Theme-1

General | Lit Societies | Print Culture | Modernism | Postmodernism | Gender |
| Same-Sex | Minority, Aboriginal | Eco-literature | Science Fiction | Nativist-Roots |
Popular Lit | Realism | Children’s Lit | Translation Studies | The Field |


General Studies

Akiyama, Masayuki and Yiu-nam Leung, eds. Crosscurrents in the Literatures of Asia and the West: Essays in Honor of A. Owen Aldridge. Newark: University of Delaware Press; London; Cranbury, NJ: Associated University Presses, 1997.

Anderson, Marsten. The Limits of Realism: Chinese Fiction in the Revolutionary Period. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1990.

Anagnost, Ann. National Past-Times: Narrative, Representation, and Power in Modern China. Durham: Duke University Press, 1998.

Ang, Ien. “Can One Say No to Chineseness? Pushing the Limits of the Diasporic Paradigm.” Boundary 2. Special Issue ed. Rey Chow. 25, 2 (Fall 1998): 47-76.

Bachner, Andrea. “Graphic Germs: Mediality, Virulence, Chinese Writing.” Modern Chinese Literature and Culture 23, 1 (Spring 2011): 197-225.

Bachner, Andrea. Beyond Sinology: Chinese Writing and the Scripts of Culture. NY: Columbia University Press, 2014.

[Abstract: New communication and information technologies provide distinct challenges and possibilities for the Chinese script, which, unlike alphabetic or other phonetic scripts, relies on multiple signifying principles. In recent decades, this multiplicity has generated a rich corpus of reflection and experimentation in literature, film, visual and performance art, and design and architecture, within both China and different parts of the West. Approaching this history from a variety of alternative theoretical perspectives, Beyond Sinology reflects on the Chinese script to pinpoint the multiple connections between languages, scripts, and medial expressions and cultural and national identities. Through a complex study of intercultural representations, exchanges, and tensions, the text focuses on the concrete “scripting” of identity and alterity, advancing a new understanding of the links between identity and medium and a critique of articulations that rely on single, monolithic, and univocal definitions of writing. Chinese writing–with its history of divergent readings in Chinese and non-Chinese contexts, with its current reinvention in the age of new media and globalization–can teach us how to read and construct mediality and cultural identity in interculturally responsible ways and also how to scrutinize, critique, and yet appreciate and enjoy the powerful multi-medial creativity embodied in writing.]

Barlow, Tani E. The Question of Women in Chinese Feminism. Durham: Duke University Press, 2004. [MCLC Resource Center review by Megan M. Ferry]

[Abstract: A history of thinking about the subject of women in twentieth-century China. Barlow illustrates the theories and conceptual categories that Enlightenment Chinese intellectuals have developed to describe the collectivity of women. Demonstrating how generations of these theorists have engaged with international debates over eugenics, gender, sexuality, and the psyche, Barlow argues that as an Enlightenment project, feminist debate in China is at once Chinese and international. Noting the eugenicist roots of much twentieth-century feminist thought, she describes how the emergence of the social sciences in the 1920s, in China and elsewhere, lent the liberation of women a particular urgency by suggesting that the health of nations and races rested in part on the biological mechanisms of natural selection and therefore on women’s responsibility to select sexual partners.]

Benton, Gregor and Alan Hunter. Wild Lily, Prairie Fire: China’s Road to Democracy, Yan’an to Tian’anmen, 1942-1989. Princeton: Princeton UP, 1995.

Berry, Michael. A History of Pain: Literary and Cinematic Mappings of Violence in Modern China. Ph. D. diss. New York: Columbia University, 2004.

Birch, Cyril. “Change and Continuity in Chnese Fiction.” In M. Goldman, ed., Modern Chinese Literature in the May Fourth Era. Cambridge, MA: HUP, 1977, 385-406.

Braester, Yomi. Witness Against History: Literature, Film, and Public Discourse in Twentieth-Century China. Stanford: Stanford UP, 2003.

Button, Peter. Configurations of the Real in Chinese Literary and Aesthetic Modernity. Leiden: Brill, 2009. [MCLC Resource Center Publications review by Thomas Moran]

[Abstract: The emergence of the Chinese socialist realist novel can best be understoodin light of the half-century long formation of the modern concept of literature in China. Globalized in the wake of modern capitalism, literary modernity configures the literary text in a relationship to both modern philosophy and literary theory. This book traces China’s unique, complex, and creative articulation of literary modernity beginning with Lu Xun’s “The True Story of Ah Q.” Cai Yi’s aesthetic theory of the type (dianxing) and the image (xingxiang) is then explored in relation to global currents in literary thought and philosophy, making possible a fundamental rethinking of Chinese socialist realist novels like Yang Mo’s Song of Youth and Luo Guangbin and Yan Yiyan’s Red Crag.]

Chan, Leo Tak-Hung. “First Imitate, then Translate: Histories of the Introduction of Stream-of-Consciousness Fiction to China.” Meta 49, 3 (Sept. 2004).

Chan, Roy Bing. The Edge of Knowing: Dreams, History, and Realism in Modern Chinese Literature. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 2017. [MCLC Resource Center review by Laurence Coderre]

[AbstractThe Edge of Knowing explores the relationship between the rhetoric of dreams and realist literary practice in modern Chinese literature from the May Fourth Era in the early twentieth century through the period just following the end of the Cultural Revolution in 1976. The writers’ attention to dreams demonstrates the multiple influences of Western psychology, utopian desire for revolutionary change, and the enduring legacy of traditional Chinese philosophy. At the same time, modern Chinese writers used their work to represent social reality for the purpose of nation-building. Recent political usage of dream rhetoric in the People’s Republic of China attests to the continuing influence of dreams on the imagination of Chinese modernity. By employing a number of critical perspectives, The Edge of Knowing will appeal to readers seeking to understand the complicated relationship between literary form and Chinese history and politics.]

Chang, Shuei-May, ed. Casting Off the Shackles of Family: Ibsen’s Nora Figure in Modern Chinese Literature, 1918-1942. Peter Lang, 2002.

Chen, Pingyuan. “An Audible China: Speech and the Innovation in Modern Chinese Writing.” Frontiers of Literary Studies in China 3, 2 (June 2009): 270-32.

Chen, Xiaomei. Occidentalism: A Theory of Counterdiscourse in Post-Mao China. NY: Oxford UP, 1995.

—–. “Introduction to Occidentalism.” In Diana Bryden, ed., Postcolonialism: Critical Concepts in Literary and Cultural Studies. NY: Routledge, 2000.

Chen, Maiping. “The Individual in the Shadow of the Whole: The Self in Modern Chinese Literature.” Stockholm Journal of East Asian Studies 6 (1995): 39-70.

Chen, Sihe. “On ‘Invisible Writing’ in the History of Contemporary Chinese Literature 1949-1976.” Tr. Hongbing Zhang. MCLC Resource Center Publication, 2000.

Chen-Andro, Chantal. Les grands probèmes du roman en Chine au 20e siècle, in Litteratures d’extrême- orient au xxe siècle. Arles: Philippe Picquier, 1993.

Chi, Ta-wei. “Performers of the Paternal Past: History, Female Impersonators, and Twentieth-Century Chinese Fiction.” positions: east asia cultures critque 15, 3 (Winter 2007): 580-608.

[deals with the following texts: Ba Jin’s Jiliu sanbuqu (Torrent trilogy; 1931, 1938, 1940), Wang Dulu’s Yanshi xialing (Peking chivalric entertainer; 1948), Qin Shou’ou’s Qiuhaitang (Begonia; 1942), Lilian Lee’s Bawang bieji (Farewell my concubine; 1985), and Ling Li’s Mengduan guanhe (Dreams broken across China; 1999)]

Chi, Pang-yuan and David Der-wei Wang, eds. Chinese Literature in the Second Half of a Modern Century: A Critical Survey. Bloomington: Indiana UP, 2000.

Chow, Rey. “Introduction: On Chineseness as a Theoretical Problem.” Boundary 2. Special Issue ed. Rey Chow. 25, 2 (Fall 1998): 1-24.

—–. ed. Modern Chinese Literary and Cultural Studies in the Age of Theory: Reimagining a Field. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2000. Originally published as special issue of boundary 2 25, 3 (1998).

Chung, Hilary, ed. In the Party Spirit: Socialist Realism and Literary Practice in the Soviet Union, East Germany, and China. Amsterdam: Editions Rodolpi, 1996.

Cohen, Myron. “Cultural and Political Inventions in Modern China: The Case of the Chinese ‘Peasant.'” Daedalus 122, 2 (1993): 151-70.

Choy, Howard Y. F. Discourses of Disease: Writing Illness, the Mind and the Body in Modern China. Leiden: Brill, 2016.

[Abstract: The meanings of disease have undergone such drastic changes with the introduction of modern Western medicine into China during the last two hundred years that new discourses have been invented to theorize illness, redefine health, and reconstruct classes and genders. As a consequence, medical literature is rewritten with histories of hygiene, studies of psychopathology, and stories of cancer, disabilities and pandemics. This edited volume includes studies of discourses about both bodily and psychiatric illness in modern China, bringing together ground-breaking scholarships that reconfigure the fields of history, literature, film, psychology, anthropology, and gender studies by tracing the pathological path of the “Sick Man of East Asia” through the nineteenth and twentieth centuries into the new millennium.]

Denton, Kirk A. The Problematic of Self in Modern Chinese Literature: Hu Feng and Lu Ling. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1998.

Denton, Kirk A. and Michel Hockx, eds. Literary Societies in Republican China. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 2008. [MCLC Resource Center review by John Christopher Hamm]

Diefenbach, Thilo. Kontext der Gewalt in moderner chinesicher Literatur (Context of force in modern Chinese literature). Weisbaden: Harrasowitz, 2004.

Dikotter, Frank. Sex, Culture, and Modernity in China. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1995.

—–. “Culture, Race, and Nation: The Formation of National Identity in Twentieth Century China.” The Journal of International Affairs. Special issue on contemporary China (Winter 1996).

Dolezalova, Anna. “Periodization of Modern Chinese Literature.” Asian and African Studies (Bratislava) 14 (1978): 27-32.

—–. “Suggestions Regarding Periodization of Liteature in the People’s Republic of China.” Asian and African Studies (Bratislava) 16 (1980): 153-59.

Dolezelova-Velingerova, Milena. “The Origins of Modern Chinese Literature.” In Merle Goldman, ed., Modern Chinese Literature in the May Fourth Era. Cambridge: Harvard UP, 1977, 17-36.

Dooling, Amy. Women’s Literary Feminism in Twentieth Century China. NY: Palgrave Macmillan, 2005

[Abstract: This is a critical inquiry into the connections between emergent feminist ideologies in China and the production of ‘modern’ women’s writing from the demise of the last imperial dynasty to the founding of the PRC. It accentuates both well-known and under-represented literary voices who intervened in the gender debates of their generation as well as contextualises the strategies used in imagining alternative stories of female experience and potential. It asks two questions: First, how did the advent of enlightened views of gender relations and sexuality influence literary practices of ‘new women’ in terms of narrative forms and strategies, readership, and publication venues? Second, how do these representations attest to the way these female intellectuals engaged and expanded social and political concerns from the personal to the national? Contents: Introduction: Women and Feminism in the Literary History of Early Twentieth-century China; National Imaginaries: Feminist Fantasies at the Turn-of-the-Century; The New Woman’s Woman Love and/or Revolution?: Fictions of the Feminine Self in the 1930s Cultural Left; Outwitting Patriarchy: Comic Narrative Strategies in the Works of Yang Jiang, Su Qing, and Zhang Ailing; A World Still to Win]

Eber, Irene. “Images of Oppressed Peoples and Modern Chinese Literature.” In Merle Goldman, ed., Modern Chinese Literature in the May Fourth Era. Cambridge: Harvard UP, 1977, 17-36.

Esherick, Joseph, ed. Remaking the Chinese City: Modernity and National Identity, 1900-1950. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 2000.

Fan, Shouyi. “Translation of English Fiction and Drama in Modern China: Social Context, Literary Trends and Impact.” Meta XLIV, 1 (1999).

—–. “Highlights of Translation Studies in China Since the Mid Nineteenth Century.” Meta XLIV, 1 (1999).

Farquhar, Mary Ann. “Through the Looking Glass: Children’s Stories and Social Change in China, 1918-1976.” In Gungwu Wang, ed., Society and the Writer: Essays on Literature in Modern Asia. Canberra: Research School of Pacific Studies, The Australian National University, 1981, 173-198.

—–. Children’s Literature in China: From Lu Xun to Mao Zedong. Armonk: M.E. Sharpe, 1998.

Feng, Jin. “Narrating Suffering, Constructing Chinese Modernity: The Emergence of the Modern Subject in Chinese Literature.” East Asia 18, 1 (Spring 2000): 82-109.

Feuerwerker, Yi-tsi Mei. “Tradition and Experiment in Modern Chinese Literature.” In Albert Feuerwerker, ed., Modern China. Englewood Cliff, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1964.

—–. Ideology, Power, Text: Self-Representation and the Peasant “Other” in Modern Chinese Literature. Stanford: SUP, 1998.

Findeison, Raoul. “Kairos or the Due Time: On Date, Dates, and Dating in Modern Chinese Literature.” In Findeison and Gassmann, eds., Autumn Floods: Essays in Honour of Marian Galik. Bern: Peter Lang, 1997.

—–. “Anarchist or Saint? On the Spread of “Wisdom” (Sophia) in Modern Chinese Literature.” Asiatica Venetiana 3 (1998).

