Soy Pretzels

Ongoing Projects

Graduate Student: Abbie Sommer


Abbie’s area of interest is the use of soy functional food products for exercise recovery. Soy contains high-quality protein and anti-inflammatory phytochemicals. Both of these characteristics make it advantageous for recovery from physical activity. Using sensory evaluation and clinical trials, Abbie hopes to investigate the efficacy of a novel soy pretzel as a post-workout snack. A blog entry briefly detailing the use of soy was written by Abbie and published by a blog run by the student association of the Institute of Food Technologists. This entry can be viewed here.


  1. Simmons, A., Miller, C.K., Clinton, S.K., Vodovotz, Y. A comparison of satiety, glycemic index, and insulinemic index of wheat-derived soft pretzels with or without soy. Food and Function. 2:678-683
  2. Simmons, A.L, Chitchumroonchokchai, C. and Vodovotz, Y. and Failla, M.2012. Isoflavone retention during processing, bioaccessibility and transport by Caco-2 cells: Effects of source and amount of fat in a soy soft pretzel. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 60 (49): 12196–12203.
  3. Simmons, A.L., Klecknerc, I.R.and Vodovotz, Y. Type and Amount of Lipids Influence the Molecular and Textual Properties of a Soy Soft Pretzel. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 62(3): 717-724.

Reviews and Abstracts

  1. Simmons and Y. Vodovotz, 2009. Addition of soy increases soft pretzel dough stability during frozen storage. The Russell Klein Symposium. (1st place)
  2. Simmons. The effect of soy addition on the satiety, glycemic index, and insulinemic index of a soft pretzel. 2011.  Hayes Graduate Forum, 2nd place Oral Presentation in Food, Agricultural, and Environmental Sciences.
  3. Simmons, C. K. Miller, S. K. Clinton, and Y. Vodovotz, 2011. Soy Reduces the Glycemic Index in a Soft Pretzel. Center for Clinical & Translational Science 2nd Annual Scientific Meeting (invited presentation)
  4. L. Simmons, C. Chitchumroonchokchai, Y. Vodovotz and M. L. Failla. 2012. The effects of lipid type and amount on the profile and bioaccessibility of isoflavones from a soy soft pretzel. Russell Klein Memorial Nutrition Research Symposium.
  5. L. Simmons, C. Chitchumroonchokchai, M. L. Failla and Y. Vodovotz. 2012. The effects of almonds on the profile and bioaccessibility of isoflavones (IFN) from a soy soft pretzel, Experimental Biology, (oral and poster presentations).