.  Free living amoeba. Unpublished.  (Acc #  HQ632780 – HQ632781).

Lienard,J., Croxatto,A., Gervaix,A., Posfay-Barbe,K. and Greub,G.  2012.  Diversity of Chlamydiales and other amoeba-resisting bacteria in domestic drinking water.  Unpublished.  (Acc # Lienard2012).

Lorenzo-Morales,J., Martinez-Carretero,E., Batista,N., Alvarez-Marin,J., Bahaya,Y., Walochnik,J. and Valladares,B.  2007. Early diagnosis of amoebic keratitis due to a mixed infection with Acanthamoeba and HartmannellaParasitology Research 102 (1), 167-169.  (Acc # EF205324).

Lu,J., Buse,H.Y., Gomez-Alvarez,V., Struewing,I., Santo Domingo,J. and Ashbolt,N.J. 2014. Impact of drinking water conditions and copper materials on downstream biofilm microbial  communities and Legionella pneumophila colonization. Journal of Applied Microbiology. 117 (3), 905-918. (Acc # KF680758KF680763 – KF680766).

Montalbano Di Filippo, M., Santoro, M., Lovreglio, P., Monno, R., Capolongo, C., Calia, C., Fumarola, L., D’Alfonso, R., Berrilli, F. and Di Cave, D. 2015.  Isolation and Molecular Characterization of Free-Living Amoebae from Different Water Sources in Italy. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 12 (4), 3417-3427.  (Acc # KP792377 – KP792397). 

Motazedian,M.H. and Asgari,Q. 2015. Isolation and identification of pathogenic free living amoeba from surface and tap water of Shiraz city. Unpublished. (Acc #  KP233873 –  KP233876).

Murase,J. and Frenzel,P.  2008.  Selective grazing of methanotrophs by protozoa in a rice field soil.  FEMS Microbiology Ecology 65 (3), 408-414. (Acc #  AB425953).

Murase, J., Shibata, M., Lee, C.G., Watanabe, T., Asakawa, S. and Kimura, M.  2012.  Incorporation of plant residue-derived carbon into the microeukaryotic community in a rice field soil revealed by DNA stable-isotope probing.  FEMS Microbiol. Ecol. 79 (2), 371-379.   (Acc # AB627981)

Nazar, M., Haghighi, A., Taghipour, N., Ortega-Rivas, A., Tahvildar-Biderouni, F., Nazemalhosseini Mojarad, E. and Eftekhar, M. 2012.  Molecular identification of Hartmannella vermiformis and Vannella persistens from man-made recreational water environments, Tehran, Iran. Parasitology Research 111 (2), 835-839.  (Acc # AB525834 – AB525839).

Nikolaev,S.I., Mitchell,E.A., Petrov,N.B., Berney,C., Fahrni,J. and Pawlowski,J. 2005. The testate lobose amoebae (order Arcellinida Kent, 1880) finally find their home within Amoebozoa. Protist 156 (2), 191-202. (Acc # AY294147).

Niyyati, M., Lasgerdi, Z. and Lorenzo-Morales, J.  2015.  Detection and Molecular Characterization of Potentially Pathogenic Free-living Amoebae from Water Sources in Kish Island, Southern Iran. Microbiol Insights 8 (SUPPL 1), 1-6.  (acc # KP337306 – KP337308).

Ovrutsky, A.R., Chan, E.D., Kartalija, M., Bai, X., Jackson, M. Gibbs, S., Falkinham, J.O. III, Iseman, M.D., Reynolds, P.R., McDonnell, G. and Thomas, V.  2013. Cooccurrence of Free-Living Amoebae and Nontuberculous Mycobacteria in Hospital Water Networks, and Preferential Growth of Mycobacterium avium in Acanthamoeba lenticulata. Applied Environmental Microbiology 79 (10), 3185-3192.  (Acc # KC669513 – KC669519).

Ragon,M., Restoux,G., Moreira,D., Moller,A.P. and Lopez-Garcia,P.  2011. Sunlight-exposed biofilm microbial communities are naturally resistant to chernobyl ionizing-radiation levels. PLoS ONE 6 (7), E21764.  (Acc # JN020235).  

Ren,K. and Yang,J.  2013.  Direct Submission – Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen, Fujian, China. (unpublished).  (Acc # KJ000408 – KJ000410). 

Risse-Buhl,U., Herrmann,M., Lange,P., Akob,D.M., Pizani,N., Schonborn,W., Totsche,K.U. and Kusel,K. 2013.  Phagotrophic protist diversity in the groundwater of a karstified aquifer – morphological and molecular analysis. Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology 60 (5), 467-479.  (Acc # KC306529).

Schulz,F., Lagkouvardos,I., Wascher,F., Aistleitner,K., Kostanjsek,R. and Horn,M. 2014. Life in an unusual intracellular niche: a bacterial symbiont infecting the nucleus of amoebae.  ISME Journal 8 (8), 1634-1644. (Acc # KF697197).

Solgi, R., Niyyati, M., Haghighi, A. and Nazemalhosseini Mojarad, E.  2011.  Isolation of free living amoebae belonging to Hartmannella and Naegleria genera from hot springs in Ardebil province, Iran.  Unpublished.  (Acc # JQ023590 – JQ023594).

Thomas,V. and Greub,G.  2007. Group I introns in Hartmannella vermiformisUnpublished. (Acc # EU137741).