Foster, Paul B. “Ah Q Progeny–Son of Ah Q, Modern Ah Q, Miss Ah Q, Sequels to Ah Q–Post-1949 Creative Intersections with the Ah Discourse.” Modern Chinese Literature and Culture 16, 2, (Fall 2004): 184-234

Fruehauf, Heinrich. “Urban Exoticism in Modern and Contemporary Chinese Literature.” In Ellen Widmer and David Wang, eds., From May Fourth to June Fourth: Fiction and Film in Twentiety-Century China. Cambridge: Harvard UP, 1993, 133-64.

Galik, Marian. Preliminary Research-Guide: German Impact on Modern Chinese Intellectual History. Munich: Seminar für Ostasiatische Kultur- und Sprachwissenschaft, 1971.

—-. “Mayakovsky in China.” Asian and African Studies (Bratislava) 14 (1978): 159-74.

—–. “Goethe in China (1932).” Asian and African Studies (Bratislava) 14 (1978): 11-25.

—–. Milestones in Sino-Western Literary Confrontation (1898-1979). Weisbaden: Otto Harrassowitz, 1986.

Galikowski, Maria. Art and Politics in China, 1949-1984. HK: Chinese University of HK Press, 1998.

Gamsa, Mark. The Reading of Russian Literature in China: A Moral Example and Manual Practice. NY: Palgrave Macmillan, 2010. [MCLC Resource Center review by Roy Chan]

[Abstract: A comparative cultural and intellectual history, this study treats the reception of Russian literature in twentieth-century China, highlighting its elevation as a model for personal behaviouras well as for collective revolutionary struggle–“a moral example and manual of practice”. Analyzing the Chinese reading of Russian nineteenth-century literature and early Soviet fiction, Gamsa explains what led readers to a particularly close engagement with this literature and examines in fascinating detail the forms that this engagement took. Addressed to all those interested in the passage of ideas between cultures, this book makes an innovative contribution to research in modern Chinese and Russian history and literature, comparative literature, and book history.

Gasster, Michael. “Intellectuals, Revolution, Modernization: Reflections on Twentieth-Century China.” In David C. Buxbaum and Frederick W. Mote, eds., Transition and Permanence: Chinese History and Culture. HK: Cathay Press, 1972, 103-22.

Goldman, Merle and Leo Ou-fan Lee. An Intellectual History of Modern China. NY: Cambridge UP, forthcoming.

Gunn, Edward. Rewriting Chinese: Style and Innovation in Twentieth-Century Chinese Prose. Stanford: Stanford UP, 1991.

—–. “Gender and Performativity in Contemporary Narratives from Taiwan and China.” In Sung-sheng Yvonne Chang and Michelle Yeh, eds., Contemporary Chinese Literature: Crossing the Boundaries. Special issue of Literature East and West. Austin, TX: Department of Middle Eastern Languages and Cultures, 1995, 5-24.

Guo, Jie. “From Patriarchal Polygamy to Conjugal Monogamy: Imagining Male Same-Sex Relationship in Modern China.” Modern Chinese Literature and Culture 25, 1 (Spring 2013): 165-205.

Hagenaar, Elly. Stream of Consciousness and Free Indirect Discourse in Modern Chinese Literature. Leiden: Centre of Non-Western Studies, Leiden University.

He, Chengzhou. Henrik Ibsen and Modern Chinese Drama. Oslo: Unipub AS, 2004. [pdf file downlaod from Ibsen in China website]

Hockx, Michel, ed. The Literary Field in Twentieth-Century China. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1999.

Hodge, Bob and Kam Louie. The Politics of Chinese Language and Culture: The Art of Reading Dragons. NY: Routledge, 1998.

Hsia, Adrian. Kafka and China. Bern: Peter Lang, 1996.

Huang, Alexander C. Y. Chinese Shakespeares: Two Centuries of Cultural Exchange. New York: Columbia University Press, 2009.

[Abstract: For close to two hundred years, the ideas of Shakespeare have inspired incredible work in the literature, fiction, theater, and cinema of China, Taiwan, and Hong Kong. From the novels of Lao She and Lin Shu to Lu Xun’s search for a Chinese “Shakespeare,” and from Feng Xiaogang’s martial arts films to labor camp memoirs, Soviet-Chinese theater, Chinese opera in Europe, and silent film, Shakespeare has been put to work in unexpected places, yielding a rich trove of transnational imagery and paradoxical citations in popular and political culture. Chinese Shakespeares is the first book to concentrate on both Shakespearean performance and Shakespeare’s appearance in Sinophone culture and their ambiguous relationship to the postcolonial question. Substantiated by case studies of major cultural events and texts from the first Opium War in 1839 to our times, Chinese Shakespeares theorizes competing visions of “China” and “Shakespeare” in the global cultural marketplace and challenges the logic of fidelity-based criticism and the myth of cultural exclusivity. In his critique of the locality and ideological investments of authenticity in nationalism, modernity, Marxism, and personal identities, Huang reveals the truly transformative power of Chinese Shakespeares.]

Huters, Theodore. “Lives in Profile: On the Authorial Voice in Modern and Contemporary Chinese Literature.” In E. Widmer and D. Wang, eds., From May Fourth to June Fourth: Fiction and Film in Twentieth-Century China. Cambridge: HUP, 1993, 269-94.

—–, ed. Reading the Modern Chinese Short Story. Armonk: M.E. Sharpe, 1990.

Iovene, Paola. Tales of Futures Past: Anticipation and the Ends of Literature in Contemporary China. Stanford: Stanford UP, 2014.

[Abstract: st studies of Chinese literature conflate the category of the future with notions of progress and nation building, and with the utopian visions broadcast by the Maoist and post-Mao developmental state. The future is thus understood as a preconceived endpoint that is propagated, at times even imposed, by a center of power. By contrast, Tales of Futures Past introduces “anticipation”–the expectations that permeate life as it unfolds–as a lens through which to reexamine the textual, institutional, and experiential aspects of Chinese literary culture from the 1950s to 2011. In doing so, Paola Iovene connects the emergence of new literary genres with changing visions of the future in contemporary China. This book provides a nuanced and dynamic account of the relationship between state discourses, market pressures, and individual writers and texts. It stresses authors’ and editors’ efforts to redefine what constitutes literature under changing political and economic circumstances. Engaging with questions of translation, temporality, formation of genres, and stylistic change, Iovene mines Chinese science fiction and popular science, puts forward a new interpretation of familiar Chinese avant-garde fiction, and offers close readings of texts that have not yet received any attention in English-language scholarship. Far-ranging in its chronological scope and impressive in its interdisciplinary approach, this book rethinks the legacies of socialism in postsocialist Chinese literary modernity.]

Ip, Hung-yok. “Politics and Individuality in Communist Revolutionary Culture.” Modern China 23, 1 (Jan. 1997): 33-68.

Isaacs, Harold R. Re-encounters in China: Notes of a Journey in a Time Capsule. HK: Joint Publishing, 1985.

[Abstract: Memoir of Isaacs’ return to China in 1980; includes accounts of meetings with Mao Dun, Ding Ling, and reflections on Lu Xun]

Jiang, Tao and Philip J. Ivanhoe, eds. The Reception and Rendition of Freud in China: China’s Freudian Slip. NY: Routledge, 2012.

[Abstract: Although Freud makes only occasional, brief references to China and Chinese culture in his works, for almost a hundred years many leading Chinese intellectuals have studied and appropriated various Freudian theories. However, whilst some features of Freud’s views have been warmly embraced from the start and appreciated for their various explanatory and therapeutic values, other aspects have been vigorously criticized as implausible or inapplicable to the Chinese context. This book explores the history, reception, and use of Freud and his theories in China, and makes an original and substantial contribution to our understanding of the Chinese people and their culture as well as to our appreciation of western attempts to understand the people and culture of China. The essays are organised around three key areas of research. First, it examines the historical background concerning the China-Freud connection in the 20th century, before going on to use reconstructed Freudian theories in order to provide a modernist critique of Chinese culture. Finally, the book deploys traditional Chinese thought in order to challenge various aspects of the Freudian project. Both Freudianism’s universal appeal and its cultural particularity are in full display throughout the book. At the same time, the allure of Chinese cultural and literary expressions, both in terms of their commonality with other cultures and their distinctive characteristics, are also scrutinized. This collection of essays will be welcomed by those interested in early modern and contemporary China, as well as the work and influence of Freud. It will also be of great interest to students and scholars of psychology, psychoanalysis, literature, philosophy, religion, and cultural studies more generally.]

Kelly, David. “The Chinese Search for Freedom as a Universal Value.” In D. Kelly and Anthony Reid, eds., Asian Freedoms: The Idea of Freedom in East and South East Asia. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998, 93-120.

Kinkley, Jeffrey. Chinese Justice, the Fiction: Law and Literature in Modern China. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2000.

Kahn-Ackermann, Michael. “‘How Do You Recognize Reality?’: Issues in Contemporary Chinese Literature.” In Noth, Jochen, et.al., eds. China Avant-garde: Counter-currents in Art and Culture. HK, New York: Oxford University Press, 1994, 63-68.

Knight, Sabina. The Heart of Time: Moral Agency in Twentieth-Century Chinese Fiction. Cambridge: Harvard University Asia Center, 2006.

[Abstract: By examining how narrative strategies reinforce or contest deterministic paradigms, this work describes modern Chinese fiction’s unique contribution to ethical and literary debates over the possibility for meaningful moral action. How does Chinese fiction express the desire for freedom as well as fears of attendant responsibilities and abuses? How does it depict struggles for and against freedom? How do the texts allow for or deny the possibility of freedom and agency? By analyzing discourses of agency and fatalism and the ethical import of narrative structures, the author explores how representations of determinism and moral responsibility changed over the twentieth century. She links these changes to representations of time and to enduring commitments to human-heartedness and social justice. Although Chinese fiction may contain some of the most disconsolate pages in the twentieth century’s long literature of disenchantment, it also bespeaks, Knight argues, a passion for freedom and moral responsibility. Responding to ongoing conflicts between the claims of modernity and the resources of past traditions, these stories and novels are often dominated by challenges to human agency. Yet read with sensitivity to traditional Chinese conceptions of moral experience, their testimony to both the promises of freedom and the failure of such promises opens new perspectives on moral agency.]

Kubin, Wolfgang, ed. Symbols of Anguish: In Search of Melancholy in China. Bern: Peter Lang, 2001. [contains articles on Zhang Ailing, Liu E, Lu Xun, late Qing and early Republican poetry, and exile]

Kubin, W. and R. Wagner, eds. Essays in Modern Chinese Literature and Literary Criticism. Bochum: Brockmeyer, 1982.

Larson, Wendy. Literary Authority and the Modern Chinese Writer: Ambivalence and Autobiography. Durham: Duke UP, 1991.

—–. From Ah Q to Lei Feng: Freud and Revolutionary Spirit in 20th Century China. Stanford: Stanford UP, 2009. [MCLC Resource Center review by Ban Wang]

[Abstract: When Freudian sexual theory hit China in the early 20th century, it ran up against competing models of the mind from both Chinese tradition and the new revolutionary culture. Chinese theorists of the mind—both traditional intellectuals and revolutionary psychologists— steadily put forward the anti-Freud: a mind shaped not by deep interiority that must be excavated by professionals, but shaped instead by social and cultural interactions. Chinese novelists and film directors understood this focus and its relationship to Mao’s revolutionary ethos, and much of the literature of twentieth-century China reflects the spiritual qualities of the revolutionary mind. From Ah Q to Lei Feng investigates the continual clash of these contrasting models of the mind provided by Freud and revolutionary Chinese culture, and explores how writers and filmmakers negotiated with the implications of each model.]

Larson, Wendy, and Anne Wedell-Wedellsborg, eds. Inside Out: Modernism and Postmodernism in Chinese Literary Culture. Aarhus: Aarhus UP, 1993.

—–. “The Self Loving the Self: Men and Connoisseurship in Modern Chinese Literature.” In Susan Brownell and Jeffrey N. Wasserstrom, eds. Chinese Femininities, Chinese Masculinities: A Reader. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2002, 175-97.

Laughlin, Charles, ed. Contested Modernities in Chinese Literature. NY: Palgrave Macmillan, 2005.

[Abstract: This book is a significant gathering of ideas on the subject of modern Chinese literature and culture of the past several years. The essays represent a wide spectrum of new approaches and new areas of subject matter that are changing the landscape of knowledge of modern and contemporary Chinese culture: women’s literature, theatre (performance), film, graphic arts, popular literature, as well as literature of the Chinese diaspora. These phenomena and the approaches to them manifest interconnected trajectories for new scholarship in the field: the rewriting of literary history, the emergence of visual culture, and the quotidian apocalypse – the displacement of revolutionary romanticism and realism as central paradigms for cultural expression by the perspective of private, everyday experience.]

Laughlin, Charles and Liu Hongtao. “The Novella in Chinese Literature.” Chinese Literature Today 5, 2 (2016): 6-7.

Laurence, Patricia. Lily Briscoe’s Chinese Eyes: Bloomsbury, Modernism and China. Columbia: U of South Carolina Press, 2003.

Lee, Gregory. “Contemporary Chinese Poetry and the Nobel Prize, 1990.” [a transcript of a tape-recording of a conversation between Göran Malmqvist and myself which took place on 14th May 1990 in Stockholm]

—–. Troubadors, Trumpeters, Troubled Makers: Lyricism, Nationalism, and Hybridity in China and Its Others. London: Hurst, 1996.

—–. La Chine et le spectre de l’Occident: Contestation poétique, modernité et métissage. Paris: Editions Syllepse, 2002.

Lee, Haiyan. Revolution of the Heart: A Genealogy of Love in China, 1900-1950. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2006.

