Print Media/Journalism

A Ying 阿英. Wan Qing wenyi baokan shulue 晚清文艺报刊述略 (An introduction to late Qing literary publications). Shanghai: Gudian wenxue, 1958.

Andrews, Julia F. and Kuiyi Shen. “The New Chinese Woman and Lifestyle Magazines in the Late 1990s.” In Perry Link, Richard P. Madsen, and Paul G. Pickowicz, eds., Popular China: Unofficial Culture in a Globalizing Society. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield, 2002, 137-62.

Bady, Paul. “The Modern Chinese Writer: Literary Incomes and Best-sellers.” The China Quarterly 88 (Dec. 1981): 645-57.

Baensch, Robert E., ed. The Publishing Industry in China. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers, 2003.

Bao Tianxiao 包天笑. Chuanying lou huiyilu 钏影楼回忆录 (Reminiscences of the bracelet shadow studio). HK: Dahua, 1971.

Bao, Weihong. “A Panoramic Worldview: Probing the Visuality of Dianshizhai huabao.” Journal of Modern Chinese Literature [Korea] 32 (2005), 405-46.

Bao, Yaming. “Shanghai Weekly: Globalization, Consumerism, and Shanghai Popular Culture.” Inter-Asia Cultural Studies 9, 4 (Dec. 2008).

Barme, Geremie. “Notes on Publishing in China, 1976-1979.” Australian Journal of Chinese Affairs 4 (1980): 167-74.

Beahan, Charlotte L. “Feminism and Nationalism in the Chinese Women’s Press, 1902-1911.” Modern China 1, 4 (Oct. 1975): 379-416.

Bennett, Bruce. “Winds of Change: Literary Magazines in China.” Westernly 3 (Sept. 1981): 99-106.

Berg, Daria. “Consuming Secrets: China’s New Print Culture at the Turn of the Twenty-First Century.” In Cynthia Brokaw and Christopher A. Reed, eds., From Woodblocks to the Internet: Chinese Publishing and Print Culture in Transition, circa 1800 to 2008. Leiden, Brill, 2010, 313-32.

Britton, Roswell S. The Chinese Periodical Press, 1800-1912. Shanghai: Kelley and Walsh, 1933.

Brodsgaard, Kjeld Erik. “The Democracy Movement in China, 1978-79: Opposition Movements, Wall Poster Campaigns, and Underground Journals.” Asian Survey 21, 7 (July 1981): 747-73.

Brokaw, Cynthia. Commerce in Culture: The Sibao Book Trade in the Qing and Republican Periods. Cambridge: Harvard University Asia Center, 2007.

—–. “Commercial Woodblock Publishing in the Qing (1644-1911) and the Transition to Modern Print Technology.” In Cynthia Brokaw and Christopher A. Reed, eds., From Woodblocks to the Internet: Chinese Publishing and Print Culture in Transition, circa 1800 to 2008. Leiden, Brill, 2010, 39-58.

Brokaw, Cynthia and Christopher A. Reed, eds. From Woodblocks to the Internet: Chinese Publishing and Print Culture in Transition, circa 1800 to 2008. Leiden, Brill, 2010.

[Abstract: The thirteen essays in this volume narrate and analyze the reciprocal influences of technological, intellectual, and sociopolitical changes on the structure of modern China’s book (and print) trade; more specifically, they treat the rise of new genres of print, changes in writing practices, the dissemination of ideas and texts (both paper and electronic), the organization of knowledge, and the relationship between the state and print culture. The essays range chronologically from the late eighteenth century to the present, an over two-century transition period that allows authors to draw comparisons between the largely woodblock print culture of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries; the mechanized publishing of the late-nineteenth, twentieth, and twenty-first centuries; and the global internet culture of today]

Carroll, Peter J. “Fate-Bound Mandarin Ducks: Newpaper Coverage of the ‘Fashion’ for Suicide in 1931 Suzhou.” Twentieth-Century China 31, 2 (April 2006).

Chan, Peter. “Popular Publications in China: A Look at ‘The Spring of Peking.'” Contemporary China 3, 4 (Winter 1979): 103-111.

Chang, Guoxin. A Survey of Chinese Language Daily Press. HK: Chinese Newspapers Association, 1968.

Chang, Jui-Shan. “Refashioning Womanhood in 1990s Taiwan: An Analysis of the Taiwanese Edition of Cosmopolitan Magazine.” Modern China 30, 3 (2004): 361-397.

[Abstract: This article investigates how the Taiwanese edition of Cosmopolitan (1992-1997) may serve to resolve a tension felt by modern women in Taiwan by weaving global values and local values together into a tapestry of modern womanhood that can dwell within, and yet extend, the local culture. The article treats the magazine as a window into a Taiwanese image of the modern woman and as an arena in which there are Chinese and Western systems and values that could clash but, in fact, intermesh by virtue of the practice of exploiting Western means for Chinese ends. Taiwanese Cosmo shows how modernization need not mean Westernization, even if it relies on veneers of Western images, and it further aims to transform local Chinese values in a way that gives them global significance.]

Chang, Man. The People’s Daily and the Red Flag Magazine during the Cultural Revolution. HK: Union Research Institute, 1969.

Chao, Thomas Ming-heng. The Foreign Press in China. Shanghai: China Institute of Pacific Relations, 1931.

Chen, Jo-hsi. Democracy Wall and the Unofficial Journals. Berkeley: Center for Chinese Studies, University of California, 1982.

Chen, Lily. “Could or Should? The Changing Modality of Authority in the China Daily.” Journal of the British Association for Chinese Studies vol. 2 (July 2013).

Chen, Xiaomei. “Tian Han and the Southern Society Phenomenon: Networking the Personal, Communal, and Cultural.” In Kirk A. Denton and Michel Hockx, eds., Literary Societies in Republican China. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 2008, 241-79.

Cheng, W.K. “Contending Publicity: The State and the Press in Late Qing China.” Asian Thought and Society 23, 69 (Sept/Dec 1998).

Chin, Sei Jeong. “Print Capitalism, War, and the Remaking of the Mass Media in 1930s China.” Modern China 40 (2014): 393-425.

[Abstract: This article explores the intricate relationship among print capitalism, war, and the popularization of newspapers in 1930s China by analyzing the motivations for publishing the Libao and the reasons behind its success. Most of the print capitalists publishing major broadsheet newspapers in Shanghai in the early 1930s did not have a strong financial motivation to popularize such broadsheets especially because of the relatively small circulation of printed materials, the underdevelopment of communications infrastructures, the low level of literacy, and the small size of the middle class. However, this study of the Libao published in the mid-1930s demonstrates that the simultaneity of the commercialization of print media and the outbreak of the national crisis in the 1930s gave rise to the expansion of a politicized reading public and to popular nationalism, and provided print capitalists with financial motives to popularize and politicize newspapers.]

The China Critic special issueChina Heritage Quarterly 30/31 (June/Sept. 2012).

Chinese Media Guide [A Complete List and Descriptions of Major Chinese Newspapers, Chinese TV Stations, Chinese Radio Stations, and Chinese Websites Outside of China.]

Ching, Doe. “The Magazines of China.” XXth Century 4 (April 1943): 276-81.

Chow, Tse-tsung. Research Guide to the May Fourth Movement. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1963.

Chuban shiliao 出版史料  (Historical materials on publishing). Shanghai: Xuelin, 1982-1992. [PRC periodical]

Coble, Parks M. “The Legacy of China’s Wartime Reporting, 1937-1945: Can the Past Serve the Present?” Modern China 36 (2010): 435-460.