Thomas,V., Herrera-Rimann,K., Blanc,D.S. and Greub,G.  2006. Biodiversity of amoebae and amoeba-resisting bacteria in a hospital water network. Applied Environmental Microbiology 72 (4), 2428-2438. (Acc # DQ123623 plus 13 strains not deposited).

Thomas,J.M.  2014.  The risk to human health from free-living amoebae interaction with Legionella in drinking and recycled water systems. Unpublished.  (Acc # KJ677082 – KJ677096).

Unger,C. and Luck,C. 2012.  Inhibitory effects of silver ions on Legionella pneumophila grown on agar, intracellular in Acanthamoeba castellanii and in artificial biofilms. Journal of Applied Microbiology 112 (6), 1212-1219. (Acc # FR820592, FR820593).

Valster, R.M., Wullings, B.A. and van der Kooij,D.  2010.  Detection of Protozoan Hosts for Legionella pneumophila in Engineered Water Systems by Using a Biofilm Batch Test.   Applied Environmental Microbiology 76 (21), 7144-7153. (Acc # Valster 2010)

Valster,R.M., Wullings,B.A. and van der Kooij,D.  2011.  Effect of temperature on the communities of free-living protozoa in four freshwater types in a biofilm batch system.   Unpublished.  (Acc # Valster 2011a).

Valster,R.M., Wullings,B.A., van den Berg,R. and van der Kooij,D.  2011.  Relationships between Free-Living Protozoa, Cultivable Legionella spp., and Water Quality Characteristics in Three Drinking Water Supplies in the Caribbean.  Applied Environmental Microbiology 77 (20), 7321-7328.  (Acc # Valster 2011)

Venugopal,N., Thajuddin,N., Ralte,L., Reehana,N., Mubarak Ali,D. and Parveez Ahamed,A.  2011.  Molecular characterization of microalgae. Unpublished.  (Acc #  JN402971).

Vervaeren,H., Temmerman,R., Devos,L., Boon,N. and Verstraete,W.  2006. Introduction of a boost of Legionella pneumophila into a stagnant-water model by heat treatment. FEMS Microbiol. Ecol. 58 (3), 583-592. (Acc # DQ388276, DQ388278)

Walochnik,J., Michel,R. and Aspoeck,H. 2001. Discrepancy between morphological and molecular biological characters in a strain of Hartmannella vermiformis Page, 1967 (Lobosea, Gymnamoebia). Unpublished. (Acc # AF426157).

Wannasan, A., Uparanukraw, P., Songsangchun, A. and Morakote, N. 2013. Potentially pathogenic free-living amoebae in some flood-affected areas during 2011 Chiang Mai flood. Revista do Instituto Medicina Tropical de São Paulo 55(6):411-416.  (Acc # JX507297, plus undeposited sequence)

Weekers,P.H., Gast,R.J., Fuerst,P.A. and Byers,T.J.  1994. Sequence variations in small-subunit ribosomal RNAs of Hartmannella vermiformis and their phylogenetic implications. Molecular Biology and Evolution 11 (4), 684-690. (Acc # X75513, X75514, X75515).

Wildschutte, H., Wolfe, D.M., Tamewitz, A. and Lawrence, J.G.  2004. Protozoan predation, diversifying selection, and the evolution of antigenic diversity in Salmonella. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences U.S.A. 101 (29), 10644-10649.  (Acc # AY576364, AY576365).

Wildschutte, H. and Lawrence, J.G.  2007.  Differential Salmonella survival against communities of intestinal amoebae. Microbiology (Reading, Engl.) 153 (PT 6), 1781-1789.   (Acc # EF378670 – EF378675).

Wu,Z., Lu,D. and Liu,Z.  2010.  Fungal diversity of Zhongyuan oil field, China.   Unpublished. (Acc # HQ190201HQ190226).

Yera, H., Zamfir, O., Bourcier, T., Viscogliosi, E., Noel, C., Dupouy-Camet, J. and Chaumeil, C. 2008.  The genotypic characterisation of Acanthamoeba isolates from human ocular samples. British Journal of Ophthalmology 92 (8), 1139-1141.  (Acc # DQ087329).

Zuendorf,A., Bunge,J., Behnke,A., Barger,K.J. and Stoeck,T.  2006.  Diversity estimates of microeukaryotes below the chemocline of the anoxic Mariager Fjord, Denmark.  FEMS Microbiology Ecology 58 (3), 476-491.  (Acc # DQ103830)

3 thoughts on “Vermamoeba 18S rRNA references

  1. Is there a specific difference if you get Vermamoeba vermiformis or Hartmannella vermiformis after sequence analysis

    • Petros,

      thanks for the question. Amoebae previously considered to be members of the family Hartmannellidae have been shown to be polyphyetic. The amoeba that is referred to as either Hartmannella vermiformis or Vermamoeba vermiformis is now correctly in the new genus Vermamoeba, species V. vermiformis. Previous sequences that were deposited as H. vermiformis simply reflect the older archaic name that has been replaced.
      The paper that specified this new classification is Alexey V. Smirnov, Ema Chao, Elena S. Nassonova and Thomas Cavalier-Smith 2011. A Revised Classification of Naked Lobose Amoebae (Amoebozoa: Lobosa). Protist 162: 545-570. (Link at

  2. Thanks Paul, i got some isolates were identified as Hartmannella vermiformis and others which were Vermamoeba vermiformis after sequencing, i yes i am answered

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *