Outbreaks of Human Salmonella Infections Associated with Live Poultry, United States, 1990–2014

Emerging Infectious Diseases Journal,  Centers for Disease and Prevention, Volume 22-Number 10, October 2016

 

BACKGROUND:  Backyard poultry flocks have increased in popularity concurrent with an increase in live poultry–associated salmonellosis (LPAS) outbreaks. Better understanding of practices that contribute to this emerging public health issue is needed. Most chicks sold for backyard flocks are produced by a network of mail-order hatcheries. Disease control guidance for hatcheries is provided by the US Department of Agriculture National Poultry Improvement Plan, which is a voluntary state, federal, and industry cooperative program aimed at eliminating certain diseases from poultry breeding flocks and hatcheries.

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Author credit:  Basler C, Nguyen T-A, Anderson TC, Hancock T, Barton Behravesh C. Outbreaks of human Salmonella infections associated with live poultry, United States, 1990–2014. Emerg Infect Dis. 2016 Oct 

Save the Date: Small Scale Poultry Production seminar at Farm Science Review 9/20/16

Debbie Brown, Ph.D, Extension Educator, Agriculture and Natural Resources, Shelby County,  will be presenting on Small Scale Poultry Production in the Small Farm Center programming track on Tuesday September 20th at 1:30 pm at the  2016 Farm Science Review.

CLICK HERE for more information about the event.

 

New York Times Article on Avian Flu

This article was shared by Poultry Team member Dr. Mohamed El-Gazzar.

The New York Times recently did an article on High Path Avian Flu.  The content of this article is not from the Poultry Team but shared due to the serious nature of the disease, all opinions and content are their own.

The Poultry Team will continue to monitor High Path Avian Flu and will provide update and content as soon as necessary.

NEW YORK TIMES ARTICLE

Testing Protocol for Disease Surveillance in Poultry

by Dr. Mohamed El-Gazzar

Any surveillance program is intended to be an early warning system that detects the infection as early as possible to allow for timely control and eradication of the infectious agent. The poultry industry relies heavily on surveillance to keep certain diseases out of the population. Avian Influenza (AI), Avian Mycoplasma, and Salmonella are examples of such diseases. Surveillance is an intricate and complicated process that can be different in different diseases and in different situations. In this article we will review the general principals of surveillance programs in poultry and extract the basic concepts by which we can critically examine any surveillance program.

Continue to full article –>  Surveillance Programs ME 5-4-16

Breed Selections of Chickens

Breed Selection of Chickens

By: Sabrina Schirtzinger, Agriculture and Natural Resource Extension Educator, Knox County

There are various reasons people raise chickens for eggs, meat, and exhibition or simply just for the caring and watching chicks grow. For some raising chickens is a hobby; and others see it as a sustainable part of living.

So, what are your needs? What is your end goal for raising chickens? These questions will help you to determine what category of poultry you are leaning towards.

Is your goal:

Egg Production– These chickens will lay eggs; however, what color egg would you prefer white, light brown, dark brown or colored?

Egg and Meat Production– These chickens are referred to as dual purpose breeds that tend lay an adequate amount of eggs and get large enough for meat production. American chicken breeds where developed for this purpose.

Meat Production– Chickens that are bred solely for meat production. Chickens reach 4-5 pounds in 6 weeks and 6-10 pounds in 8-12 weeks. The best growth rate will come from a Cornish crossed with a White Rock called a Cornish Cross.

Exhibition of Poultry– Showing chickens have becoming popular in the Midwest. The American Poultry Association (APA) has a publication called, The American Standard of Perfection. This book gives you a complete description of all the breeds and varieties of domestic chickens.

Selecting the best breed of chicken can be difficult as there are many to choose from. Understanding their differences will help you to increase you production, reduce your time and save you money. Within in article you will find a chart highlighting a few aspects producers look for in their flocks. This chart is designed to help you come to a decision about which breed is best for your needs.