—–. The Stranger and the Chinese Moral Imagination. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2014. [MCLC Resource Center review by Jonathan Stalling]

Lee, Leo Ou-fan. “The Solitary Traveler: Images of the Self in Modern Chinese Literature.” In Robert Hegel and Richard Hessney eds., Expressions of Self in Chinese Literature. NY: Columbia UP, 1985, 282-307.

—–. “Some Notes on ‘Culture,’ ‘Humanism,’ and the ‘Humanities’ in Modern Chinese Cultural Discourses.” Surfaces 5 (1995).

Lee, Mabel and A. D. Syromkla-Stefanowska, eds. Literary Intercrossings: East Asia and the West. Sydney: Wild Peony, 1998.

Lee, Shuen-shing. Utopia, Where East and West Meet: A Comparative Study of Hybrid Utopias in Twentieth-Century Chinese and Western Literature. Ph.D. diss. Seattle: University of Washington, 1995.

Lee, Tong King. Experimental Chinese Literature: Translation, Technology, Poetics. Leiden: Brill, 2015.

[Abstract: the first theoretical account of material poetics from the dual perspectives of translation and technology. Focusing on a range of works by contemporary Chinese authors including Hsia Yü, Chen Li, and Xu Bing, Tong King Lee explores how experimental writers engage their readers in multimodal reading experiences by turning translation into a method and by exploiting various technologies. The key innovation of this book rests with its conceptualisation of translation and technology as spectrums that interact in different ways to create sensuous, embodied texts. Drawing on a broad range of fields such as literary criticism, multimodal studies, and translation, Tong King Lee advances the notion of the translational text, which features transculturality and intersemioticity in its production and reception.]

Li, Kay. Bernard Shaw and China: Cross-Cultural Encounters. Gainseville: University Press of Florida, 2007.

Li, Qingquan. From Critical Realism to Socialist Realism: A Historical Survey of Realism in Modern Chinese Literature. New York: P. Lang, 1996.

Li, Ruru. Shashibiya, Staging Shakespeare in China. HK: Hong Kong University Press, 2003.

Lian, Xinda. “Re-dreaming the Butterfly Dream.” Journal of Modern Literature in Chinese 3, 1 (July 1999): 103-29. [Zhuangzi’s influence on Lu Xun, A Cheng, Han Shaogong, Chen Kaige]

Link, Perry. The Uses of Literature: Life in the Socialist Chinese Literary System. Princeton: Princeton UP, 2000.

Lipman, Jonathan N. and Steven Harrell, eds. Violence in China: Essays in Culture and Counterculture. Albany: SUNY, 1990.

La Litterature chinoise contemporaine, tradition et modernité: colloque d’Aix-en-Provence, le 8 juin 1988. Aix-en-Provence: Publications de l’Universite de Provence, 1989.

Liu, Jianmei. Revolution Plus Love: Literary History, Women’s Bodies, and Thematic Repetition in Twentieth-Century Chinese Fiction. Honolulu: University of Hawai’i Press, 2003.

—–. Zhuangzi and Modern Chinese Literature. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2016.

[Abstract: This is a powerful account of how the ruin and resurrection of Zhuangzi in modern China’s literary history corresponds to the rise and fall of modern Chinese individuality. The book highlights two central philosophical themes of Zhuangzi: the absolute spiritual freedom as presented in the chapter “Free and Easy Wandering” and the rejection of absolute and fixed views on right and wrong, as seen in the chapter “On the Equality of Things.” It argues that the twentieth-century reinterpretation and appropriation of these two important philosophical themes best testifies to the dilemma and inner struggle of modern Chinese intellectuals. In the cultural environment in which Chinese writers and scholars were working, the pursuit of individual freedom as well as a more tolerant and multifaceted cultural mentality has constantly been downplayed, suppressed, or criticized. By addressing a large number of modern Chinese writers, including Guo Moruo, Hu Shi, Lu Xun, Zhou Zuoren, Lin Yutang, Fei Ming, Liu Xiaofeng, Wang Zengqi, Han Shaogong, Ah Cheng, Yan Lianke, and Gao Xingjian, the book provides an insightful and engaging study of how they have embraced, rejected, and returned to ancient thought and how the spirit of Zhuangzi has illuminated their writing and thinking through the turbulent eras of modern China. This book not only explores modern Chinese writers’ complicated relationships with “tradition”, but also sheds light on whether the freedom of independence, nonparticipation, and roaming and the more encompassing cultural space inspired by Zhuangzi’s spirit were allowed to exist in a modern Chinese literary context.]

Liu, Kang and Tang Xiaobin, eds. Politics, Ideology, and Literary Discourse in Modern China: Theoretical Interventions and Cultural Critique. Durham: Duke UP, 1993.

Liu Kang. “Aesthetics and Chinese Marxism.” Positions 3, 2 (Fall 1995).

—–. Aesthetics and Marxism: Chinese Aesthetic Marxists and Their Western Conemporaries. Durham: Duke UP, 2000.

Liu, Tao Tao. “Exile, Homelessness and Displacement in Modern Chinese Literature.” In Wolfgang Kubin, ed., Symbols of Anguish: In Search of Melancholy in China. Bern: Peter Lang, 2001, 335-52.

—–. “Perceptions of City and Country in Republican Fiction.” In David Faure and Tao Tao Liu, eds., Town and Country in China
Identity and Perception
. Palgrave MacMillan, 2001.

Lovell, Julia. The Politics of Cultural Capital: China’s Quest for a Nobel Prize in Literature. Honolulu: University of Hawai’i Press, 2006.

[Abstract: In the 1980s China’s politicians, writers, and academics began to raise an increasingly urgent question: why had a Chinese writer never won a Nobel Prize for literature? Promoted to the level of official policy issue and national complex, Nobel anxiety generated articles, conferences, and official delegations to Sweden. Exiled writer Gao Xingjian’s win in 2000 failed to satisfactorily end the matter, and the controversy surrounding the Nobel committee’s choice has continued to simmer. This comprehensive study of China’s obsession spans the twentieth century and taps directly into the key themes of modern Chinese culture: national identity, international status, and the relationship between intellectuals and politics. The intellectual preoccupation with the Nobel literature prize expresses tensions inherent in China’s move toward a global culture after the collapse of the Confucian world-view at the start of the twentieth century, and particularly since China’s re-entry into the world economy in the post-Mao era. Attitudes toward the prize reveal the same contradictory mix of admiration, resentment, and anxiety that intellectuals and writers have long felt toward Western values as they struggled to shape a modern Chinese identity. In short, the Nobel complex reveals the pressure points in an intellectual community not entirely sure of itself. Making use of extensive original research, including interviews with leading contemporary Chinese authors and critics, The Politics of Cultural Capital is a comprehensive, up-to-date treatment of an issue that cuts to the heart of modern and contemporary Chinese thought and culture. It will be essential reading for scholars of modern Chinese literature and culture, globalization, post-colonialism, and comparative and world literature.]

Lu, Sheldon Hsiao-peng. “When Mimosa Blossoms: The Ideology of Self in Modern Chinese Literature.” Journal of Chinese Language Teachers Association 28, 3 (1993): 1-16.

Luo, Liang. The Avant-garde and the Popular in Modern China: Tian Han and the Intersection of Performance and Politics. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2014. [MCLC Resource Center review by Rossella Ferrari]

[Abstract: explores how an important group of Chinese performing artists invested in politics and the pursuit of the avant-garde came to terms with different ways of being “popular” in modern times. In particular, playwright and activist Tian Han (1898-1968) exemplified the instability of conventional delineations between the avant-garde, popular culture, and political propaganda. Liang Luo traces Tian’s trajectory through key moments in the evolution of twentieth-century Chinese national culture, from the Christian socialist cosmopolitanism of post–WWI Tokyo to the urban modernism of Shanghai in 1920s and 30s, then into the Chinese hinterland during the late 1930s and 40s, and finally to the Communist Beijing of the 1950s, revealing the dynamic interplay of art and politics throughout this period. Understanding Tian in his time sheds light upon a new generation of contemporary Chinese avant-gardists (Ai Wei Wei being the best known), who, half a century later, are similarly engaging national politics and popular culture.]

Malmqvist, Goran, ed. Modern Chinese Literature in Its Social Context. Stockholm: Nobel Symposium, 1975.

Martin, Helmut. “The Future of China, Taiwan and Hong Kong: Perspectives Explored by Contemporary Chinese Writers.” In King-yuh Chang, ed., Ideology and Politics in Twentieth Century China. Taibei: Institute of International Relations, National Chengchi University, 1988, 174-95.

—–. “A New Proximity: Chinese Literature in the People’s Republic and on Taiwan.” In H. Goldblatt, ed., Worlds Apart: Recent Chinese Writings and Its Audiences. Armonk, NY: M.E. Sharpe, 1990, 29-43.

Maruyama, Noboru. “Contemporary Chinese Literature in Japan.” Acta Asiatica 72 (1997): 1-26.

McDougall, Bonnie. “Writers and Performers, Their Works, and Their Audiences in the First Three Decades.” In McDougall, ed. Popular Chinese Literature and Performing Arts in the PRC, 1949-79. Berkeley: UCP, 1984, 269-304.

—–. “Writing Self: Author/Audience Complicity in Modern Chinese Fiction.” Archiv Orientalni 64 (1996): 245-68.

—–. “Writing Self: Author/Audience Complicity in Modern Chinese Fiction.” In McDougall, Fictional Authors, Imaginary Audiences: Modern Chinese Literature in the Twentieth Century. HK: Chinese University Press, 2003, 45-74.

—–. “Literary Decorum or Carnivalistic Grotesque: Literature in the People’s Republic of China after 50 years.” China Quarterly 159, 1 (Sept. 1999): 723-732. Rpt in McDougall, Fictional Authors, Imaginary Audiences: Modern Chinese Literature in the Twentieth Century. HK: Chinese University Press, 2003, 241-74.

—–. Fictional Authors, Imaginary Audiences: Modern Chinese Literature in the Twentieth Century. HK: The Chinese University Press, 2003.

Miller, J. Hillis. “Introduction to and Discussion Summary of Wang Hui’s ‘Humanism as the Theme of Chinese Modernity.'” Surfaces 5 (1995).

Moran, Thomas, ed. Dictionary of Literary Biography–Chinese Fiction Writers, 1900-1949. NY: Thomson Gale, 2007.

Mostow, Jonathan, ed. The Columbia Commpanion to Modern East Asian Literature. NY: Columbia UP, 2003. [The China section, edited by Kirk A. Denton, includes pages 285-616].

Ng, Mau-sang. The Russian Hero in Modern Chinese Fiction. Albany: SUNY Press, 1987.

Oakes, Tim. Tourism and Modernity in China. NY: Routledge, 1998.

Peng, Hsiao-yen and Isabelle Rabut, eds., Modern China and the West. Leiden: Brill, 2014.

[Abstract: The authors investigate the significant role translation plays in cultural mediation. Transnational organizations that bring about cross-cultural interactions as well as regulating authorities, in the form of both nation-states and ideologies, are under scrutiny.]

Pease, Catherine E. “Remembering the Taste of Melons: Modern Chinese Stories of Childhood.” In Anne Kinney, ed. Chinese Views of Childhood. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1995, 279-320.

Prusek, Jaroslav. Chinese History and Literature. Dordrecht: D. Reidel, 1970.

—–. The Lyrical and the Epic. Ed. Leo Ou-fan Lee. Bloomington: Indiana UP, 1980.

—–, ed. Studies in Modern Chinese Literature. Berlin: Akademie-Verlag, 1964.

Riep, Steven. “A War of Wounds: Disability, Disfigurement, and Antiheroic Portrayals of the War of Resistance Against Japan.” Modern Chinese Literature and Culture 20, 1 (Spring 2008): 129-72.

Robinson, Lewis Stewart. Double-Edged Sword: Christianity and 20th Century Chinese Fiction. HK: Tao Fong Shan Ecumenical Center, 1986.

Rojas, Carlos. “Cannibalism and the Chinese Body Politic: Hermeneutics and Violence in Cross-Cultural Perception.” PMC 13, 3 (May 2002).

—–, ed. “Discourses of Disease.” Special issue of Modern Chinese Literature and Culture 23, 1 (Spring 2011).

—–. “Introduction: ‘The Germ of Life.'” Modern Chinese Literature and Culture 23, 1 (Spring 2011): 1-16.

Sang Tze-lang. The Emerging Lesbian: Female Same-Sex Desire in Modern Chinese Literature and Culture. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2002.

Shih, Shu-mei. The Lure of the Modern: Writing Modernism in Semicolonial China, 1917-1937. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2001.

Song, Mingwei. Young China: National Rejuvenation and the Bildungsroman, 1900–1959. Cambridge: Harvard University Asia Center, 2015.

[Abstract: The rise of youth is among the most dramatic stories of modern China. Since the last years of the Qing dynasty, youth has been made a new agent of history in Chinese intellectuals’ visions of national rejuvenation through such tremendously popular notions as “young China” and “new youth.” The characterization of a young protagonist with a developmental story has also shaped the modern Chinese novel. Young China takes youth as a central literary motif that was profoundly related to the ideas of nationhood and modernity in twentieth-century China. A synthesis of narrative theory and cultural history, it combines historical investigations of the origin and development of the modern Chinese youth discourse with close analyses of the novelistic construction of the Chinese Bildungsroman, which depicts the psychological growth of youth with a symbolic allusion to national rejuvenation. Negotiating between self and society, ideal and action, and form and reality, such a narrative manifests as well as complicates the various political and cultural symbolisms invested in youth through different periods of modern Chinese history. In this story of young China, the restless, elusive, and protean image of youth both perpetuates and problematizes the ideals of national rejuvenation.]

Stuckey, G. Andrew. Old Stories Retold: Narrative and Vanishing Pasts in Modern China. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 2010.