[Abstract: Japan’s invasion of China in the summer of 1937 dealt a devastating blow to Chinese journalism. Yet despite the hardships, China’s wartime reporters produced a legacy of vivid writing. In the face of a series of major defeats, the journalists attempted to shore up morale and stressed the heroic resistance of Chinese forces. They reported on Japanese atrocities such as the Rape of Nanjing, but not to such an extent that might erode morale. During the Maoist era, the legacy of this war reportage largely faded from a public memory which privileged the revolution. When a “new remembering” of the war emerged in the reform era, the heroic resistance narrative from war reportage dovetailed nicely with the new nationalism of today’s China. But this literature has been less helpful in developing the theme of Chinese victimhood, a key component of the new memory of the war. Finally, memoir literature, so common in most combatant nations, has been problematic in China. Those who remember their war experiences do so through the prism of later traumas, particularly the Cultural Revolution.]

—–. China’s War Reporters: The Legacy of Resistance Against Japan. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2015.

[Abstract: Parks Coble recaptures the experiences of China’s war correspondents during the Sino–Japanese War of 1937–1945. He delves into the wartime writing of reporters connected with the National Salvation Movement—journalists such as Fan Changjiang, Jin Zhonghua, and Zou Taofen—who believed their mission was to inspire the masses through patriotic reporting. As the Japanese army moved from one stunning victory to the next, forcing Chiang’s government to retreat to the interior, newspaper reports often masked the extent of China’s defeats. Atrocities such as the Rape of Nanjing were played down in the press for fear of undercutting national morale. By 1941, as political cohesion in China melted away, Chiang cracked down on leftist intellectuals, including journalists, many of whom fled to the Communist-held areas of the north. When the People’s Republic was established in 1949, some of these journalists were elevated to prominent positions. But in a bitter twist, all mention of their wartime writings disappeared. Mao Zedong emphasized the heroism of his own Communist Revolution, not the war effort led by his archrival Chiang. Denounced as enemies during the Cultural Revolution, once-prominent wartime journalists, including Fan, committed suicide. Only with the revival of Chinese nationalism in the reform era has their legacy been resurrected.]

Culp, Robert. “Reading and Writing Zhejiang Youth: Local Textual Economies and Cultural Production in Republican Jiangnan.” In Cynthia Brokaw and Christopher A. Reed, eds., From Woodblocks to the Internet: Chinese Publishing and Print Culture in Transition, circa 1800 to 2008. Leiden, Brill, 2010, 249-74.

Daruvala, Susan. “Yuefeng: A Literary Journal of the 1930s.” In Kirk A. Denton and Michel Hockx, eds., Literary Societies in Republican China. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 2008, 339-78. Originally published in a different version as “Yuefeng: A Literary Journal of the 1930s.” Modern Chinese Literature and Culture 18, 2 (Fall 2006): 39-97.

Denton, Kirk A. “The Hu Feng Group: Genealogy of a Literary School.” In Kirk A. Denton and Michel Hockx, eds., Literary Societies in Republican China. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 2008, 413-66.

Denton, Kirk A. and Michel Hockx, eds. Literary Societies in Republican China. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 2008. [Publishers’ blurb]

Drege, Jean-Pierre. La Commercial Press de Shanghai, 1897-1949. Paris, 1978. [contains appendix with the names of journals edited and distributed by the CP]

Drege, Jean-Pierre and Hua Changming. La revolution du livre dans la Chine moderne, Wang Yunwu, editeur. Paris, 1979.

Du, Ying. “Shanghaiing the Press Gang: The Maoist Regimentation of the Shanghai Popular Publishing Industry in the Early PRC (1949-1956).” Modern Chinese Literature and Culture 26, 2 (Fall 2014):

Edmond, Jacob. “Dissidence and Accommodation: The Publishing History of Yang Lian from Today to Today.” The China Quarterly 185 (2006): 111-27.

Edwards, Louise. “Localizing the Hollywood Star System in 1930s China: Linglong Magazine and New Moral Spaces.” Asian Studies 1, 1 (Sept. 2015): 13-37.

[AbstractThe Hollywood star system became a significant part of film production and consumption around the world from the 1920s—including in China during the Golden Age of Shanghai cinema. This American technology was localised and expanded tosuit Chinese contexts and achieved far more than increasing sales of cinema tickets. Inthis article I argue that the “Shanghai star system” created a new social and ideologicalspace within which Chinese people, particularly women, were able to assume new, public personae that accorded with their desires for cosmopolitan modernity. The process also created new moral worlds in which feminine visibility, self-adornment and leisure consumption were desirable attributes and came to be recognised for their signification of modernity and global connections. I draw my evidence from the highly successful  Linglong magazine, which was devoted to promoting ‘noble entertainment’ for its target female readership and dedicated about half of each issue to films and commentary about stars. The article explores typologies of patriotic stars, chaste and vulnerable stars as well as Do-It-Yourself stars that included readers’ photos and storiest hat borrowed the grammar of Hollywood stardom.]

Estran, Jaqueline. La Revue Xinyue (1928-1933): sa Contribution à la Littérature Chinoise Moderne. Ph.D. diss. Paris: INALCO, 2000.

Fang, Hanqi 方汉奇. “Jindai zhongguo de nü xinwen gongzuozhe” 近代中国的女新闻工作者 (Modern Chinese Female Workers in the Field of Journalism). Zhongguo jizhe 中国记者 6 (1987): 19-21.

—–. A History of Journalism in China. 10 vols. Hong Kong: Enrich Professional Publishing, 2013.

[Abstract: Over the course of 10 volumes, and more than 2,000 pages, the series spans 200 BC to 1991, and covers all aspects of journalism in China’s history, including newspapers, periodicals, news agencies, broadcast television, photography, documentary film, and journals. The History of Journalism presents the development of journalism in China against the backdrop of the major events in China’s history (the first and second Sino-Japanese Wars, the Chinese Civil War, and the Cultural Revolution). [It] offer[s] unique insights into all aspects of journalism in the entire Chinese-speaking world, from the Mainland to Taiwan to Hong Kong to Macau and to the larger Chinese diaspora. The author of this series, Fang Hanqi, Professor Emeritus in Journalism, has been called the “Father of China’s Modern Journalism.”]

Feldman, Gayle. “The Organization of Publishing in China.” The China Quarterly 102 (1986): 519-529.

Feuerwerker, Yi-tsi Mei. “Reconsidering Xueheng: Neo-Conservatism in Early Republican China.” In Kirk A. Denton and Michel Hockx, eds., Literary Societies in Republican China. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 2008, 137-70.

Fitzgerald, John. “The Origins of the Illiberal Party Newspaper: Print Journalism in the China’s Nationalist Revolution.” Republican China 22, 2 (Apr. 1996): 1-22.

Forster, Elisabeth. “From Academic Nitpicking to a ‘New Culture Movement’: How Newspapers Turned Academic Debates into the Center of ‘May Fourth.'” Frontiers of History in China 9, 4 (2014): 534-557.

[Abstract: In early 1919, people like Hu Shi and Chen Duxiu were regarded as members of an ivory-tower “academic faction” (xuepai), embroiled in a debate with an opposing “faction.” After the May Fourth demonstrations, they were praised as the stars of a “New Culture Movement.” However, it was not obvious how the circle around Hu Shi and Chen Duxiu was associated with the May Fourth demonstrations. This link hinged on the way in which newspapers like Shenbao reported about the academic debates and the political events of May Fourth. After compartmentalizing the debating academics into fixed xuepai, Shenbao ascribed warlord-political allegiances to them. These made the Hu-Chen circle look like government victims and their “factional” rivals like the warlords’ allies. When the atmosphere became hostile to the government during May Fourth, Hu Shi’s “faction” became associated with the equally victimized May Fourth demonstrators. Their ideas were regarded as (now popular) expressions of anti-government sentiment, and soon this was labeled the core of the “New Culture Movement.” The idea and rhetoric of China’s “New Culture Movement” in this way emerged out of the fortuitous concatenation of academic debates, newspaper stories, and political events.]