Breed Varieties Egg Color Egg Size Characteristics Meat
Ameraucana Black, Blue, Blue Wheaten, Brown Red, Buff, Silver, Wheaten, White Blue/Green Large Medium sized chicken, colorful feather patterns. Excellent egg layers No
Anconas Single Comb and Rose Comb White Extra Large Known for being excellent large egg layers, non-setting and No
Australorps Black Brown Large Popular breed for light brown eggs, heavy bird used for meat as well. Yes
Brahmas Light, Dark, Buff Brown Large Heavy breed will brood and gentle natured. No
Buckeye Only one variety Brown Medium Originated in Ohio. Heavier and wide breed making them an excellent dual purpose breed. Yes
Buttercups Gold, Silver White Medium Mainly used for egg production. No
Campines Silver, Golden White Medium Smaller breed better as an egg layer. No
Cochins Buff, Partridge. White, Black, Barred, Silver Laced, Golden Laced, Blue, Brown Brown Small Fluffy feather, broody breed, and considered one of the largest breeds. No
Cornish Dark, White, White Laced, Blue, Brown Excellent meat chickens Yes
Delawares Only one variety Brown Extra Large Founded in the state of Delaware. Heavier breed that can be used as meat. Mostly white with barred on the tail and hackle. Yes
Dominiques Only one variety Brown Large An American white and black barred breed (also known as cuckoo pattern). Adapt well to climates. No
Dorkings-Single Comb Silver Gray, Colored, Cuckoo, Red, White White Medium Versatile breed used for meat and egg production. Has red ear lobes, but produces white eggs. Yes
Faverolles Salmon, White Light Brown Medium Dual Purpose breed, mainly used for exhibition and has 5 toes. Yes
Hamburg Black, Golden Penciled, Golden Spangles, Silver Penciled, Silver Spangled, White White Medium Known for being excellent large egg layers and good foragers. No
Jersey Giants Black, Blue, White Brown Large Large, heavy breed used for egg production and meat. Yes
Leghorn Light Brown, Dark brown, White, Buff, Black, Silver, Red, Black Tailed Red, Columbian White Extra Large Prolific egg layer No
Maran Black Copper, Wheaten Dark Brown Extra Large Known for their very dark brown eggs. Excellent egg layers and may be used for meat. Yes
New Hampshire Red Red Brown Extra Large Originated in New Hampshire. Dual purposes breed used more for meat production. Yes
Orpington Black, Blue, Buff, White Brown Large Heavy dual purpose breed and an excellent egg layer. Good winter layer. Yes
Plymouth Rock Barred, White, Buff, Partridge, Silver Penciled, Blue, Columbian Brown Large Dual purpose broody chickens that will make good mothers, and do not mind the cold. Yes
Polish-Bearded and Non-Bearded Golden Silver, White, Buff Laced, White Crested Blue, Black, Crested White White Medium Prolific egg layers, similar to Leghorns. No
RedCaps Only one variety White Medium This breed is a good egg layer, meat chicken and exhibition breed. Yes
Rhode Island Reds Single Comb and Rose Comb Brown Extra Large Known for being the best egg layer as a dual purpose breed. Yes
Sussex Speckled, Red, Light, Brown, Silver, Buff Brown Large Dual purposes breed. Yes
Welsummers Only one variety Very Dark Brown Large Good egg production chicken, cold weather hardy with a docile temperament. NO
Wyandottes Silver Laced, Golden Laced, White, Black, Buff, Partridge, Silver Penciled, Columbian, Blue Brown Large Dual purposes breed. Cold weather hardy and also make a good exhibition bird. Yes

 

Resources:

Akers, D., Akers, P., & Latour, M. A., Dr. (2002). Choosing a Chicken Breed: Eggs, Meat, or Exhibition. Animal Science Poultry, AS(518), w, 1-4. Retrieved April 20, 2016, from https://www.extension.purdue.edu/extmedia/as/as-518.pdf.

Breeds of Livestock. (1995, February 22). Retrieved April 20, 2016, from http://www.ansi.okstate.edu/breeds/poultry/chickens/chickens.html#h Information on breeds.

Murray McMurray Hatchery. (n.d.). Retrieved April 20, 2016, from https://www.mcmurrayhatchery.com/index.html Information on breeds.

The American Standard of Perfection. (2015, April). Retrieved April 18, 2016, from http://www.amerpoultryassn.com/ Presents the official breed descriptions for large fowl, bantams, waterfowl, and turkeys.

 

CLICK HERE FOR PRINTABLE PDF——->Breed Selection of Chickens

 

Wooden Breast Research Update

Histopathologic and Myogenic Gene Expression Changes Associated with Wooden Breast in Broiler Breast Muscles

Sandra G. Velleman and Daniel L Clark

Department of Animal Sciences, Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center, The Ohio State University, Wooster, OH 44691

Received 20 April 2015; Accepted 20 May 2015; Published ahead of print 21 May 2015

 

SUMMARY. The wooden breast condition is a myopathy affecting the pectoralis major (p. major) muscle in fast-growing commercial broiler lines. Currently, wooden breast–affected birds are phenotypically detected by palpation of the breast area, with affected birds having a very hard p. major muscle that is of lower value. The objective of this study was to compare the wooden breast myopathy in two fast-growing broiler lines (Lines A and B) with incidence of wooden breast to a slower growing broiler Line C with no phenotypically observable wooden breast. One of the characteristics of the wooden breast condition is fibrosis of the p. major muscle. Morphologic assessment of Lines A and B showed significant fibrosis in both lines, but the collagen distribution and arrangement of the collagen fibrils was different. In Line A, the collagen fibrils were tightly packed, whereas in Line B the collagen fibrils were diffuse. This difference in collagen organization may be due to the expression of the extracellular matrix proteoglycan decorin. Decorin is a regulator of collagen crosslinking and is expressed at significantly higher levels in Line A wooden breast– affected p. major muscle, which would lead to tightly packed collagen fibers due to high levels of collagen crosslinking. Furthermore, expression of the muscle-specific transcriptional regulatory factors for proliferation and differentiation of muscle cells leading to the regeneration of muscle in response to muscle damage was significantly elevated in Line A, and only the factor for differentiation, myogenin, was increased in Line B. The results from this study provide initial evidence that the etiology of the wooden breast myopathy may vary between fast-growing commercial broiler lines.

Click for full Article –>velleman and clark. 2015. wooden breast