[Abstract: Old Stories Retold explores the ways modern Chinese narratives dramatize and embody the historical sense that links them to the past and to the Chinese literary tradition. Largely guided by Walter Benjamin’s discussions of history, G. Andrew Stuckey looks at the ways Chinese narrative engages a historical process that pieces together fragments of the past into new configurations to better serve present needs. By examining intertextual connections between separate texts, Stuckey seeks to discover traces of an original, whether it be thought of as the past, history, or tradition, when it has been rewritten in modern and contemporary Chinese fiction. Old Stories Retold shows how the articulation of the past into new historical configurations disrupts accepted understandings of the past, and as such, can be intentionally pitted against modernist historical knowledge to resist the modernist ends that this knowledge is mobilized to achieve.]

Sun, Lung-kee. The Chinese National Character: From Nationhood to Individuality. Armonk, NY: M.E. Sharpe, 2001.

Sun Naixiu. Fuoluoyide yu Zhongguo xiandai wenxue (Freud and modern Chinese literature). Taipei: Yeqiang, 1995.

Takeuchi, Yoshimi. What Is Modernity? Writings of Takeuchi Yoshimi. Tr. Richard Calichman. New York: Columbia University Press, 2005.

Tam, Kwok-kan. “Self-Identity and the Problematic of Chinese Modernity.” The Humanities Bulletin 4 (1995): 57-64.

Tam, Kwok-kan and Terry Siu-han Yip, eds. Gender, Discoures and the Self in Literature: Issues in Mainland China, Taiwan, and Hong Kong. HK: The Chinese University of Hong Kong Press, 2009.

Tang, Xiaobing. Chinese Modern: The Heroic and the Quotidien. Durham: Duke UP, 2000.

Tian, Xiaofei. “Muffled Dialect Spoken by Green Fruit: An Alternative History of Modern Chinese Poetry.” Modern Chinese Literature and Culture 21, 1 (Spring 2009).

Theory and Practice of Translation in China.” Special issue of Meta XLIV, 1 (1999).

Thornber, Karen Laura. Empire of Texts in Motion: Chinese, Korean, and Taiwanese Transculturations of Japanese Literature. Cambridge: Harvard University Asia Center, 2009.

[Abstract: By the turn of the twentieth century, Japan’s military and economic successes made it the dominant power in East Asia, drawing hundreds of thousands of Chinese, Korean, and Taiwanese students to the metropole and sending thousands of Japanese to other parts of East Asia. The constant movement of peoples, ideas, and texts in the Japanese empire created numerous literary contact nebulae, fluid spaces of diminished hierarchies where writers grapple with and transculturate one another’s creative output. Drawing extensively on vernacular sources in Japanese, Chinese, and Korean, this book analyzes the most active of these contact nebulae: semicolonial Chinese, occupied Manchurian, and colonial Korean and Taiwanese transculturations of Japanese literature. It explores how colonial and semicolonial writers discussed, adapted, translated, and recast thousands of Japanese creative works, both affirming and challenging Japan’s cultural authority. Such efforts not only blurred distinctions among resistance, acquiescence, and collaboration but also shattered cultural and national barriers central to the discourse of empire. In this context, twentieth-century East Asian literatures can no longer be understood in isolation from one another, linked only by their encounters with the West, but instead must be seen in constant interaction throughout the Japanese empire and beyond.]

Tong, Shijun. The Dialectics of Modernization: Habermas and the Chinese Discourse of Modernization. Sydney: Wild Peony, 2000.

Teow, See Heng. Japanese Culural Policy Toward China, 1918-1931: A Comparative Perspective. Cambridge: Harvard UP, 1996.

Twohey, Michael. Authority and Welfare in China: Modern Debates in Historical Perspective. New York : St. Martin’s Press, 1999.

Veg, Sebastian. Fictions du pouvoir chinois: Littérature, modernisme et démocratie au début du XXe siècle. Paris: Editions EHESS, 2009.

Wang, Ban. “The Real Under Scrutiny: The Cutting Edge of Chinese Fantastic Narrative.” Tamkang Review 21, 2 (1990): 149-65.

—–. The Sublime Figure of History: Aesthetics and Politics in Twentieth Century China. Stanford: SUP, 1997.

—–. Narrative Perspective and Irony in Selected Chinese and American Fiction. Lewiston, NY: Edwin Mellen, 2002.

—–. Illuminations from the Past: Trauma, Memory, and History in Modern China. Stanford: Stanford UP, 2004.

[Abstract: This book offers a cultural history of modern China by looking at the tension between memory and history. Mainstream books on China tend to focus on the hard aspects of economics, government, politics, or international relations. This book takes a humanistic look at modern changes and examines how Chinese intellectuals and artists experienced trauma, social upheavals, and transformations. Drawing on a wide array of sources in political and aesthetic writings, literature, film, and public discourse, the author has portrayed the unique ways the Chinese imagine and portray their own historical destiny in the midst of trauma, catastrophe, and runaway globalization–Stanford UP website]

Wang, David Der-wei. Fictional Realism in Twentieth Century China: Mao Dun, Lao She, Shen Congwen. NY: Columbia UP, 1992.

—–. “Late Twentieth-Century Chinese Fiction: Four Discourses.” In Sung-sheng Yvonne Chang and Michelle Yeh, eds., Contemporary Chinese Literature: Crossing the Boundaries. Special issue of Literature East and West. Austin, TX: Department of Middle Eastern Languages and Cultures, 1995, 63-88.

—–. “Crime or Punishment? On the Forensic Discourse of Modern Chinese Literature.” In Wen-hsin Yeh, ed., Becoming Chinese: Passages to Modernity and Beyond. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2000, 260-97.

—–. “Impersonating China.” Chinese Literature: Essays, Articles and Reviews 25 (Dec. 2003): 133-63. [on female impersonation in modern Chinese literature]

—–. The Monster That Is History: History, Violence, and Fictional Writing in Twentieth-Century China. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2004. [MCLC Resource Center review by C. D. Alison Bailey]

[Abstract: In ancient China a monster called Taowu was known for both its vicious nature and its power to see the past and the future. Over the centuries Taowu underwent many incarnations until it became identifiable with history itself. Since the seventeenth century, fictive accounts of history have accommodated themselves to the monstrous nature of Taowu. Moving effortlessly across the entire twentieth-century literary landscape, David Der-wei Wang delineates the many meanings of Chinese violence and its literary manifestations. Taking into account the campaigns of violence and brutality that have rocked generations of Chinese–often in the name of enlightenment, rationality, and utopian plenitude–this book places its arguments along two related axes: history and representation, modernity and monstrosity. Wang considers modern Chinese history as a complex of geopolitical, ethnic, gendered, and personal articulations of bygone and ongoing events. His discussion ranges from the politics of decapitation to the poetics of suicide, and from the typology of hunger and starvation to the technology of crime and punishment–from Columbia UP website]

—–. Wang, David Der-wei. The Lyrical in Epic Time: Modern Chinese Intellectuals and Artists through the 1949 Crisis. NY: Columbia University Press, 2015.

[Abstract: Wang uses the lyrical to rethink the dynamics of Chinese modernity. Although the form may seem unusual for representing China’s social and political crises in the mid-twentieth century, Wang contends that national cataclysm and mass movements intensified Chinese lyricism in extraordinary ways. Wang calls attention to the form’s vigor and variety at an unlikely juncture in Chinese history and the precarious consequences it brought about: betrayal, self-abjuration, suicide, and silence. Despite their divergent backgrounds and commitments, the writers, artists, and intellectuals discussed in this book all took lyricism as a way to explore selfhood in relation to solidarity, the role of the artist in history, and the potential for poetry to illuminate crisis. They experimented with poetry, fiction, film, intellectual treatise, political manifesto, painting, calligraphy, and music. Western critics, Wang shows, also used lyricism to critique their perilous, epic time. He reads Martin Heidegger, Theodor Adorno, Cleanth Brooks, and Paul de Man, among others, to complete his portrait.The Chinese case only further intensifies the permeable nature of lyrical discourse, forcing us to reengage with the dominant role of revolution and enlightenment in shaping Chinese–and global–modernity. Wang’s remarkable survey reestablishes Chinese lyricism’s deep roots in its own native traditions, along with Western influences, and realizes the relevance of such a lyrical calling of the past century to our time.]

Wang, Gungwu, et.al, eds. Society and the Writer: Essays on Literature in Modern Asia. Canberra: Research School of Pacific Studies, The Australian National University, 1981.

Wang, Hui. “Humanism as the Theme of Chinese Modernity.” Surfaces 5 (1995).

—–. Wang, Hui. “The Liberation of the Object and the Interrogation of Modernity: Rethinking The Rise of Modern Chinese Thought.” Modern China 34, 1 (Jan. 2008): 114-140. Rpt. as “How to Explain ‘China” and Its ‘Modernity’: Rethinking The Rise of Modern Chinese Thought.” Tr. Wang Yang. In Wang Hui, The Politics of Imagining Asia. Ed. Theodore Huters. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2011, 63-94.

[Abstract: This article, a reflection on the author’s tetralogy The Rise of Modern Chinese Thought, focuses on three sets of antithetical concepts—empire and nation-state, rational bureaucracy (junxian zhi) and feudal system (fengjian zhi), rites/music and institutions—”continuity and rupture” in history and the idea of the trend of the times (shishi); and the question of scientific outlook and national knowledge. It argues the importance of liberating the historical world of thought from the position as an object for our observation and transforming it into a perspective from which we can reflect on and observe the modern world of ours.]

—–. The Politics of Imagining Asia. Ed. Theodore Huters. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2011.

[Abstract: In this bold, provocative collection, Wang Hui confronts some of the major issues concerning modern China and the status quo of contemporary Chinese thought. The book’s overarching theme is the possibility of an alternative modernity that does not rely on imported conceptions of Chinese history and its legacy. Wang Hui argues that current models, based largely on Western notions of empire and the nation-state, fail to account for the richness and diversity of pre-modern Chinese historical practice. At the same time, he refrains from offering an exclusively Chinese perspective and placing China in an intellectual ghetto. Navigating terrain on regional language and politics, he draws on China’s unique past to expose the inadequacies of European-born standards for assessing modern China’s evolution. He takes issue particularly with the way in which nation-state logic has dominated politically charged concerns like Chinese language standardization and “The Tibetan Question.” His stance is critical–and often controversial–but he locates hope in the kinds of complex, multifaceted arrangements that defined China and much of Asia for centuries. The Politics of Imagining Asia challenges us not only to re-examine our theories of “Asia” but to reconsider what “Europe” means as well. As Theodore Huters writes in his introduction, “Wang Hui’s concerns extend beyond China and Asia to an ambition to rethink world history as a whole.”]

Wang, Jing. Strategies of Modern Chinese Women Writers’ Autobiographies. Ph. D. diss. Columbus: The Ohio State University, 2000.

Wang, Lingzhen. Personal Matters: Women’s Autobiographical Practice in Twentieth-Century China. Stanford: Stanford UP, 2004.

Wang, Mason Y.H., ed. Perspectives in Contemporary Chinese Literature. University Center, MI: Green River Press, 1983.

Wang, Ning. “Modernity and Whitman’s Reception in Chinese Literature.” In Ed Folson ed., Whitman East & West : new contexts for reading Walt Whitman. Iowa City: University of Iowa Press, 2002, 197-207.

Wang, Xiaojue. Modernity with a Cold War Face: Reimagining the Nation in Chinese Literature Across the 1949 Divide. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Asia Center, 2013. [MCLC Resource Center review by Jeffrey Kinkley]

[Abstract: The year 1949 witnessed China divided into multiple political and cultural entities. How did this momentous shift affect Chinese literary topography? Modernity with a Cold War Face examines the competing, converging, and conflicting modes of envisioning a modern nation in mid-twentieth century Chinese literature. Bridging the 1949 divide in both literary historical periodization and political demarcation, Xiaojue Wang proposes a new framework to consider Chinese literature beyond national boundaries, as something arising out of the larger global geopolitical and cultural conflict of the Cold War. Examining a body of heretofore understudied literary and cultural production in mainland China, Taiwan, Hong Kong, and overseas during a crucial period after World War II, Wang traces how Chinese writers collected artistic fragments, blended feminist and socialist agendas, constructed ambivalent stances toward colonial modernity and an imaginary homeland, translated foreign literature to shape a new Chinese subjectivity, and revisited the classics for a new time. Reflecting historical reality in fictional terms, their work forged a path toward multiple modernities as they created alternative ways of connection, communication, and articulation to uncover and undermine Cold War dichotomous antagonism.

Wedell-Wedelsborg, Anne. “Haunted Fiction: Modern Chinese Literature and the Supernatural.” International Fiction Review 32, 1/2 (2005):

Williams, Philip F. “Chinese Cannibalism’s Literary Portrayal: From Cultural Myth to Investigative Reportage.” Tamkang Review 27, 4 (Summer 1997): 421-42.

—–. “Twentieth-Century Fiction.” In Victor H. Mair, ed. The Columbia History of Chinese Literature. NY: Columbia UP, 2001, 732-57.

—–. “Janus-faced Popularization in 20th-century Chinese Fiction: A Critical Quandary.” Tamkang Review 31, 3 (Spring 2001): 41-64.

Wu, Yenna. “Rethinking Postcolonialist Assumptions and Portrayals of Cannibalism in Modern Chinese Fiction.” Tamkang Review 31, 3 (Spring 2001): 15-40.

Yan, Haiping. Chinese Women Writers and the Feminist Imagination, 1905-1948. London: Routledge, 2006.