Gerwutz, Margo. Tsou Tao-fen: The Shenghuo Years, 1925-1933. Ph.D. diss. Ithaca: Cornell University, 1972.

Gimpel, Denise. “The ‘Collected Translations’ Section in the Journal Xiaoshuo yuebao.” In Findeisen and Gassmann, eds., Autumn Floods: Essays in Honour of Marian Galik. Bern: Peter Lang, 1997.

—–. “Beyond Butterflies: Some Observations on the Early Years of the Journal Xiaoshuo yuebao.” In Michel Hockx, ed., The Literary Field of Twentieth Century China. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1999, 40-60.

—–. “A Neglected Medium: The Literary Journal and the Case of The Short Story Magazine (Xiaoshuo yuebao), 1910-1914.” Modern Chinese Literature and Culutre 11, 2 (Fall 1999): 53-106.

—–. Lost Voices of Modernity: A Chinese Popular Fiction Magazine in Context. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 2001.

Goodman, Bryna. “Being Public: The Politics of Representation in 1918 Shanghai.” Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies 60, 1 (June 2000): 45-88.

—–. “Semi-Colonialism, Transnational Networks and News Flows in Early Republican Shanghai.” In Bryna Goodman (Guest Editor), “Networks of News: Power, Language and Transnational Dimensions of the Chinese Press, 1850-1949.” Special issue of China Review 4, 1 (Spring 2004): 55-88.

—–. “Networks of News: Power, Language and Transnational Dimensions of the Chinese Press, 1850–1949.” The China Review 4, no. 1 (2004): 1–10.

—–. “The New Woman Commits Suicide: The Press, Cultural Memory and the New Republic.” Journal of Asian Studies 64, 1 (February 2005).

—–. “Appealing to the Public: Newspaper Presentation and Adjudication of Emotion.” Twentieth-Century China 31, 2 (April 2006).

Haddon, Rosemary M. “T’ai-wan hsin wen-hsueh and the Evolution of a Journal: T’ai-wan min-pao.” Tamkang Review 25, 2 (1994): 1-35.

Hang, Krista Van Fliet. “People’s Literature and the Construction of a New Chinese Literary Tradition.” Journal of Modern Literature in Chinese 9, 2 (July 2009): 87-107.

Harrison, Henrietta. “Newspapers and Nationalism in Rural China, 1890-1929.” In Jeffrey N. Wasserstrom, ed., Twentieth-Century China: New Approaches. London, NY: Routledge, 2003, 83-102.

Hassid, Jonathan. China’s Unruly Journalists: How Committed Professionals are Changing the People’s Republic. NY: Routledge, 2016.

[Abstract: Despite operating in one of the most tightly controlled media environments in the world, Chinese journalists sometimes take extraordinary risks, braving the perils of job loss or imprisonment to report sensitive stories. As a result, a group of journalists stands at the forefront of some of China’s most dramatic social and political changes. This book is the first to systematically explore why some Chinese journalists decide to challenge Communist Party power holders and the censorship system. Based on 18 months of fieldwork, interviews with over 70 Chinese journalists and academics and analysis of nearly 20,000 Chinese newspaper articles, it investigates the motivation behind news workers who often brave the perils of challenging an authoritarian system. Rather than being driven by commercial pressures or financial inducements, the book suggests that many aggressive journalists push the limits of acceptable coverage because of their sense of public spirit and their professional role orientation. It argues that ultimately, these advocate journalists matter because they challenge specific policies and are changing China, one article at a time.]

Hendrischke, Hans J. Populare Lesestoffe: Propaganda und Agitation im Buchwesen der Volksrepublik China (Popular Reading Material: Propaganda and Agitation in Book Publishing in the People’s Republic of China). Bochum: Herausgeber Chinathemen, 1988.

—–. “Popularization and Localization: A Local Tabloid Newspaper Market in Transition.” In Jing Wang ed., Locating China: Space, Place, and Popuar Culture. London: Routledge, 2005, 115-32. [deals with tabloid newspapers in Guangxi]

Henningsen, Lena. “Harry Potter with Chinese Characteristics: Plagiarism between Orientalism and Occidentalism.” China Information 20 (2006): 275-311.

—–. Copyright Matters: Imitation, Creativity and Authenticity in Contemporary Chinese Literature. Berlin: Berliner Wissenschafts-Verlag, 2010. [MCLC Resource Center review by Krista Van Fleit Hang]

[Abstract: Henningsen offers five studies that challenge the wide-spread prejudice among the Western Press that China is an empire of plagiarism, sometimes even referred to as the “People’s Republic of Cheats”. By analyzing the cases of convicted plagiarist Guo Jingming, the victim of plagiarism Han Han, the follow-up publications to Jiang Rong’s Wolf’s Totem, the Harry Potter fakes and fan fiction, as well as discussions of academic plagiarism, Henningsen proves that copyright increasingly matters to Chinese writers. Confronted with instances of copyright infringements on their own works, they voice their opposition and fight for their rights, be it through legal action or their writing. At the same time, the author demonstrates that a text that is commonly considered to be “plagiarized” or “imitated” may turn out to be a highly creative work in its own right, for example when Harry Potter appears as a timid exchange student in China. Therefore, Henningsen opts for a literary reading of these “derivative” works and argues that imitation may, at times, be a creative tool. While these two central arguments appear to be contradictory, the author shows that they represent two sides of the same coin: the emergence of a new self-conception among Chinese authors, as they struggle to recast their relationship with society and state.]

Henningsmeier, Julia. “The Foreign Sources of Dianshizhai huabao, a Nineteenth Century Shanghai Illustrated Magazine.” Ming Qing Yanjiu (1998): 59-91.

Hill, Michael Gibbs. “Between English and Guoyu: The English StudentEnglish Weekly, and the Commercial Press’s Correspondence Schools.” Modern Chinese Literature and Culture 23, 2 (Fall 2011): 100-45.

Hockx, Michel. Questions of Style: Literary Societies and Literary Journals in Modern China, 1911-1937. Leiden: E. J. Brill, 2003.

—–, ed.The Literary Field of Twentieth Century China. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1999.

—–. “The Chinese Literary Association (Wenxue yanjiu hui).” In Kirk A. Denton and Michel Hockx, eds., Literary Societies in Republican China. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 2008, 79-102.

—–. “Print Culture and the New Media in Postsocialist China.” In Sara Jones and Meesha Nehru, eds., Writing under Socialism. Nottingham: Critical, Cultural and Communications Press, 2011, 29-41.

Hockx, Michel, Joan Judge, and Barbara Mittler eds. A Space of their Own: Women and the Periodical Press in China’s Long Twentieth Century. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2017.

[Abstract: In this major new collection, an international team of scholars examine the relationship between the Chinese women’s periodical press and global modernity in the late nineteenth and twentieth centuries. The essays in this richly illustrated volume probe the ramifications for women of two monumental developments in this period: the intensification of China’s encounters with foreign powers and a media transformation comparable in its impact to the current internet age. The book offers a distinctive methodology for studying the periodical press, which is supported by the development of a bilingual database of early Chinese periodicals. Throughout the study, essays on China are punctuated by transdisciplinary reflections from scholars working on periodicals outside of the Chinese context, encouraging readers to rethink common stereotypes about lived womanhood in modern China, and to reconsider the nature of Chinese modernity in a global context.]

