Artificial Intelligence: Smart, or Stupid?

Panel Members

Matthew Bolton

Dr. Matthew Bolton

Associate Professor
Department of Systems and Information Engineering
University of Virginia

Dr. Bolton is an Associate Professor in the Department of Systems and Information Engineering at the University of Virginia. Prior to joining UVA in January 2022, he was a Senior Researcher at the NASA Ames Research Center, an Assistant Professor of Industrial Engineering at the University of Illinois at Chicago, and an Assistant/Associate Professor at the University at Buffalo, the State University of New York. Dr. Bolton is primarily interested in studying why engineered systems fail, and how to prevent failures through human-centered systems engineering. As such, he is an expert on the use of formal, mathematical methods in human factors engineering, particularly as it relates to discovering engineering oversights that lead to human behavior, error, and cognition contributing to failures. He has successfully applied his research to safety-critical applications in aerospace, medicine, defense, and cybersecurity. Dr. Bolton has received funding on projects sponsored by the European Space Agency, NSF, NASA, AHRQ, and DoD.

Dr. Samantha Krening

Assistant Professor
Integrates Systems Engineering Department
The Ohio State University

Dr. Samantha Krening has joined the Department of Integrated Systems Engineering at the Ohio State
University as an Assistant Professor in the area of Human-Machine Systems.

Dr. Krening received both Bachelor’s and Master’s of Science degrees in Aerospace Engineering from
the University of Colorado at Boulder, emphasizing in astrodynamics and control theory. Dr. Krening
earned a Ph.D. in Robotics from the Georgia Institute of Technology in 2019.

Before starting her Ph.D. at Georgia Tech, Dr. Krening worked for three years at NASA’s Jet Propulsion
Laboratory, spending two years as a Guidance & Control Engineer for the Cassini Spacecraft orbiting

Dr. Krening’s research has spanned machine learning, human-agent interaction, natural language,
dynamics, and control for both AI and robotic systems. Dr. Krening’s doctoral work focused on enabling
everyday people who are not machine learning experts to naturally and intuitively teach AI agents
to perform tasks through natural language. She is currently exploring many aspects of human-agent
interaction, including explainable AI (XAI), ethics in AI, and the design of ML algorithms that foster a
positive user experience.

Dr. Michael Rayo (Moderator)

Associate Professor
Department of Integrated Systems Engineering
The Ohio State University

Dr. Michael Rayo’s research focuses on how the design of cognitive tools influence multi-agent teaming architectures that contribute to adaptive and maladaptive system behaviors.  His work in how alarm design and management, visual analytics, computerized decision support, and interpersonal communication foster system resilience has been funded by the National Patient Safety Foundation, the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, the Office of Naval Research, and the Air Force Research Laboratory. He has published numerous papers on patient safety and human factors engineering, and serves on multiple patient safety committees and advisory groups.

Dr. David Woods

Emeritus Professor
Integrates System Engineering Department
The Ohio State University

David Woods (PhD, Purdue University) has worked to improve systems safety in high risk complex settings for 40 years. These include studies of human coordination with automated and intelligent systems and accident investigations in aviation, nuclear power, critical care medicine, crisis response, military operations, and space operations. Beginning in 2000-2003 he developed Resilience Engineering on the dangers of brittle systems and the need to invest in sustaining sources of resilience as part of the response to several NASA accidents. His results on proactive safety and resilience are in the book Resilience Engineering (2006).  He developed the first comprehensive theory on how systems can build the potential for resilient performance despite complexity.  Recently, he started the SNAFU Catchers Consortium an industry-university partnership to build resilience in critical digital services (see or ).

The results of this work on how complex human-machine systems succeed and sometimes fail has been cited over 33,000 times (H-index > 88) and syntheses can be found in the books Behind Human Error (1994; 2nd Edition 2010); A Tale of Two Stories: Contrasting Views of Patient Safety (1998), the 2 book series Joint Cognitive Systems — Foundations of  Cognitive Systems Engineering (2005) & Patterns in Cognitive Systems Engineering (2006).

He is Past-President of the Human Factors an Ergonomics Society and Past-President of the Resilience Engineering Association. He has received many awards including the Laurels Award from Aviation Week and Space Technology (1995), IBM Faculty Award, Google Faculty Award, Ely Best Paper Award and Kraft Innovator Award from the Human Factors and Ergonomic Society,  the Jimmy Doolittle Fellow Award from the Air Force Association (2012).

He provides advice to many government agencies, companies in the US and internationally such as, US National Research Council on Dependable Software (2006), US National Research Council on Autonomy in Civil Aviation (2014), the FAA Human Factors and Cockpit Automation Team (1996; and its reprise in 2013), the Defense Science Board Task Force on Autonomy (2012), and he was an advisor to the Columbia Accident Investigation Board.