Yang, Xiaobin. Selections from Lishi yu xiuci (History and rhetoric). Contemporary Chinese Literature, 1999. [in Chinese, browser required]

Ye, Rong. “A Summary View on Two High Tides of the Impact of Christianity on Twentieth Century Chinese Literature.” Monumenta Serica 54 (2006): 363-93.

Yeh, Man. “Establishment of a Country Through Culinary Art.” Tran. Nancy Zi Chiang. The Chinese Pen (Winter 1972): 20-22.

Yip, Terry Siu-han. “Place, Gender and Identity: The Global-Local Interplay in Three Stories from China, Taiwan and Hong Kong.” In Kwok-kan Tam et al., eds., Sights of Contestation: Localism, Globalism and Cultural Production in Asia and the Pacific. HK: The Chinese University Press, 2002, 17-34. [deals with stories by Tie Ning, Zhang Xiguo (Chang Shi-kuo), and Ye Si]

Yip, Wai-lim. “Condemned to Cultural Displacement: The Case of Modern China.” In Wolfgang Kubin, ed., Symbols of Anguish: In Search of Melancholy in China. Bern: Peter Lang, 2001, 315-33.

Yue, Gang. The Mouth That Begs: Hunger, Cannibalism, and the Politics of Eating in Modern China. Durham: Duke UP, 1999.

Zhang, Jingyuan. Psychoanalysis in China: Literary Transformations, 1919-1949. Ithaca: Cornell East Asia Series, 1992.

Zhang, Longxi. “Literary Modernity in Perspective.” In Yingjin Zhang, ed. A Companion to Modern Chinese Literature. Chichester, UK: Wiley Blackwell, 2016, 116-33.

Zhang, Yinde. Le monde romanesque chinois au XXe siecle. Geneva: Editions Honore Champion, 2003.

Zhao, Henry Y. H. (Zhao Yiheng). The Uneasy Narrator: Chinese Fiction from the Traditional to the Modern. NY: Oxford University Press, 1995.

Zou, John Yu. “Travel and Translation: An Aspect of China’s Cultural Modernity, 1862-1926.” In Yingjin Zhang, ed., China in a Polycentric World: Essays in Chinese Comparative Literature. Stanford: Stanford UP, 1999, 133-51.


Literary Societies

Ayers, William. “The Society for Literary Studies, 1921-1930.” Papers on China 7 (Feb. 1953): 34-79.

Chen Anhu 陈安湖, ed. Zhongguo xiandai wenxue shetuan liupai shi 中国现代文学社团流派史 (The history of modern Chinese literary societies and schools). Wuhan: Huazhong shifan daxue, 1997.

Chen Jingzhi 陳敬之. Wenxue yanjiuhui yu Chuangzao she 文學研究會與創造社 (The Literary Research Association and the Creation Society). Taibei: Chengwen, 1980.

Chen, Xiaomei. “Tian Han and the Southern Society Phenomenon: Networking the Personal, Communal, and Cultural.” In Kirk A. Denton and Michel Hockx, eds., Literary Societies in Republican China. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 2008, 241-79.

Chuangzao she ziliao 创造社资料 (Materials on the Creation society). 2 vols. Fuzhou: Fujian renmin, 1985.

Crespi, John. “Form and Reform: New Poetry and the Crescent Moon Society.” In Joshua Mostow, ed, and Kirk A. Denton, China section, ed., Columbia Companion to Modern East Asian Literatures. NY: Columbia UP, 2003, 364-70. Rpt in Kirk A. Denton, ed., Columbia Companion to Modern Chinese Literature. NY: Columbia University Press, 2016, 121-27.

Daruvala, Susan. “Yuefeng: A Literary Journal of the 1930s.” In Kirk A. Denton and Michel Hockx, eds., Literary Societies in Republican China. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 2008, 339-78. Originally published in a different version as “Yuefeng: A Literary Journal of the 1930s.” Modern Chinese Literature and Culture 18, 2 (Fall 2006): 39-97.

Denton, Kirk A. “The Hu Feng Group: Genealogy of a Literary School.” In Kirk A. Denton and Michel Hockx, eds., Literary Societies in Republican China. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 2008, 413-66.

Denton, Kirk A. and Michel Hockx, eds. Literary Societies in Republican China. [website for ongoing research project; contains project description, abstracts of essays, list of literary societies, etc]

—–. Literary Societies in Republican China. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 2008. [MCLC Resource Center review by John Christopher Hamm]

[Abstract: Literary Societies in Republican China provides a new and comprehensive perspective on the fascinating literary world of the most turbulent period in recent Chinese history: the Republican era of 1911-1949. Wedged between the fall of the Empire and the founding of the Communist state, the Republican period witnessed enormous social, political, and cultural changes. Traditionally the period is seen as one of transition: from the country being partially colonized and occupied to being an independent nation-state, from Confucianism to socialism, from writing in classical Chinese to writing in the everyday vernacular. Modern scholarship, however, has become suspicious of such attempts to analyze history, including cultural history, as a journey from A to B via C. Instead, attention has turned to the “thick description” of complex historical phenomena without worrying about whether or not they fit into some neat linear scheme. Inevitably, such scholarship benefits from collaboration and teamwork, from the juxtaposition of different insights and different materials in order to gain in overall breadth. Literary Societies in Republican China represents such teamwork and such breadth. The thirteen essays by eleven scholars from North America, Europe, and Asia present detailed discussions of particular literary groups active on the Republican-era literary scene. Some of these groups are familiar representatives of what used to be considered the “mainstream,” while others represent literary styles that have hitherto been considered “marginal” or that have been ignored altogether. Each of the essays in this volume looks in detail at literary societies both as producers of literary views and texts and as organizations with sometimes very complex social structures. The result is a unique blend of literary, cultural, and social history, unrivalled in any English-language scholarship on China to date.]

Estran, Jaqueline. La Revue Xinyue (1928-1933): sa Contribution à la Littérature Chinoise Moderne. Ph.D. diss. Paris: INALCO, 2000.

—–. “Un monde revé: la France dans la revue Xinyue (1928-1933).” Transtext(e)s Transcultures: Journal of Global Cultural Studies 1 (May 2006).

Fan, Fa-ti. “Nature and Nation in Chinese Political Thought: The National Essence Circle in Early Twentieth-Century China.” In Lorraine Daston and Fernando Vidal, eds., The Moral Authority of Nature. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2004, 409-37.

Fan Quan 范泉, ed. Zhongguo xiandai wenxue shetuan liupai cidian 中国现代文学社团流派词典 (Dictionary of modern Chinese literary societies and schools). Shanghai: Shanghai shudian, 1993.

Feuerwerker, Yi-tsi Mei. “Reconsidering Xueheng: Neo-Conservatism in Early Republican China.” In Kirk A. Denton and Michel Hockx, eds., Literary Societies in Republican China. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 2008, 137-70.

Gimpel, Denise. “More Than Butterflies: Short Fiction in the Early Years of the Literary Journal Xiaoshuo yuebao.” In Findeison and Gassmann, eds., Autumn Floods: Essay in Honour of Marian Galik. Bern: Peter Lang, 1997, 243-60.

Godley, Michael. “Politics from History: Lei Haizong and the Zhanguo Ce Clique.” Papers in Far Eastern History 40 (Sept. 1989): 95-122.

Handbook of cultural institutions in China. Ed. Chuang, Wên-ya. Shanghai, Chinese National Committee on Intellectual Co-operation, 1934-.

Hockx, Michel. “The Literary Association (Wenxue yanjiu hui, 1920-1947) and the Literary Field of Early Republican China.” China Quarterly 153 (March 1998): 49-81.

—–. “Playing the Field: Aspects of Chinese Literary Life in the 1920s.” In Hockx, ed., The Literary Field of Twentieth-Century China. Richmond: Curzon, 1999; Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1999, 61-78.

—–. Questions of Style: Literary Societies and Literary Journals in Modern China, 1911-1937. Leiden: E. J. Brill, 2003.[MCLC Resource Center review by Edward M. Gunn]

—–. “The Chinese Literary Association (Wenxue yanjiu hui).” In Kirk A. Denton and Michel Hockx, eds., Literary Societies in Republican China. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 2008, 79-102.

—–. “Literary Communities and the Production of Literature.” In Kirk A. Denton, ed., Columbia Companion to Modern Chinese Literature. NY: Columbia University Press, 2016, 46-54.

Hon, Tze-ki. “From Babbitt to ‘Bai Bide’: Interpretations of New Humanism in Xueheng.” In Kai-wing Chow, Tze-ki Hon, Hung-yok Ip, and Don Price, eds., Beyond the May Fourth Paradigm: In Search of Chinese Modernity. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 2008.

Hunter, Neale. The League of Left-Wing Writers, Shanghai, 1930-1936. Ph.d. diss. Canberra: Australian National University, 1973.

Ito Toramaru 伊藤虎丸. Sozosha shiryo [Chuangzao she ziliao 创造社资料] (Creation Society research materials). 2 vols. Tokyo: Ajia Shuppan, 1979.

Jia Zhifang 贾植芳, ed. Zhongguo xiandai wenxue shetuan liupai 中国现代文学社团流派 (Societies and schools in modern Chinese literature). 2 vols. Jiangsu jiaoyu, 1989. [very useful description of the many literary societies and groups in modern China]

Jia Zhifang贾植芳 et al. eds., Wenxue yanjiu hui ziliao 文学研究会资料 (Literary Association research materials). 3 vols. Zhengzhou: Henan renmin, 1985.

Jiang Bian 江边. Ershi shiji Zhongguo wenxue liupai  二十世纪中国文学流派 (Twentieth-century Chinese literary schools). Qingdao: Qingdao, 1993.

Kane, Anthony J. The League of Left Wing Writers and Chinese Literary Policy. Ph.D. diss. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan, 1982.

Keaveney, Christopher T. The Subversive Self in Modern Chinese Literature: The Creation Society’s Reinvention of the Japanese Shishosetsu. NY: Palgrave Mcmillan, 2004.

Laughlin, Charles. “The Analects Group and the Genre of Xiaopin.” In Kirk A. Denton and Michel Hockx, eds., Literary Societies in Republican China. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 2008, 207-40.

—–. “The All-China Resistance Association of Writers and Artists.” In Kirk A. Denton and Michel Hockx, eds., Literary Societies in Republican China. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 2008, 379-412.

Lee, Haiyan. “All the Feelings That Are Fit to Print: The Community of Sentiment and the Literary Public Sphere in China, 1900-1918.” Modern China 27, no. 3 (July 2001): 291-327.

Yang Tianshi 杨天石. Nanshe shi changbian 南社史长编 (The long history of the Southern Society). Beijing: Zhongguo renmin daxue, 1995.

Miao, Junjie. “A Preliminary Study of Literary Schools in the New Era.” Chinese Literature (Winter 1988): 174-85.

Miller, Mark. “The Yusi Society.” In Kirk A. Denton and Michel Hockx, eds., Literary Societies in Republican China. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 2008, 171-206.

Rao Hongjing et al. eds., Chuangzao she ziliao 创造社资料 (Creation Society research materials). 2 vols. Fuzhou: Fujian renmin, 1985.

Shi Jianwei 施建伟. Zhongguo xiandai wenxue liupai lun 中国现代文学流派论 (On modern Chinese literary schools). Xi’an: Shanxi renmin, 1986.

Schirach, Richard von. Hsu Chih-mo und die Hsin-Yueh Gesellschaft: ein Beitrag zur neuen Literatur Chinas. Munich: Thesis, 1971.

Tang, Xiaobing, with Michel Hockx. “The Creation Society (1921-1930).” In Kirk A. Denton and Michel Hockx, eds., Literary Societies in Republican China. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 2008, 103-36.

Tung, Constantine. The Search for Order and Form: The Crescent Moon Society and the Literary Movement of Modern China, 1928- 1933. Claremont, Calif., Ph.D. diss., 1971.

—–. The Crescent Moon Society: the Minority’s Challenge in the Literary Movement of Modern China. Buffalo: Council on International Studies, State University of New York at Buffalo, 1972.

Wong, Lawrence Wang-chi. Politics and Literature in Shanghai: the Chinese League of Left-Wing Writers, 1930-1936. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1991.

—–. “A Literary Organization with a Clear Political Agenda: The Chinese League of Left-Wing Writers, 1930-1936.” In Kirk A. Denton and Michel Hockx, eds., Literary Societies in Republican China. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 2008, 15-46.

Wu, Shengqing. “Contested Fengya: Classical-Style Poetry Clubs in Early Republican China.” In Kirk A. Denton and Michel Hockx, eds., Literary Societies in Republican China. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 2008, 15-46.

Xu, Xueqing. “The Mandarin Duck and Butterfly School.” In Kirk A. Denton and Michel Hockx, eds., Literary Societies in Republican China. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 2008, 47-78.

Yan Jiayan 严家炎. Zhongguo xiandai xiaoshuo shi liupai 中国现代小说史流派 (History of the schools of modern Chinese fiction). Beijing: Renmin wenxue, 1989.

Yin, Zhiguang. Politics of Art: The Creation Society and the Practice of Theoretical Struggle in Revolutionary China. Leiden: Brill, 2014. [MCLC Resource Center review by Liang Luo]

[Abstract: In Politics of Art Zhiguang Yin investigates members of the Creation Society and their social network while in Japan. The study contextualises the Chinese left-wing intellectual movements and their political engagements in relation with the early 20th century international political events and trends in both East Asia and Europe. The Creation Society was largely viewed as a subject of literary studies. This research, however, evaluates these intellectuals in the context of Chinese revolution and elaborates their theoretical contribution to the Chinese Communist Party’s practice of “theoretical struggle” as a main driving force of ideological construction. As this study tries to demonstrate, theoretical struggle drives the ideological politics forward while maintaining its political vigour.]