Hon, Tze-ki. Revolution as Restoration: Guocui xuebao and China’s Path to Modernity, 1905-1911. Leiden: Brill, 2013. [MCLC Resource Center review by Peter Zarrow]

[AbstractRevolution as Restoration examines the journal Guocui xuebao (1905-1911) to elucidate the momentous political and social changes in early twentieth-century China. Rather than viewing the journal as a collection of documents for studying a thinker (e.g., Zhang Taiyan), a concept (e.g., national essence), or an intellectual movement (e.g., cultural conservatism), this book focuses on the global network of commerce and communication that allowed independent publications to appear in the Chinese print market. As such, this book offers a different perspective on the Chinese quest for modernity. It shows that, from the start, the Chinese quest for modernity was never completely orchestrated by the central government, nor was it static and monolithic as the teleology of revolution describes.]

—–. “Revolution as Restoration: Meanings of ‘National Essence’ and ‘National Learning’ in Guocui Xuebao.” In Viren Murthy and Axel Schneider, eds., The Challenge of Linear Time: Nationhood and the Politics of History in East Asia. Leiden: Brill, 2014, 257-76.

Hsia, Yu, et al. “Cross it Out, Cross it Out, Cross it Out: Erasurist Poetry from Taiwan’s Poetry Now (Issue #9, Feb 2012).” Asymptote (April 2012).

Huang, Nicole. “Fashioning Public Intellectuals: Women’s Print Culture in Occupied Shanghai (1941-1945).” In Christian Henriot and Wen-hsin Yeh, eds., In the Shadow of the Rising Sun: Shanghai under Japanese Occupation. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 2004, 325-45.

Huang, Xiang. “The Internet Helps Chinese Publisher to Plan Strategy.” The Book and the Computer (Dec. 1998).

Hung, Chang-tai. “Paper Bullets: Fan Changjiang and New Journalism in Wartime China.” Modern China 17, 4 (Oct. 1991): 427-468.

—–. War and Popular Culture: Resistance in Modern China, 1937-1945. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1994.

Huntington, Rania. “The Weird in the Newspaper.” In Judith T. Zeitlin and Lydia Liu, with Ellen Widmer, eds., Writing and Materiality in China: Essays in Honor of Patrick Hanan. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Asia Center, 2003, 341-97. [deals mostly with the Dianshizhai huabao]

Huters, Theodore. “Culture, Capital and the Temptations of the Imagined Market: The Case of the Commercial Press.” In Kai-wing Chow, Tze-ki Hon, Hung-yok Ip, and Don Price, eds., Beyond the May Fourth Paradigm: In Search of Chinese Modernity. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 2008.

Imbach, Jessica. “Ghost Talk in 1936: ‘Living Ghosts’ and ‘Real Ghosts’ in Republican-Era Literary Discourse and the Two Analects Fortnightly Ghost-Story Special Issues.” Journal of Modern Literature in China 12, 1 (Winter 2014): 14-45.

Ip, Manying. The Life and Times of Zhang Yuanji, 1867-1956. Beijing: Commercial Press, 1985.

Janku, Andrea. Nur leere Reden. Politischer Diskurs und die Shanghaier Press im China des späten 19. Jahrhunderts. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, 2003. [MCLC Resource Center review by Barbara Mittler]

—–. “Preparing the Ground for Revolutionary Discourse: From the Jingshiwen Compilations to Journalistic Writings in Nineteenth Century China.” T’oung Pao 90, 1-3 (2004): 65-121.

—–. “The Uses of Genre in the Chinese Press from the Late Qing to the Early Republican Period.” In Cynthia Brokaw and Christopher A. Reed, eds., From Woodblocks to the Internet: Chinese Publishing and Print Culture in Transition, circa 1800 to 2008. Leiden, Brill, 2010, 111-158.

Jiang, Shao. Citizen Publications in China before the Internet. NY: Palgrave Macmillan, 2015.

[Abstract: This book presents the first panoramic study of minkan (citizen publications) in China before the Internet, from the 1950s to the 1980s. Drawing on theories of civil society and the public sphere, this study explores the creative practice of minkan as a revival of the concept of ‘moveable words’ in the Chinese print tradition. When examined against the backdrop of a much older history of Chinese print culture and its renaissance, this recent history of citizen publications also contributes to the reclamation of a lost past of resistance. It is an exercise in remembering a past that has been marginalized and excluded by official history and recovering thoughts and practices obliterated by state power. This book attempts to reconstruct the narrative of modern Chinese history by analyzing the development of a civil society that is independent of both the state elite and the new apolitical bourgeoisie in mainland China.]

Jindai funu shi yanjiu 近代妇女史研究  (Research on women in modern Chinese history). Special issue on the journal Funu zazhi (Ladies journal) 12 (2004).

[Contents: “Of the Women, By the Women, or For the Women? Rewriting a Brief History of the Ladies’ Journal (Funu Zazhi), 1915-1931,” by Jin Jungwon; “The Masculine Universal and the Feminine Other: Gender Discourse in the Ladies’ Journal,” by Chiang Yung-chen; “Free Divorce in Thought and Practice: Gender Differences in the Ladies’ Journal,” by Hsu Hui-chi; “The Rhetoric of ‘Sacrifice’ and ‘Victimhood’: The Image of Prostitutes in the Ladies’ Journal,” by Yao Yi; “The ‘Medical Advisory Column’ in the Ladies’ Journal,” by Chang Che-chia; “The Writers’ Garden, the Toilette Case, and the Kasumam: Theory and Practice of Women’s Literature in the Ladies’ Journal of the 1910s,” by Hu Siao-chen; “Individual Choice or National Policy: Reflections on Birth Control in Modern China As Seen in the Special Issue on Limiting Births of theLadies’ Journal in the 1920s,” by Lu Fang-shang; “The Ladies’ Journal and Japanese Women: ‘Tong Wei Nu ren’ (‘commonality as women’) in Modern East Asia,”. by Sudo Mizuyo; “Study of Children Appeared on The Ladies’ Journal (1915-1931)–Making Comparison with Xinnuxing (Chosun Colonized by Japan),” by Gee Hyun-Sook; “New Views on Chinese Women’s History,” by Peter Zarrow; “Family and State over Forty Years: A Review of Family Chinese Visions of and State, 1915-1953,” by Lien Ling-ling]

Judge, Joan. “The Factional Function of Print: Liang Qichao, Shibao, and the Fissures in the Late-Qing Reform Movement.” Late Imperial China 16, 1 (June 1996): 120-140.

—–. Print and Politics: ‘Shibao’ and the Culture of Reform in Late Qing China. Stanford: Stanford UP, 1996.

—–. “Publicists and Populists: Including the Common People in the Late Qing New Citizen Ideal.” In Joshua Fogel and Peter G. Zarrow, eds., Imagining the People: Chinese Intellectuals and the Concept of Citizenship, 1890-1920. Armonk, NY: M.E. Sharpe, 1997, 165-82.

—–. “The Power of Print: Print Capitalism and the News Media in Late Qing and Republican China.” Harvard Journal of Asian Studies 66, 1 (June 2006): 233-54.

——. Republican Lens: Gender, Visuality, and Experience in the Early Chinese Periodical Press. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2016. 

[Abstract: What can we learn about modern Chinese history by reading a marginalized set of materials from a widely neglected period? In Republican Lens, Joan Judge retrieves and revalorizes the vital brand of commercial culture that arose in the period surrounding China’s 1911 Revolution. Dismissed by high-minded ideologues of the late 1910s and largely overlooked in subsequent scholarship, this commercial culture has only recently begun to be rehabilitated in mainland China. Judge uses one of its most striking, innovative—and continually mischaracterized—products, the journal Funü shibao (The women’s eastern times), as a lens onto the early years of China’s first Republic. Redeeming both the value of the medium and the significance of the era, she demonstrates the extent to which the commercial press channeled and helped constitute key epistemic and gender trends in China’s revolutionary twentieth century. The book develops a cross-genre and inter-media method for reading the periodical press and gaining access to the complexities of the past. Drawing on the full materiality of the medium, Judge reads cover art, photographs, advertisements, and poetry, editorials, essays, and readers’ columns in conjunction with and against one another, as well as in their broader print, historical and global contexts. This yields insights into fundamental tensions that governed both the journal and the early Republic. It also highlights processes central to the arc of twentieth-century knowledge culture and social change: the valorization and scientization of the notion of “experience,” the public actualization of “Republican Ladies,” and the amalgamation of “Chinese medicine” and scientific biomedicine. It further revives the journal’s editors, authors, medical experts, artists, and, most notably, its little known female contributors. Republican Lens captures the ingenuity of a journal that captures the chaotic potentialities within China’s early Republic and its global twentieth century.]

