Anna L. Testen, Ashlina Chin, & Sally A. Miler
Bloat nematodes, also known as stem and bulb nematodes, is an emerging disease on garlic bulbs in Ohio and the most damaging nematode pathogen globally. Bulbs may have few roots, be discolored, yellowish, dry, and papery, with splitting and basal plate damage. Bulbs may also be damaged by secondary infections by bacteria and fungi. Above ground symptoms of bloat nematode infections include leaf splitting, stunting, curled or twisted leaves, stem softening/collapse and leaf swelling. Starting with certified pathogen-free seed, rotating with non-host crops, and hot water and chemical treatments have all proven effective in managing bloat nematode.