Zhang, Zhizhong. “On Literary Schools in China Today.” Social Sciences in China 1 (1987): 141-68.

Zhongguo wenxue yishu shetuan liupai cidian 中国文学艺术社团流派词典 (Dictionary of Chinese literary and art societies and schools). Jilin: Jilin renmin, 1992. [includes societies in pre-modern, modern and contemporary periods]

Zuolian cidian 左联词典 (A dictionary of the League of Left-wing Writers). Ed. Yao Xin. Beijing: Guangming ribao, 1994.


Print Culture

This section has been moved to Media


Modernism

Au, Chung-to. Modernist Aesthetics in Taiwanese Poetry since the 1950s. Leiden: Brill, 2008.

[Abstract: Much of the previous scholarship on Taiwanese modernist poetry easily falls into ideological arguments. This book participates in the development of an alternative approach to understanding Taiwanese modernist poetry. Dr. Au’s approach emphasizes the diversity and intensity of experiences of place and placelessness in the work of five poets: Lomen, Luo Fu, Rong Zi, Yu Guangzhong and Zheng Chouyu. The phenomenon of placelessness is a problem in all modernity and so modern aesthetics is an outgrowth of modern society’s sense of placelessness. This book not only shows how place becomes placelessness but also analyses Taiwanese modernist poets’ responses to the phenomenon of placelessness. Four kinds of places are examined, namely, the house, the city, homeland and an imagined literary community, in this work. The result is both refreshing and original.]

Chan, Leo Tak-Hung. “First Imitate, then Translate: Histories of the Introduction of Stream-of-Consciousness Fiction to China.” Meta 49, 3 (Sept. 2004).

Chang, Sung-sheng Yvonne. Modernism and Nativist Resistance: Contemporary Chinese Fiction from Taiwan. Durham: Duke UP, 1993.

—–. “Elements of Modernism in Fiction from Taiwan.” Tamkang Review 19, 1-4 (Autumn 1988-Summer 1989): 591-606.

—–. “Modern Taiwanese Fiction from Taiwan.” In Murray Rubinstein, ed. Taiwan: A History, 1600-1994. Armonk: M.E. Sharpe, 1998.

—–. “Modernism and Contemporary Fiction of Taiwan.” In Roger Bauer, Douwe Fokkema, eds., Proceedings of the XIIth Conference of the Inernational Comparative Literature Association: Space and Boundaries of Literature. Munich: Iudicium, 1990, 285-90.

Chen, Xiaomei. “Misunderstanding Western Modernism: The Menglong Movement in Post-Mao China.” Representations 35 (Summer 1991): 143-63. Rpt. in Chen, Occidentalism: A Theory of Counter-Discourse in Post-Mao China. NY: Oxford UP, 1995, 69-98.

Chiu, Kuei-fen. “Treacherous Translation: Taiwanese Tactics of Intervention in Transnational Cultural Flows.” Concentric: Literary and Cultural Studies 31, 1 (Jan. 2005): 47-69.

Fruhauf, Heiner. “Urban Exoticism and Its Sino-Japanese Scenery, 1910s-1923.” Asian and African Studies [Brataslava] 6, 2 (1997): 117-25.

Hagenaar, Elly. “Traces of Ulysees in Chinese Fiction of the Early 1930s.” In Words from the West: Western Texts in Chinese Literary Context. Leiden: Centre of Non-Western Studies, 1993.

—–. Stream of Consciousness and Free Indirect Discourse in Modern Chinese Literature. Leiden: CNWS, 1992.

He, Li. “Modernism and China: A Summary from the People’s Daily.” Tr. Geremie Barme. Renditions 19/20 (1983): 44-54.

Huang, Guiyou. Whitmanism, Imagism, and Modernism in China and America. Selingsgrove, Pa.: Susquehanna UP; London; Cranbury, NJ: Associated University Presses, 1997.

Huot, Claire. “Literary Experiments: Six Files.” In Huot, China’s New Cultural Scene: A Handbook of Changes. Durham: Duke University Press, 2000, 7-48. [deals mostly with avant-garde writers]

Ko, Ch’ing-ming. “Modernism and Its Discontents: Taiwan Literature in the 1960s.” In Pang-yuan Chi and David Wang, eds., Chinese Literature in the Second Half of the Twentieth Century: A Critical Survey. Bloomington: Indiana UP, 2000, 76-95.

Ku, Tim-hung. “Modernism in Modern Poetry of Taiwan, ROC: A Comparative Perspective.” Tamkang Review 18 (1987/88): 125-39.

Kwan-Terry, John. “Modernism and Tradition in Some Recent Chinese Verse.” Tamkang Review 3, 2 (1972): 189-202.

Jenner, W. J. F.  “Is a Modern Chinese Literature Possible?” In W. Kubin and R. Wagner, eds. Essays in Modern Chinese Literature and Literary Criticism. Bochum: Brockmeyer, 1982.

Larson, Wendy, and Anne Wedell-Wedellsborg, eds. Inside Out: Modernism and Postmodernism in Chinese Literary Culture. Aarhus: Aarhus UP, 1993.

Larson, Wendy. “Realism, Modernism and the Spiritual Pollution Campaign.” Modern China 15, 1 (1989): 37-71.

—–. “Literary Modernism and Nationalism in Post-Mao China.” In Larson and Anne Wedell-Wedellsborg, eds. Inside Out: Modernism and Postmodernism in Chinese Literary Culture. Aarhus: Aarhus UP, 1993, 172-97.

—–. “Notes on the Chinese Modernism-Realism Debates.” Chinoperl Papers 20-22 (1997-99): 245-68.

Lee, Gregory. “Contemporary Chinese Poetry, Exile and the Potential for Modernism.” In Gregory Lee, ed., Chinese Writing and Exile. Chicago: Center for East Asian Studies, The University of Chicago, 1993, 55-78.

—-. “Exile and the Potential of Modernism.” [From Troubadors, Trumpeters, Troubled Makers: Lyricism, Nationalism, and Hybridity in China and Its Others. (London: Hurst, 1996)]. Interpoetics: Poetry of Asia and the Pacific Rim 1, 2 (Spring 1998).

Lee, Leo Ou-fan. “Modernsim and Romanticism in Taiwan Literature.” In Faurot, ed., Chinese Fiction from Taiwan: Critical Perspectives. Bloomington: Indiana UP, 1980.

—–. “In Search of Modernity: Some Reflections on a New Mode of Consciousness in Twentieth-Century Chinese History and Literature.” In Cohen and Goldman, eds. Ideas Across Cultures. Cambridge: HUP, 1990, 109-136.

—– “Modernism in Modern Chinese Literature: A Study (Somewhat Comparative) in Literary History.” Tamkang Review 10, 3/4 (Spring 1980): 281-307.

—–. “Beyond Realism: Thoughts on Modernist Experiments in Contemporary Chinese Writing.” In Goldblatt, ed., Worlds Apart: Recent Chinese Writing and Its Audiences. Armonk: M.E. Sharpe, 1990, 64-77.

Leung, Ping-kwan. Aesthetics of Opposition: A Study of the Modernist Generation of Chinese Poets, 1936-1949. Ph.d. diss. San Diego: University of California, SD, 1984.

Lo, Kwai-cheung. “Writing the Otherness of Nature: Chinese Misty Poetry and the Alternative Modernist Practice.” Tamkang Review 29, 2 (1998): 87-117.

Lu, Sheldon H. “Universality/Difference: The Discourses of Chinese Modernity, Postmodernity, and Postcoloniality.” Journal of Asian Pacific Communications 9, 1-2 (1998).

Lupke, Christopher. “The Taiwan Modernists.” In Joshua Mostow, ed, and Kirk A. Denton, China section, ed., Columbia Companion to Modern East Asian Literatures. NY: Columbia UP, 2003, 481-87.

—–. “Cold War Fiction from Taiwan and the Modernists.” In Kirk A. Denton, ed., Columbia Companion to Modern Chinese Literature. NY: Columbia University Press, 2016, 250-57.

Macdonald, Sean. “‘Modernism’ in Modern Chinese Literature: The ‘Third Type of Person’ as a Figure of Autonomy.” The Canadian Review of Comparative Literature (June/Sept. 2002): 289-315.

[Abstract: This paper is a discussion of the New Sensation School (Xin ganjuepai), a group of authors that included Liu Na’ou, Mu Shiying, Shi Zhecun, Ye Lingfeng, and Du Heng, and who were active in Shanghai in the 1920s and 30s. In 1933, Du Heng, writing as Su Wen, edited an anthology of essays based on the Debate on Literary and Artistic Freedom that took place within the Left League. This debate, especially arguments surrounding the so called “third type of person” (disanzhong ren), is read within the context of the historical theory of aesthetic autonomy and the recent reappearance of the term “modernism” in modern Chinese literature. The “third type of person” debate is rarely discussed in detail, if it is discussed at all, despite its historical and cultural significance. Indeed, it is suggested that this debate represented an important discussion of ideas that were in the air in 1930s Shanghai, and a very significant theoretical parallel to the emergence of New Sensationist and early modernist fiction in China–from the author]

—–. “Montage as Chinese: Modernism, the Avant-garde, and the Strange Appropriation of China.” Modern Chinese Literature and Culture 19, 2 (Fall 2007): 151-99.

Mak, Anthony Wan-hoi. The School of New Sensibilities in the 1930s: A Study of Liu Na’ou and Mu Shiying’s Fiction. Ph.D. diss. University of Toronto, 1995.

Malmqvist, Goran. “On the Emergence of Modernistic Poetry in China.” Bulletin of the Museum of Far Eastern Antiquities 55 (1983): 57-71.

“Modernisms’ Chinas.” Special issue of Modern Chinese Literature and Culture. Guest Editor Eric Hayot. 18,1 (Spring 2006).

Pollard, David. “The Controversy over Modernism, 1979-1984.” China Quarterly 104 (1985): 641-56.

Qian, Zhaoming. Orientalism and Modernism: The Legacy of China in Pound and Williams. Durham: Duke UP, 1995.

Riep, Steven L. “Chinese Modernism: The New Sensationists.” In Joshua Mostow, ed, and Kirk A. Denton, China section, ed., Columbia Companion to Modern East Asian Literatures. NY: Columbia UP, 2003, 418-24. Rpt in Kirk A. Denton, ed., Columbia Companion to Modern Chinese Literature. NY: Columbia University Press, 2016, 176-82.

Shih, Shu-mei. The Lure of the Modern: Writing Modernism in Semicolonial China, 1917-1937. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2001.

Tang, Xiaobing. “Lu Xun’s ‘Diary of a Madman’ and a Chinese Modernism.” PMLA 107, 5 (1992): 1222-34.

—–. “Residual Modernism: Narratives of the Self in Contemporary Chinese Fiction.” Moern Chinese Literature 7, 1 (1993): 7-32.

Trappl, Richard. “‘Modernism’ and Foreign Influences on Chinese Poetry: Exemplified by the Early Guo Moruo and Gu Cheng.” In Marian Galik, ed., Interliterary and Intraliterary Aspects of the May Fourth Movement 1919 in China. Bratislava: Veda, 1990, 83-92.

Trumbull, Randolph. The Shanghai Modernists. Phd. diss. Stanford University, 1989.

Wang, Rujie. “The Mosaic of Chinese Modernism in Fiction and Film: The Aesthetics of Primitivism, Taoism, and Buddhism.” Canadian Review of Comparative Literature 35, 1-2 (March-June 2008): 14-39.

Wang, Yiyan. “Venturing into Shanghai: The Flâneur in Two of Shi Zhecun’s Short Stories.” Modern Chinese Literature and Culture 19, 2 (Fall 2007): 34-70.

Xu, Jingya. “A Volant Tribe of Bards: A Critique of the Modernist Tendencies of Chinese Poetry.” Tr. Ng Mau-sang. Renditions 19/20 (1983): 59-68.

Zhang, Jingyuan. Psychoanalysis in China: Literary Transformations, 1919-1949. Ithaca: Cornell East Asia Series, 1992.

Zhang, Yingjin. “The Texture of the Metropolis: Modernist Inscriptions of Shanghai in the 1930s.” In Yingjin Zhang, ed., China in a Polycentric World: Essays in Chinese Comparative Literature. Stanford: Stanford UP, 1999, 173-88.

Zhang, Zao. “Developments and Continuity of Modernism in Chinese Poetry Since 1917.” In Wendy Larson and Anne Wedell-Wedellsborg, eds., Inside Out: Modernism and Postmodernism in Chinese Literary Culture. Aarhus: Aarhus University, 1993

Zhu, Yanhong. Reconfiguring Chinese Modernism: The Poetics of Temporality in 1940s Fiction and Poetry. Ph. D. diss. Los Angeles: University of Southern California, 2009.

[Authors that are discussed in the dissertation include: Shen Congwen, Feng Zhi, Nine Leaves Poets (primarily Yuan Kejia and Mu Dan)].


Postmodernism/Avant-Garde

Arac, Jonathan. “Postmodernism and Postmodernity in China: An Agenda for Inquiry.” New Literary History 28, 1 (1997): 135-46.

—–. “Chinese Postmodernism in Global Contexts.” Boundary 2 24, 3 (1997).

Cai, Rong. “The Mirror in the Text: Borges and Metafiction on Post-Mao China.” Tamkang Review 32, 2 (Winter 2001): 35-68.

—–. The Subject in Crisis in Contemporary Chinese Literature. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 2004.

Cai, Yongchun and Herbert J. Batt. “In the Labyrinth: An Introduction to Postmodern Chinese Fiction.” Manoa 15, 2 (2003): 49-56.

—–. Postmodernism and Contemporary Chinese Avant-garde Fiction. NY: Routledge, 2015.