Kaikkonen, Marja. “Stories and Legends: China’s Largest Contemporary Popular Literature Journals.” In Michel Hockx, ed., The Literary Field of Twentieth Century China. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1999, 134-60.

Karl, Rebecca E. “Journalism, Social Values, and a Philosophy of the Everyday in 1920s China.” positions: east asia cultures critique 16, 3 (Winter 2008): 539-68.

Keulemans, Paize. “Printing the Sound of Cosmopolitan Beijing: Dialect Accents in Nineteenth-Century Martial Arts Fiction.” In Cynthia Brokaw and Christopher A. Reed, eds., From Woodblocks to the Internet: Chinese Publishing and Print Culture in Transition, circa 1800 to 2008. Leiden, Brill, 2010, 159-84.

Kiely, J. “Third Force Periodicals in China: Introduction and Annotated Bibliography.” Republican China 21, 1 (Nov. 1995): 129-68.

—–. “Spreading the Dharma with the Mechanized Press: New Buddhist Print Culture in the Modern Chinese Print Revolution, 1866-1949.” In Cynthia Brokaw and Christopher A. Reed, eds., From Woodblocks to the Internet: Chinese Publishing and Print Culture in Transition, circa 1800 to 2008. Leiden, Brill, 2010, 185-211.

Kong, Shuyu. “Between a Rock and a Hard Place: Chinese Literary Journals in the Cultural Marketplace.” Modern Chinese Literature and Culture 14, 1 (Spring 2002): 93-144.

—–. “For Reference Only: Restricted Publication and Distribution of Foreign Literature During the Cultural Revolution.” Yishu: Journal of Contemporary Chinese Art 1, 2 (2002): 76-85

—–. Consuming Literature: Best Sellers and the Commercialization of Literary Production in Contemporary China. Stanford: Stanford UP, 2005.

Kurtz, Joachim. “Messenger of the Sacred Heart: Li Wenyu (1840-1911), and the Jesuit Periodical Press in Late Qing Shanghai.” In Cynthia Brokaw and Christopher A. Reed, eds., From Woodblocks to the Internet: Chinese Publishing and Print Culture in Transition, circa 1800 to 2008. Leiden, Brill, 2010, 81-110.

Laing, Ellen Johnston. “Shanghai Manhua, the Neo-Sensationist School of Literature, and Scenes of Urban Life.” MCLC Resource Center (Sept. 2010).

Latham, Kevin. “Between Markets and Mandarins: Journalists and the Rhetorics of Transition in Southern China.” In Brian Moeran, ed. Asian Media Productions. Richmond, UK: Curzon Press, 2001, 89-107.

Laughlin, Charles. “The Analects Group and the Genre of Xiaopin.” In Kirk A. Denton and Michel Hockx, eds., Literary Societies in Republican China. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 2008, 207-40.

—–. “The All-China Resistance Association of Writers and Artists.” In Kirk A. Denton and Michel Hockx, eds., Literary Societies in Republican China. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 2008, 379-412.

Lee, Chin-chuan, ed. Voices of China: The Interplay of Politics and Journalism. NY: Guilford, 1990.

Lee, Haiyan. “All the Feelings That Are Fit to Print: The Community of Sentiment and the Literary Public Sphere in China, 1900-1918.” Modern China 27, no. 3 (July 2001): 291-327.

—–. “‘A Dime Store of Words’: Liberty Magazine and the Cultural Logic of the Popular Press.” Twentieth-Century China 33, 1 (Nov. 2007).

Lee, Leo Ou-fan. “The Construction of Modernity in Print Culture.” In Lee, Shanghai Modern: The Flowering of a New Urban Culture in China, 1930-1945. Cambridge: Harvard UP, 1999, 43-81. [focusses on the journals Dongfang zazhi and Liangyou huabao]

—–. “Textual Transactions: Discovering Literary Modernism through Books and Journals.” In Lee, Shanghai Modern: The Flowering of a New Urban Culture in China, 1930-1945. Cambridge: Harvard UP, 1999, 120-50.

—–. “Incomplete Modernity: Rethinking the May Fourth Intellectual Project.” In Milena Dolezelova-Velingerova and Oldrich Kral, eds., The Appropriation of Cultural Capital: China’s May Fourth Project. Cambridge: Harvard University Asia Center, 2001, 31-65.

Lee, Leo Ou-fan and Andrew Nathan. “The Beginnings of Mass Culture: Journalism and Fiction in the Late-Qing and Beyond.” In Johnson, Nathan, Rawski, eds. Popular Culture in Late Imperial China. Berkeley: UC Press, 1983. 360-95.

Lee, Siu-yau. “Defining Correctness: The Tale of the Contemporary Chinese Dictionary.”  Modern China 40 (2014): 426-450.

[Abstract: Chinese dictionaries have long been an important tool for promoting the political agenda of the state. Not much has changed in the twenty-first century. A conventional assumption is that dictionary compilation has been controlled by the state. An examination of the history of the Contemporary Chinese Dictionary (Xiandai Hanyu cidian) suggests that such a claim is exaggerated. While the state was indeed actively involved in the compilation of the dictionary before the 1980s, the presumed propagandistic content of the dictionary in the twenty-first century has been more a result of the profit-seeking behavior of its publisher, the Commercial Press, than direct state control. In order to defend the market share of its product, the Commercial Press needs to struggle with rival publishers to present to the public a close affinity with the state, which has the authority to define linguistic correctness. Consequently, the Contemporary Chinese Dictionary has been revised in accordance with the changing political agenda of the state and thus continues to support its nation-building project. This finding revises the conventional wisdom on several scores, particularly by deepening the analysis of language politics and reaffirming its importance in contemporary China]

Liao, Ping-hui. “The Case of the Emergent Cultural Criticism Columns in Taiwan’s Newspaper Literary Supplements: Global/Local Dialectics in Contemporary Taiwanese Public Culture.” In Rob Wilson and Wimal Dissanayake, eds., Global/Local: Cultural Production and the Transnational Imaginary. Durham: Duke UP, 1996, 337-47.

Lin, Hao. “China’s Paper Crisis.” The Book and the Computer (Jan. 1999).

Lin, Yutang. A History of the Press and Public Opinion in China. NY: Greenwood Press, 1968.

Liu, Alan P.L. Book Publishing in Communist China. Cambridge: Center for International Studies, MIT, 1965.

Liu, Huiying. “Feminism: An Organic or an Extremist Position? On Tien Yee As Represented by He Zhen.” positions 11, 3 (Winter 2003): 779-800.

Liu, Kenneth S. H. “Publishing Taiwan: A Survey of Publications of Taiwanese Literature in English Translation.” In Anna Guttman, Michel Hockx and George Paizis, eds., The Global Literary Field. Newcastle: Cambridge Scholars Press, 2006, 200-227.

Liu, Kuo-chun et al. The Story of Chinese Books. Beijing: Foreign Languages Press, 1985.

Liu, Lydia. “The Making of the Compendium of Modern Chinese Literature.” In Translingual Practice. Stanford: Stanford UP, 1995.

Liu, Zengren. “An Overview on the Research History of the Modern Literary Journals in China.” Frontiers of Literary Studies in China 3, 1 (March 2009): 97-118.

Lowenthal, R. “The Tientsin Press: A Technical Survey.” Chinese Social and Political Science Review 19, 4 (Jan. 1936): 543-58.

—–. “Public Communication in China Before 1937.” Chinese Social and Political Science Review 22, 1 (Apr-June 1938): 42-58.

Ma, Boyong. “A General Evaluation of Retail Magazines.” (posted by Joel Martinsen, 12/3/2007).

Ma, Ruiqi. “The Function of Literary Journals in the Literary System of Mainland China.” In Steven Totosy de Zepetnek and Iren Sywenky, eds., The Systemic and Empirical Approach to Literature and Culture as Theory and Application. Research Institute for Comparative Literature and Cross-Cultural Studies, University of Alberta, 1997, 299-307.

Ma, Yunxin. Women Journalists and Feminism in China, 1898-1937. Amherst, NY: Cambria Press, 2010.

[Abstract: This book takes a historical approach in its examination and uses gender as an analytical category to study the significance of women’s press writings in the years of nation building. Treating women journalists as agents of change and using their media writings as primary sources, this book explores what mattered to women writers at different historical junctures, as well as how they articulated values and meaning in a changing society and guided social changes in the direction they desired. It situates gender issues in the context of nation building, and examines how women’s public writings challenged the male dominance of print media, competed for the authority and authenticity of feminist discourse, constructed new feminine positions and gender norms, and integrated gender equality and women’s emancipation into Chinese modernity. This book delineates the transformation of women journalists from political-minded Confucian gentry women to professional journalists, and of women’s periodicals from representing women journalists’ views to addressing the concerns and needs of the majority of women. It analyzes how the concepts of “feminism” and “nationalism” were embodied with different–even contesting–meanings at given historical junctures, and how women journalists managed to advance various feminist agendas by tapping on the various meanings of nationalism. ]

MacKinnon, Stephen R. “The Role of the Chinese and U.S. Media.” In J. Wasserstrom and E. Perry, eds., Popular Protest and Political Culture in Modern China. Boulder: Westview, 1992, 206-14.

—–. “Press Freedom and the Chinese Revolution in the 1930s.” In J. Popkin, ed., Media and Revolution: Comparative Perspectives. Lexington: University of Kentucky Press, 1995, 174-88.

—–. “Toward a History of the Chinese Press in the Republican Period.” Modern China 23, 1 (Jan. 1997): 3-32.

Meng, Yue. “A Playful Discourse, Its Site, and Its Subject: ‘Free Chat’ on the Shen Daily, 1911-1918.” MA thesis. Univeristy of California, LA, 1994.

Miller, Mark. “The Yusi Society.” In Kirk A. Denton and Michel Hockx, eds., Literary Societies in Republican China. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 2008, 171-206.

Mittler, Barbara. A Newspaper for China? Power, Identity, and Change in Shanghai’s News Media, 1872-1912. Cambridge: Harvard University Asia Center, 2003.

—–. “Between Discourse and Social Reality: The Early Chinese Press in Recent Publications: Review Essay.” MCLC Resource Center Publication (Feb. 2007).

—–. “In Spite of Gentility: Women and Men in Linglong (Elegance),a 1930s Women’s Magazine.” In Daria Berg and Chloe Starr, eds., The Quest for Gentility in China: Negotiations Beyond Gender and Class. London: Routledge, 2007.

Narramore, Terry. Making the News in Shanghai: ‘Shenbao’ and the Politics of Newspaper Journalism, 1912-1937. Ph. D. dissertation, Australian National University, 1989.

—–. “The Nationalists and the Daily Press: the Case of the Shen Bao.” In John Fitzgerald, ed., The Nationalists and Chinese Society, 1923-1937. Melbourne: University of Melbourne Press, 1989, 106-32.

Nathan, Andrew. “The Late Ch’ing Press: Role, Audience, and Impact.” In Zhongyang yanjiu yuan guoji hanxue huiyi lunwen ji (Proceedings of the International Conference on Sinology), 3 vols. Taibei: Zhongyang yanjiu yuan, 1981, 3: 1281-1308.

Neder, Christina. “Censorship in Republican China.” In Derek Jones, ed., Censorship: A World Encyclopedia. London: Fitzroy Dearborn, 1999.

Ng, Mau-sang. “The Crystal and the May Fourth Culture.” In Marian Galik, ed., Interliterary and Intraliterary Aspects of the May Fourth Movement 1919 in China. Bratislava: Veda, 1990, 167-78.

Nielsen, Inge. “Modern Chinese Literature Sells Out.” Tamkang Review 30, 3 (Spring 2000): 89-110. [on commericialism in the post-Mao book industry]

Nivard, Jaqueline. “Women and the Women’s Press: The Case of the Ladies Journal (Funu zazhi) 1915-1931.” Republican China 10, 1b (1984): 37-55.

Nunn, Godfrey Raymond. Publishing in Mainland China. Cambridge: MIT Press, 1966.

Ocko, Jonathan. “The British Museum’s Peking Gazette.” Ch’ing-shi wen-t’i 2/9 (1973): 35-49.

Pan, Yuan and Jie Pan. “The Non-Official Magazine Today and the Younger Generation’s Ideals for a New Literature.” In J. Kinkley, ed., After Mao: Chinese Literature and Society, 1978-1981. Cambridge, MA: Harvard UP, 1985, 193-219.

Pickowicz, Paul, Kuiyi Shen, and Yingjin Zhang, eds. Liangyou: Kaleidoscopic Modernity and the Shanghai Global Metropolis. Leiden: Brill, 2013.

[Abstract: This collection of original essays explores the rise of popular print media in China as it relates to the quest for modernity in the global metropolis of Shanghai from 1926 to 1945. It does this by offering the first extended look at the phenomenal influence of the Liangyou pictorial, The Young Companion, arguably the most exciting monthly periodical ever published in China. Special emphasis is placed on the profound social and cultural impact of this glittering publication at a pivotal time in China. The essays explore the dynamic concept of “kaleidoscopic modernity” and offer individual case studies on the rise of “art” photography, the appeals of slick patent medicines, the resilience of female artists, the allure of aviation celebrities, the feistiness of women athletes, representations of modern masculinity, efforts to regulate the female body and female sexuality, and innovative research that locates the stunning impact of Liangyou in the broader context of related cultural developments in Tokyo and Seoul. Contributors include: Paul W. Ricketts, Timothy J. Shea, Emily Baum, Maura Elizabeth Cunningham, Jun Lei, Amy O’Keefe, Hongjian Wang, Ha Yoon Jung, Lesley W. Ma, Tongyun Yin, and Wang Chuchu.]

Polumbaum, J. “Tribulations of Chinese Journalists after a Decade of Reform.” In Chin-chuan Lee, ed., Voices of China: the Inerplay of Politics and Journalism. NY: Guilford, 1990, 33-68.

Poon, David Jim-tat. “Tatzepao: Its History and Significance as a Communication Medium.” In Godwin Chu, ed., Popular Media in China: Shaping New Cultural Patterns. Honolulu: University Press of Hawaii, 1978, 184-221.

Qian, Suoqiao. “Gentlemen of The Critic: English-Speaking Liberal Intellectuals in Republican China.” China Heritage Quarterly 30.31 (June/September 2012).

Qin Shaode. Shanghai jindai baokan shilun (A history of newspapers and magazines in modern Shanghai). Shanghai: Fudan daxue, 1993.

Rea, Christopher and Nicolai Volland, eds. The Business of Culture: Cultural Entrepreneurs in China and Southeast Asia, 1900-65. Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press, 2015.