[Abstract:This book examines the work of a group of young avant-garde fiction writers who made their rebellious appearance on the Chinese literary scene from the mid-1980s onwards. Exhibiting strategies of anti-mainstream, anti-paradigmatic discourse these writers debunked the traditional literary conventions of a hitherto very closed Chinese society using literary modes such as metafiction, narrative strategy and postmodernist language. This book will help its readers to understand why the Chinese avant garde were so closely related to Chinese politics, and how they played a role in bringing social and cultural change in China. With this in mind the book will appeal to students and scholars of Chinese and comparative literature as well as those interested in Chinese society more widely.]

Chen, Maiping. “On the Absence of Self: From Modernism to Postmodernism.” In Larson, Wendy, and Anne Wedell-Wedellsborg, eds. Inside Out: Modernism and Postmodernism in Chinese Literary Culture. Aarhus: Aarhus UP, 1993, 78-90.

Chen, Xiaoming. “The Mysterious Other: Postpolitics in the Narrative of Chinese Film.” Boundary 2 24, 3 (1997). Rpt. in Xudong Zhang and Arif Dirlik, eds., Postmodernism and China. Durham: Duke UP, 2000, 222-38.

Chow, Rey. “Can One Say No to China?” New Literary History 28, 1 (1997): 147-51.

Dai, Jinhua. “Imagined Nostalgia.” Boundary 2 24, 3 (1997). Rpt. in Xudong Zhang and Arif Dirlik, eds., Postmodernism and China. Durham: Duke UP, 2000, 205-220.

—–. “Immediacy, Parody, and Image in the Mirror: Is There a Postmodern Scene in Beijing?” Tr. Jing M. Wang. In Jenny Kwok Wah Lau, ed., Multiple Modernities: Cinemas and Popular Media in Transcultural East Asia. Philadelphia: Temple UP, 2003, 151-66.

Ding, Ersu. “Philosophical Discourse of Postmodernity in the Chinese Context.” New Literary History 28, 1 (1997): 21-30.

Dirlik, Arif and Zhang Xudong, eds. Postmodernism and China [a special issue of Boundary 2]. 1997. Rpt. as Postmodernism and China. Durham: Duke UP, 2000.

—–. “Introduction: Postmodernism and China.” Boundary 2 24, 3 (1997). In Xudong Zhang and Arif Dirlik, eds., Postmodernism and China. Durham: Duke UP, 2000, 1-17.

Flieger, Jerry Aline. “Postmodern Perspective: The Paranoid Eye.” New Literary History 28, 1 (1997): 87-110.

Fokkema, Douwe. “Chinese Postmodernist Fiction.” Modern Language Quarterly 69, 1 (2008): 141-65.

[Abstract: The title of this essay implies that there is a Chinese postmodernism that differs from American or European postmodernism. But the different postmodernisms also have a common basis, which can be found at the level of unstable signification. First the author briefly sketches how the concept of postmodernism traveled from the United States to western Europe and Russia, with key roles for American critics such as John Barth, Leslie Fiedler, Ihab Hassan, and Matei Calinescu and, in Europe, writers such as Umberto Eco and the reception of Jorge Luis Borges and Vladimir Nabokov. To the author, Chinese postmodernism differs from other variants of postmodernism because of its different cultural-historical and literary-historical background. With few exceptions, modernism was a late discovery in China. After 1978 Wang Meng, Zhang Jie, Wang Anyi, and others wrote fiction in a modernist style. The simultaneity of modernism and postmodernism is a clue to the interpretation of Chinese fiction of the 1980s and 1990s. Postmodernist exuberant fabulation, partly inspired by Gabriel García Márquez and partly by traditional Chinese fiction, can be found in fiction by Mo Yan, Yu Hua, and Han Shaogong.Please Don’t Call Me Human (Qianwan bie ba wo dang ren, 1989), by Wang Shuo, who was recently honored with a Chinese compilation of “research material concerning Wang Shuo” (Tianjin, 2005), is also discussed.]

He, Guimei. “Genealogy and Ideology of the Avant-Garde Fiction.” In Xueping Zhong and Ban Wang, eds. Debating the Socialist Legacy and Capitalist Globalization in China. NY: Palgrave MacMillan, 2014, 123-36.

Jian, Guo. “Resisting Modernity in Contemporary China: The Cultural Revolution and Post-Modernism.” Modern China 25, 3 (July 1999): 343-76.

Jones, Andrew F. “Avante-Garde Fiction in China.” In Joshua Mostow, ed, and Kirk A. Denton, China section, ed., Columbia Companion to Modern East Asian Literatures. NY: Columbia UP, 2003, 554-60. Rpt as “Avant-Garde Fiction in Post-Mao China.” In Kirk A. Denton, ed., Columbia Companion to Modern Chinese Literature. NY: Columbia University Press, 2016, 313-19.

King, Anthony D. and Abidin Kusno. “On Be(ij)ing in the World. ‘Postmodernism,’ ‘Globalization,’ and the Making of Transnational Space in China.” In Xudong Zhang and Arif Dirlik, eds., Postmodernism and China. Durham: Duke UP, 2000, 41-67.

Knight, Sabina. “Defiance and Fatalism in Roots-Seeking and Avant-Garde Fiction.” In The Heart of Time: Moral Agency in Twentieth-Century Chinese Fiction. Cambridge: Harvard University Asia Center, 2006, 191-221.

Kubin, Wolfgang. “The End of the Prophet: Chinese Poetry Between Modernity and Postmodernity.” In Larson, Wendy, and Anne Wedell-Wedellsborg, eds. Inside Out: Modernism and Postmodernism in Chinese Literary Culture. Aarhus: Aarhus UP, 1993, 19-37.

Larson, Wendy, and Anne Wedell-Wedellsborg, eds. Inside Out: Modernism and Postmodernism in Chinese Literary Culture. Aarhus: Aarhus UP, 1993.

Larson, Wendy. “Women and the Discourse of Desire in Postrevolutionary China: The Awkward Postmodernism of Chen Ran.” Boundary 2 24, 3 (1997).

Lee, Tong King. Experimental Chinese Literature: Translation, Technology, Poetics. Leiden: Brill, 2015.

[Abstract: the first theoretical account of material poetics from the dual perspectives of translation and technology. Focusing on a range of works by contemporary Chinese authors including Hsia Yü, Chen Li, and Xu Bing, Tong King Lee explores how experimental writers engage their readers in multimodal reading experiences by turning translation into a method and by exploiting various technologies. The key innovation of this book rests with its conceptualisation of translation and technology as spectrums that interact in different ways to create sensuous, embodied texts. Drawing on a broad range of fields such as literary criticism, multimodal studies, and translation, Tong King Lee advances the notion of the translational text, which features transculturality and intersemioticity in its production and reception.]

Liao, Chaoyang. “Borrowed Modernity: History and the Subject in A Borrowed Life.” Boundary 2 24, 3 (1997). Rpt. in Xudong Zhang and Arif Dirlik, eds., Postmodernism and China. Durham: Duke UP, 2000, 275-93.

Liao, Ping-hui. “Postmodern Literary Discourse and Contemporary Public Culture in Taiwan.” Boundary 2 24, 3 (1997). Rpt. in Xudong Zhang and Arif Dirlik, eds., Postmodernism and China. Durham: Duke UP, 2000, 68-88.

Liu, Fusheng. “Mythification of the Reform-Era History: A Sociohistorical Analysis of the Avant-Garde Literature.” In Xueping Zhong and Ban Wang, eds. Debating the Socialist Legacy and Capitalist Globalization in China. NY: Palgrave MacMillan, 2014, 109-22.

Liu, Kang. “Popular Culture and the Culture of the Masses in Contemporary China.” Boundary 2 24, 3 (1997). Rpt. in Xudong Zhang and Arif Dirlik, eds., Postmodernism and China. Durham: Duke UP, 2000, 123-44.

—–. “Postmodernism, the Avant-garde, and Chinese Cultural Reflection.” The Proceedings of the ICLA ’91 Tokyo Congrees. Tokyo: University of Tokyo Press, 1992, 236-43.

—–. “Is There an Alternative to (Capitalist) Globalization?: The Debate About Modernity in China.” In Fredric Jameson and Masao Miyoshi, eds., The Cultures of Globalization. Durham, NC: Duke UP, 1999.

—–. “Is There An Alternative to (Capitalist) Globalization? The Debate about Modernity, Postmodernity, and Postcoloniality.” In Liu, Globalization and Cultural Trends in China. Honolulu: University of Hawai’i Press, 2004, 23-45.

Lu, Sheldon H. “Universality/Difference: The Discourses of Chinese Modernity, Postmodernity, and Postcoloniality.” Journal of Asian Pacific Communications 9, 1-2 (1998).

—–. “Global POSTmoderniZATION: The Intellectual, the Artist, and China’s Condition.” Boundary 2 24, 3 (1997). Rpt. in Xudong Zhang and Arif Dirlik, eds., Postmodernism and China. Durham: Duke UP, 2000, 145-74.

Mazzilli, Mary. “Theoretical Studies of China: Comparative Literature, the Debate on Postmodernism in China, and the Quest for a ‘Transnational’ Intellectual.” Korea Journal of Chinese Language and Literature 1 (2011): 249-72.

McDougall, Bonnie. “The Anxiety of Out-fluence: Creativity, History and Postmodernism.” In Larson and Wedell-Wedellsborg, eds., Inside Out: Modernism and Postmodernism in Chinese Literary Culture. Aarhus: Aarhus UP, 1993, 99-112. Rpt in McDougall, Fictional Authors, Imaginary Audiences: Modern Chinese Literature in the Twentieth Century. HK: Chinese University Press, 2003, 241-74.

Saussy, Haun. “Postmodernism in China: A Sketch and Some Queries.” Wen-hsin Yeh, ed., Cross-Cultural Readings of Chineseness: Narratives, Images, and Interpretations of the 1990s. Berkeley: Center for Chinese Studies, 2000, 128-58.

Tang, Xiaobing. “Melancholy against the Grain: Approaching Postmodernity in Wang Anyi’s Tales of Sorrow.” Boundary 2 24, 3 (1997).

—–. “The Function of New Theory: What Does It Mean to Talk About Postmodernism in China?” In X. Tang and L. Kang, eds. Politics, Ideology, and Literary Discourse in Modern China: Theoretical Interventions and Cultural Critique. Durham: Duke UP, 1993, 278-99.

Wang Fengzhen. “Third-World Writers in the Era of Postmodernism.” New Literary History 28, 1 (1997): 45-56.

Wang, Mingxian. “Notes on Architecture and Postmodernism in China.” Boundary 2 24, 3 (1997).

Wang, Ning. “Constructing Postmodernism: The Chinese Case and Its Different Versions.” Canadian Review of Comparative Literature 20, 1-2 (March-June 1993): 49-61.

—–. “The Mapping of Chinese Postmodernity.” Boundary 2 24, 3 (1997). Rpt. in Xudong Zhang and Arif Dirlik, eds., Postmodernism and China. Durham: Duke UP, 2000, 21-40.

—–. “Post-New Period: A Metamorphosed Version of Chinese Postmodernity.” Canadian Review of Comparative Literature 27, 3 (March-June 2000): 480-97.

Xu, Ben. “Postmodern-Postcolonial Criticism and Pro-Democracy Enlightenment.” Modern China 27, 1 (Jan. 2001): 17-147.

Yang, Xiaobin. “Answering the Question: What is Chinese Postmodernism/Post-Mao-Dengism?” In Pang-yuan Chi and David Wang, eds., Chinese Literature in the Second Half of the Twentieth Century: A Critical Survey. Bloomington: Indiana UP, 2000, 1193-215.

—–. “Whence and Whither the Postmodern/Post-Mao-Deng Historical Subjectivity and Literary Subjectivity in Modern China.” In Xudong Zhang and Arif Dirlik, eds., Postmodernism and China. Durham: Duke UP, 2000, 379-98.

—–. The Chinese Postmodern: Trauma and Irony in Chinese Avant-garde Fiction. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2002. [MCLC Resource Center review by Wendy Larson]

—–. “Toward a Theory of Postmodern/Post-Mao-Deng Literature.” In Charles Laughlin, ed., Contested Modernities in Chinese Literature. NY: Palgrave Macmillan, 2005, 81-97.

Yeh, Michelle. “Chinese Postmodernism and the Cultural Politics of Modern Chinese Poetry.” Wen-hsin Yeh, ed., Cross-Cultural Readings of Chineseness: Narratives, Images, and Interpretations of the 1990s. Berkeley: Center for Chinese Studies, 2000, 100-27.

Yu, Zhansui. Chinese Avant-garde Fiction: Quest for Historicity and Transcendent Truth. Amherst, NY: Cambria Press, 2017.

[Abstract: Chinese avant-garde fiction undoubtedly represents a summit in contemporary Chinese literature. Given the remarkable achievement of the genre and its revolutionary and profound impact on Chinese literature, it has attracted much attention from the English-speaking academic world. The existent scholarship on this subject, however, has some gaps which need to be filled. There are few book-length studies which provide a concentrated and in-depth analysis of Chinese avant-garde fiction as a literary genre; most studies tend to treat Chinese avant-garde fiction as a component of some grand cultural trends in the contemporary Chinese intellectual world. Such a sweeping historical approach overlooks the aesthetic and epistemological values of the fiction, preventing the researchers from investigating the thematic complexity and diversity and the artistic originality and appeal of the fiction. This book examines the works of three leading writers—Su Tong, Yu Hua, and Ge Fei—and their significant contributions to the genre; this is the first in-depth, comparative study on these writers. This book examines how Su Tong, Yu Hua, and Ge Fei manipulate dark moods and what Karl Jaspers termed “limit-situations” such as death and suffering, along with other motifs, to pursue both historicity and transcendent truth in their fiction. Setting the fiction against the backdrop of long history of Chinese culture and the development of modern Chinese literature, the book also explores the changing intellectual and literary landscape and the changing paradigms of literature in modern China.]