[Abstract: From the late nineteenth- to the mid-twentieth century, changes in mass media, transportation, and communication technologies provided unprecedented opportunities for the entrepreneurially minded in China and Southeast Asia. The Business of Culture examines the rise of these “cultural entrepreneurs,” Chinese business people who risked financial well-being and reputation by investing in multiple enterprises to build cultural, social, or financial capital. Featuring ten interlinked case studies, this volume introduces readers to three distinct archetypes who emerged during this time: the cultural personality, the tycoon, and collective enterprise. These include the likes of Lü Bicheng, a famous classical poet, who parlayed her literary prestige into a career as the principal of a Beijing girls’ school and then used her business fortune to build a high-profile persona as a glamorous foreign correspondent; Aw Boon Haw, the “tiger” behind the Tiger Brand pharmaceutical company; and the Shaw Brothers, ethnic Chinese filmmakers and exhibitors who drew thousands of people out each night to watch movies in Singapore and British Malaya.  Collectively, these portraits reveal how changes in social and economic conditions created the fertile soil for business success; conditions that are similar to those emerging in China today]

Reed, Christopher. Gutenberg in Shanghai: Mechanized Publishing, Modern Printing, and Their Effects on The City, 1876-1937. Ph.D. Diss. University of California, Berkeley. 1996.

—–. “Sooty Sons of Vulcan: Shanghai’s Printing Machine Manufacturers, 1895-1932.” Republican China 20, 2 (April 1995): 9-54.

—–. Gutenberg in Shanghai: Chinese Print Capitalism, 1876-1937. Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press, 2004. [paperback edition University of Hawaii Press, 2004] [MCLC Resource Center review by Rudolf Wagner] [Response to Wagner’s review by Christopher Reed]

—–. “From Woodblocks to the Internet: Chinese Printing, Publishing, and Literary Fields in Transition, circa 1800 to 2008.” In Cynthia Brokaw and Christopher A. Reed, eds., From Woodblocks to the Internet: Chinese Publishing and Print Culture in Transition, circa 1800 to 2008. Leiden, Brill, 2010, 1-37.

—–. “Advancing the (Gutenberg) Revolution: The Origins and Development of Chinese Print Communism, 1921-1947.” In Cynthia Brokaw and Christopher A. Reed, eds., From Woodblocks to the Internet: Chinese Publishing and Print Culture in Transition, circa 1800 to 2008. Leiden, Brill, 2010, 275-313.

Richter, Harald. Publishing in the People’s Republic of China: Personal Observations by a Foreign Student, 1975-1977. Hamburg: Verbund Stiftung Deutsches Übersee-Institut, 1978.

Rusch, Beate. “The Shanghai ‘Zeitgeist Bookstore’: A Case Study in the Practice of Intercultural Networking.” In Findeisen and Gassmann, eds., Autumn Floods: Essays in Honour of Marian Galik. Bern: Peter Lang, 1997.

Shanghai Lens on the New(s) 1: Dianshizhai Pictorial (1884-1898). Essay by Jeffrey Wasserstrom and Rebecca Nedostup; and Image Gallery. MIT Visualizing Culture website.

Shen, Shuang. Cosmopolitan Publics: Anglophone Print Culture in Semi-Colonial Shanghai. Piscataway, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 2009. [MCLC Resource Center review by Samuel Y. Liang]

[Abstract: Early twentieth-century China paired the local community to the world–a place and time when English dominated urban-centered higher and secondary education and Chinese-edited English-language magazines surfaced as a new form of translingual practice. Cosmopolitan Publics focuses on China’s “cosmopolitans”–Western-educated intellectuals who returned to Shanghai in the late 1920s to publish in English and who, ultimately, became both cultural translators and citizens of the wider world. Shuang Shen highlights their work in publications such as The China Critic and T’ien Hsia, providing readers with a broader understanding of the role and function of cultural mixing, translation, and multilingualism in China’s cultural modernity. Decades later, as nationalist biases and political restrictions emerged within China, the influence of the cosmopolitans was neglected and the significance of cosmopolitan practice was underplayed. Shen’s encompassing study revisits and presents the experience of Chinese modernity as far more heterogeneous, emergent, and transnational than it has been characterized until now.]

—–. “A Certain Cosmopolitanism: Writing for The China Critic.” China Heritage Quarterly 30/31 (June/Sept. 2012).

Shiao, Ling. “Culture, Commerce, and Connections: The Inner Dynamics of New Culture Publishing in the Post-May Fourth Period.” In Cynthis Brokaw and Christopher A. Reed, eds. From Woodblocks to the Internet: Chinese Publishing and Print Culture in Transition, circa 1800 to 2008. Leiden, Brill, 2010, 213-48.

Stranahan, Patricia. Molding the Medium: The Chinese Communist Party and the Liberation Daily. Armonk, NY: M.E. Sharpe, 1990.

Tang, Xiaobing, with Michel Hockx. “The Creation Society (1921-1930).” In Kirk A. Denton and Michel Hockx, eds., Literary Societies in Republican China. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 2008, 103-36.

Taylor, Jeremy. “The Sinification of Soviet Agitational Theatre: ‘Living Newspapers in Mao’s China.” Journal of the British Association of Chinese Studies 3 (Dec. 2013).

Ting, Lee-Hsia Hsu. Government Control of the Press in Modern China, 1900-1949. Cambridge: East Asian Research Center, Harvard University, 1975.

Tong, Hollington K. Dateline China: The Beginning of China’s Press Relations with the World. NY: Rockport Press, 1950.

van Crevel, Maghiel. “Unofficial Poetry Journals from the People’s Republic of China: A Research Note and an Annotated Bibliography.” MCLC Resource Center Publication (February 2007).

Vittinghoff, Natascha. “Readers, Publishers and Officials in the Contest for a Public Voice and the Rise of a Modern Press in Late Qing China, 1860-1880.”T’oung Pao LXXXVII, 4-5 (2001): 393-455.

—–. “Unity vs. Uniformity: Liang Qichao and the Formation of a ‘New Journalism’ in China.” Late Imperial China 23, 1 (2002): 97-143.

—–. Die Anfänge des Journalismus in China (1860-1911). Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, 2002. [MCLC Resource Center review by Barbara Mittler]

—–. “Social Actors in the Field of New Learning.” In Natascha Gentz-Vittinghoff and Michael Lackner eds., Translating Western Knowledge into Late Imperial China. Leiden: Brill, 2004.

Waara, Caroline Lynne. Arts and Life: Public and Private Culture in Chinese Art Periodicals, 1912-1937. Ph. d. diss. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan, 1994. [focus on Meishu shenghuo]

—–. “Invention, Industry, Art: The Commercialization of Culture in Republican Art Magazines.” Sherman Cochran, ed., Inventing Nanjing Road: Commercial Culture in Shanghai, 1900-1945. Ithaca, NY: East Asia Program, Cornell University, 1999, 61-90.

—–. “The Bare Truth: Nudes, Sex, and the Modernization Project in Shanghai Pictorials.” In Jason C. Kuo ed., Visual Culture in Shanghai 1850s-1930s. Washington, DC: New Academia, 2007.

Wagner, Rudolf. “The Early Chinese Newspapers and the Chinese Public Sphere.” European Journal of East Asian Studies 1 (2001): 1-34.

—–. “The Shenbao in Crisis: The International Environment and the Conflict Between Guo Songtai and the Shenbao.” Late Imperial China 20, 1 (1999): 107-38.

—–. “The Role of the Foreign Community in the Chinese Public Sphere.” China Quarterly  142 (June 1995): 423-43.

Wagner, Rudolf G. ed. Joining the Global Public: Word, Image, and City in Early Chinese Newspapers, 1870-1910. Albany, NY: SUNY Press, 2007.

—–. “The Foreign Language Press in Late-Qing and Republican China.” China Heritage Quarterly 30/31 (June/Sept. 2012).

Wang, Gary. “Making ‘Opposite-Sex Love’ in Print: Discourse and Discord in Linglong Women’s Pictorial Magazine, 1931-1937.” Nan nu 13, 2 (Nov. 2011): 244-347.

[Abstract: This is a case study that examines desire and its regulation in the Shanghai magazine publication Linglong of the 1930s. It highlights representational tensions in the construction of heteronormative marriage, a regulatory measure that contained the prospects of female autonomy during a period of flux. The study uses an integrated, or “horizontal,” method of reading, which regards journal issues as collectively authored texts and emphasizes the spatial relation and interplay of printed content. Writings and images are referred to as integral aspects of representation to illustrate the ways in which heteronormativity is covertly challenged at the same time that same-sex love and the rejection of marriage are forcefully stigmatized. A special focus of the analysis is an examination of how the valorization of heterosexual love is matched by vociferous attacks on men and idealizations of female bonds, which are at times valued over relations with men. Insinuations of alternative sensibilities and desires are also highlighted, especially the magazine’s celebration of masculine women in images. ]

Wang, Juan. The Weight of Frivolous Matters: Shanghai Tabloid Culture, 1897-1911. Ph. D. diss. Palo Alto: Stanford University, 2004.

—–. “Officialdom Unmasked: Shanghai Tabloid Press, 1897-1911.” Late Imperial China 28, 2 (Dec. 2007): 81-128.

—–. Merry Laughter and Angry Curses: The Shanghai Tabloid Press, 1897-1911. Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press, 2012.

[Abstract: The end of the Qing dynasty in China saw an unprecedented explosion of print journalism. Chinese-owned newspapers, first encouraged by Emperor Guangxu to inform and educate an increasingly literate public, had by the turn of the century become more powerful than the state had ever anticipated or desired. Yet it was not the dabao, or “important” papers, that proved most influential. Rather it was the xiaobao, the “little” or “minor” papers — with their reputation for frivolity — that captivated and empowered the public. Merry Laughter and Angry Curses reveals how the late-Qing-era tabloid press became the voice of the people. As periodical publishing reached a fever pitch, tabloids had free rein to criticize officials, mock the elite, and scandalize readers, giving the public knowledge about previously unspeakable and unprintable ideas. In the name of the people, tabloid writers produced a massive amount of anti-establishment literature, whose distinctive humour and satirical style were both potent and popular. This book shows the tabloid community to be both a producer of meanings and a participant in the social and cultural dialogue that would shake the foundations of imperial China and lead to the 1911 Republican Revolution.]

Wang, L. S. “The Independent Press and Authoritarian Regimes: The Case of the Da Gong Bao in Republican China.” Pacific Affairs 67, 2 (1994): 216-41.

Wang Shaoguang, Deborah Davis, and Yanjie Bian. “The Uneven Distribution of Cultural Capital: Book Reading in Urban China.” Modern China 32, 3 (2006): 315-348.

[Abstract: Drawing on interviews with 400 couples in four cities in 1998, this exploratory study focuses on variation in reading habits to integrate the concept of cultural capital into the theoretical and empirical analysis of inequality and social stratification in contemporary urban China. Overall, we find that volume and composition of cultural capital varies across social classes independent of education. Thus, to the extent that cultural capital in the form of diversified knowledge and appreciation for certain genres or specific authors is unevenly distributed across social classes, we hypothesize that the possession of cultural capital may be a valuable resource in defining and crystallizing class boundaries in this hybrid, fast-changing society.]

Wang, Ying Pin. The Rise of the Native Press in China. NY: Columbia University, 1924.

Wang, Y. Yvon. “Whorish Representation: Pornography, Media, and Modernity in Fin-de-siecle Beijing.” Modern China 40 (2014): 351-392.

[Abstract: Using materials from police reports to song chapbooks, this article traces the experience of and discourse about sexually explicit media in late Qing and early Republican Beijing. Although explicit representations of sex and efforts to control them had a long history in China, two new forces converged in this period: ideas about reproductive bodies and technologies of reproducing information. These factors injected unprecedented volatility into the parameters of legitimate sexual representation, allowing them to be truly and widely contested for the first time. Existing Euro-American scholarship takes both the “invention of pornography” and the rise of modernity as peculiarly Western phenomena. Fin-de-siècle Beijing presents a corrective case: the fusion of mass-circulated media and sexuality not only casts a telling light on China in the twentieth century but has also embedded Chinese experiences ever more tightly in a complex ongoing saga of global modernities]

Wang, Zheng. “A Case of Circulating Feminism: The Ladies Journal.” In Wang, Women in the Chinese Enlightenment: Oral and Textual Histories. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1999, 6-7-116.

Wei, Shuge. News Under Fire: China’s Propaganda against Japan in the English-Language Press, 1928-1941. Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press, 2017.

Weston, Timothy. “Minding the Newspaper Business: The Theory and Practice of Journalism in 1920s China.” Twentieth-Century China 31, 2 (April 2006).

Widmer, Ellen. “Modernization without Mechanization: The Changing Shape of Fiction on the Eve of the Opium War.” In Cynthia Brokaw and Christopher A. Reed, eds., From Woodblocks to the Internet: Chinese Publishing and Print Culture in Transition, circa 1800 to 2008. Leiden, Brill, 2010, 59-79.

Widor, Claude. The Samizdat Press In China’s Provinces, 1979-1981: An Annotated Guide. Stanford: Hoover Institution Press, 1987.

Women’s Magazines from the Republican Period. Institute for Chinese Studies, Heidelberg University. [good introduction to important women’s magazines; also contains an excellent bibliography of secondary sources]

Wong, Lawrence Wang-chi. Politics and Literature in Shanghai: the Chinese League of Left-Wing Writers, 1930-1936. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1991.

—–. “A Literary Organization with a Clear Political Agenda: The Chinese League of Left-Wing Writers, 1930-1936.” In Kirk A. Denton and Michel Hockx, eds., Literary Societies in Republican China. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 2008, 15-46.

Wu, I-Wei. “Participating in Global Affairs: The Chinese Cartoon Monthly Shanghai Puck.” In Hans Harder and Barbara Mittler, eds., Asian Punches: A Transcultural Affair. Berlin: Springer-Verlag, 2013, 365-88.

Wu, Shengqing. “Contested Fengya: Classical-Style Poetry Clubs in Early Republican China.” In Kirk A. Denton and Michel Hockx, eds., Literary Societies in Republican China. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 2008, 15-46.

Wue, Roberta. “The Profits of Philanthropy: Relief Aid, Shenbao, and the Art World in Later Nineteenth-Century Shanghai.” Late Imperial China 25, 1 (June 2004): 187-211

Wusi shiqi qikan jieshao 五四时期期刊介绍 (Introduction to journals of the May Fourth period). 3 vols. Beijing: Renmin wenxue, 1959.

Xu, Xiaoqun. Cosmopolitanism, Nationalism and Individualism in Modern China: The Chenbao Fukan and the New Culture Era, 1918–1928. Lanham: Lexington Books, 2014.

Xu, Xing. “The Rise and Struggle for Survival of the Unofficial Press in China.” In Documents on the Chinese Democratic Movement, 1978-1980. Paris and Hong Kong: Ecoles des Hautes Etudes en Science Sociales and Observer Publishers, 1981, 33-45.

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[Abstract: This book examines the transformations in form, genre, and content of contemporary Chinese print media. It describes and analyses the role of post-reform social stratification in the media, focusing particularly on how the changing practices and institutions of the industry correspond to and accelerate the emergence of a relatively affluent urban leisure-reading market. It argues that this reinvention of Chinese print media vis-à-vis the creation of a post-socialist taste (class) culture is an essential part of the cultural and affective transformations in contemporary Chinese society, and demonstrates how the reinvention of such taste culture effectively creates, through new kinds of reading materials and carefully demarcated target audiences, a middle-class civility that serves as the locus of the new niche media market.]