Zhang, Benzi. “Paradox of Chinese Boxes: Textual Heterarchy in Postermodern Fiction.” Canadian Review of Comparative Literature 20, 1-2 (March-June 1993): 89-103.

Zhang, Xudong. “Epilogue: Postmodernism and Postsocialist Society–Historicizing the Present.” In Xudong Zhang and Arif Dirlik, eds., Postmodernism and China. Durham: Duke UP, 2000, 399-442.

Zhang, Xuejun. “Borges and Contemporary Chinese Avant-garde Writings.” Frontiers of Literary Studies in China 1, 2 (May 2007): 272-86.

Zhang, Yiwu. “Postmodernism and Chinese Novels of the Nineties.” Boundary 2 24, 3 (1997). Rpt. in Xudong Zhang and Arif Dirlik, eds., Postmodernism and China. Durham: Duke UP, 2000, 325-36.

Zhao Y.H. Henry (Zhao Yiheng). “Post-Isms and Chinese New Conservatism.” New Literary History 28, 1 (1997): 31-44.


Gender, Women’s Literature, Sexuality

Anagnost, Ann. “Transformation of Gender in Modern China.” In Sandra Morgen, ed., Gender and Anthropology: Critical Reviews for Reserarch and Teaching. American Anthropological Association, 1989, 313-29.

Andrews, Julia F. and Kuiyi Shen. “The New Chinese Woman and Lifestyle Magazines in the Late 1990s.” In Perry Link, Richard P. Madsen, and Paul G. Pickowicz, eds., Popular China: Unofficial Culture in a Globalizing Society. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield, 2002, 137-62.

Bailey, Paul J. Women and Gender in Twentieth-Century China. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2012.

[Abstract: Bailey provides the first analytical study in English of Chinese women’s experiences during China’s turbulent twentieth century. Incorporating the very latest specialized research, and drawing upon Chinese cinema and autobiographical memoirs, this fascinating narrative account: (1) explores the impact of political, social and cultural change on women’s lives, and how Chinese women responded to such developments; (2) charts the evolution of gender discourses during this period; (3) illuminates both change and continuity in gender discourse and practice.]

Bao Jialin 鲍家麟. Zhongguo funnu shi lunji 中國婦女史論集 (Collection of essay on the history of Chinese women). 3 vols. Taibei: Daoxiang, 1988.

Barlow, Tani, ed. Gender Politics in Modern China: Writing and Feminism. Durham: Duke UP, 1993.

Barlow, Tani. “Theorizing Woman: Funu, Guojia, Jiating [Chinese Women, Chinese State, Chinese Family].” Genders 10 (1991): 132-60.

—–. “Woman at the Close of the Maoist Era in the Polemics of Li Xiaojing and Her Associates.” In Lisa Lowe and David Lloyd, eds. The Politics of Culture in the Shadow of Capital. Durham: Duke University Press, 1997, 506-43.

—–. “Spheres of Debt and Feminist Ghosts in Area Studies of Women in China.” Traces: A Multilingual Journal of Cultural Theory and Translation 1 (2001): 195-226.

—–. The Question of Women in Chinese Feminism. Durham: Duke University Press, 2004. [MCLC Resource Center review by Megan M. Ferry]

[Abstract: A history of thinking about the subject of women in twentieth-century China. Barlow illustrates the theories and conceptual categories that Enlightenment Chinese intellectuals have developed to describe the collectivity of women. Demonstrating how generations of these theorists have engaged with international debates over eugenics, gender, sexuality, and the psyche, Barlow argues that as an Enlightenment project, feminist debate in China is at once Chinese and international. Noting the eugenicist roots of much twentieth-century feminist thought, she describes how the emergence of the social sciences in the 1920s, in China and elsewhere, lent the liberation of women a particular urgency by suggesting that the health of nations and races rested in part on the biological mechanisms of natural selection and therefore on women’s responsibility to select sexual partners.]

—–. “Wanting Some: Commodity Desire and the Eugenic Modern Girl.” In Mechthild Leutner and Nicola Spakowski, eds., Women in China: The Republican Period in Historical Perspective. Munster: Lit, 2005, 312-50.

Beahan, Charlotte L. “Feminism and Nationalism in the Chinese Women’s Press, 1902-1911.” Modern China 1, 4 (Oct. 1975): 379-416.

—–. “In the Public Eye: Women in Early Twentieth Century China.” In Women in China: Current Directions in Historical Scholarship. NY: Philo, 1981.

Borthwick, Sally. “Changing Concepts of the Role of Women from the Late Qing to the May Fourth Period.” In David Pong and Edmund S.K. Fung, eds., Ideal and Reality: Social and Political Change in Modern China, 1860-1949. NY: University Press of America, 1985, 63-91.

Brownell, Susan and Jeffrey N. Wasserstrom, eds. Chinese Femininities, Chinese Masculinities: A Reader. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2002.

Chan, Mimi. “Women in Hong Kong Fiction Written in English: The Mixed Liason.” Renditions 29/30 (Spring/Autumn 1988): 257-74.

Chen, Peng-hisang and Whitney Crothers Dilley, eds., Feminism/Femininity in Chinese Literature. Amsterdam,: Rodopi, 2002, 199-210.

Chen, Xiaomei. “Women as Dramatic Other in the Body Politics of Post-Mao Theater,” in China’s Perception of Peace, War, and the World. Eds., Gerd Kaminski, Barbara Kreissl, and Constantine Tung. Wien: Ludwig Bolzmann Institut fur China, 1997, 160-67.

Cheung, Fanny M. and Eleanor Holroyd, eds. Mainstreaming Gender in Hong Kong. HK: Chinese University Press, 2009.

Chi, Ta-wei. “Performers of the Paternal Past: History, Female Impersonators, and Twentieth-Century Chinese Fiction.” positions: east asia cultures critque 15, 3 (Winter 2007): 580-608.

[deals with the following texts: Ba Jin’s Jiliu sanbuqu (Torrent trilogy; 1931, 1938, 1940), Wang Dulu’s Yanshi xialing (Peking chivalric entertainer; 1948), Qin Shou’ou’s Qiuhaitang (Begonia; 1942), Lilian Lee’s Bawang bieji (Farewell my concubine; 1985), and Ling Li’s Mengduan guanhe (Dreams broken across China; 1999)]

Chiang, William Wei. “We Two Know the Script; We Have Become Good Friends”: Linguistic and Social Aspects of the Women’s Script Literacy in Sounthern China. Lanham, MD: University Press of America, 1995.

Chien, Ying-ying. “Revisioning ‘New Women’: Feminist Readings of Representative Modern Chinese Fiction.” Women’s Studies International Forum 17, 1 (1994): 33-45.

—–. “From Utopian to Dystopian World: Two Faces of Feminism in Contemporary Taiwanese Women’s Fiction.” World Literature Today 68, 1 (1994): 35-42.

Chin, Carol C. “Translating the New Woman: Chinese Feminists View of the West, 1905-1915.” Gender and History 18, 5 (Nov. 2006): 490-518.

China for Women: Travel and Culture. NY: Feminist Press, at the City University of New York, 1995. [collection of essays on Chinese women, includes translations of Ding Ling, Dai Qing, and others]

Chiu, Kuei fen. “Taking Off: A Feminist Approach to Two Contemporary Women’s Novels in Taiwan.” Tamkang Review 23, 1-4 (1992-1993): 709-333.

—–. “Identity Politics in Contemporary Women’s Novels in Taiwan.” Tamkang Review 30, 2 (Winter 1999): 27-54. Rpt in Peng-hisang Chen and Whitney Crothers Dilley, eds., Feminism/Femininity in Chinese Literature. Amsterdam,: Rodopi, 2002, 67-86.

Chou, Katherine Hui-ling. Staging Revolution: Actresses, Realism, and the New Woman Movement in Chinese Spoken Drama and Film, 1919-1949. Ph.D. diss. New York University, 1997.

Chow, Rey. Woman and Chinese Modernity: The Politics of Reading Between West and East. Minneapolis: U. of Minnesota Press, 1991.

Chung, Hilary. “Kristevan (Mis)understandings: Writing in the Feminine.” In Michel Hockx and Ivo Smits, eds., Reading East Asian Writing: The Limits of Literary Theory. New York and London: RoutledgeCurzon, 2003, 72-91. [analyzes fiction by Chen Hengzhe, Lu Yin, Ding Ling, and Feng Yuanjun]

Chung, Hilary and Tommy McClellan, “Images of Women: Exploring Apparent Changes of Attitude Towards Women in the May 4th Era Through Literary Imagery.” In Viviane Alleton and Alexeï Volkov eds., Notions et Perceptions du Changement en Chine. Paris: College de France, 1994, 187-198.

Chung, Ling. “Sense and Senisilibity in the Works of Women Poets in Taiwan.” In Goldblatt, ed., Worlds Apart: Recent Chinese Writing and Its Audiences. Armonk: M.E. Sharpe, 1990, 78-107.

—–. “Feminism and Female Taiwan Writers.” In Pang-yuan Chi and David Wang, eds., Chinese Literature in the Second Half of the Twentieth Century: A Critical Survey. Bloomington: Indiana UP, 2000, 146-60.

Cini, Francesca. “Le ‘problem des femmes’ dans La nouvelle jeuness, 1915-1922.” Etudes chinoies 5, 1/2 (Spring/Autumn 1986): 133-56.

Collins, Leslie. The New Women: A Psychohistorical Study of the Chinese Feminist Movement from 1900 to the Present. Ph.d. diss. New Haven: Yale University, 1976.

Croll, Elisabeth J. Changing Identities of Chinese Women: Rhetoric, Experience and Self-Perception in Twentieth-Century China. HK: HKUP; Atlantic Highlands, N.J.: Zed Books, 1995.

Dai, Jinhua. “Rewriting Chinese Women: Gender Production and Cultural Space in the Eighties and Nineties.” In Mayfair Mei Hui Yang, ed. Spaces of Their Own: Women’s Public Sphere in Transnational China. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1999, 191-206.

Damm, Jens. “Both Sides of the Mirror – the Public Discourse on (Homo-)sexuality and Gender in Taiwan.” M.A. project. Berlin Free University.

Decker, Margeret. “Living in Sin: From May Fourth via the Antirightist Movement to the Present.” In Ellen Widmer and David Wang, eds., From May Fourth to June Fourth: Fiction and Film in Twentiety-Century China. Cambridge: Harvard UP, 1993, 221-46.

Diamond, Norma. “Women under Kuomintang Rule: Variations of the Feminine Mystique.” Modern China 1, 1 (1975): 3-45.

Donald, Stephanie Hemelryk and Yi Zheng. “A Taste of Class: Manuals for Becoming Woman.” positions: east asia cultures critique 17, 3 (Winter 2009): 489-521.

[Abstract: This discussion addresses the making of woman as postsocialist class-object, developing our core notions of class-making and spiritual homelessness through an exploration of the forms of the feminine in the taste structures in contemporary urban China. The key observation is that beautification, sexual styling, and spiritual/cultural cultivation are consistently linked in narratives of “becoming-woman” in a newly successful genre of aspirational literature, which we are calling “manuals of elite civility.”]

Dooling, Amy D. Feminism and Narrative Strategies in Early Twentieth-Century Chinese Women’s Writing. Ph.D. Diss. NY: Columbia University, 1998.

—–. “Reconsidering the Origins of Modern Chinese Women’s Writing.” In Joshua Mostow, ed, and Kirk A. Denton, China section, ed., Columbia Companion to Modern East Asian Literatures. NY: Columbia UP, 2003, 371-77. Rpt in Kirk A. Denton, ed., Columbia Companion to Modern Chinese Literature. NY: Columbia University Press, 2016, 128-35.

—–. Women’s Literary Feminism in Twentieth Century China. NY: Palgrave MacMillan, 2005.

[Description: This is a critical inquiry into the connections between emergent feminist ideologies in China and the production of ‘modern’ women’s writing from the demise of the last imperial dynasty to the founding of the PRC. It accentuates both well-known and under-represented literary voices who intervened in the gender debates of their generation as well as contextualises the stategies used in imagining alternative stories of female experience and potential. It asks two questions: First, how did the advent of enlightened views of gender relations and sexuality influence literary practices of ‘new women’ in terms of narrative forms and strategies, readership, and publication venues? Second, how do these representations attest to the way these female intellectuals engaged and expanded social and political concerns from the personal to the national? Contents: Introduction: Women and Feminism in the Literary History of Early Twentieth-century China; National Imaginaries: Feminist Fantasies at the Turn-of-the-Century; The New Woman’s Woman Love and/or Revolution?: Fictions of the Feminine Self in the 1930s Cultural Left; Outwitting Patriarchy: Comic Narrative Strategies in the Works of Yang Jiang, Su Qing, and Zhang Ailing; A World Still to Win]

—–. “Writing Chinese Feminism(s).” In Yingjin Zhang, ed., A Companion to Modern Chinese Literature. Chichester, UK: Wiley Blackwell, 2016, 228-43.

Duke, Michael, ed. Modern Chinese Women Writers: Critical Appraisals. Armonk: M.E. Sharpe, 1989.

Edwards, Louise. “Consolidating a Socialist Patriarchy: The Women’s Writers’ Industry and ‘Feminist’ Literary Criticism.” In Antonia Finnan and Ann McLaren, eds. Dress, Sex and Text in Chinese Culture. Clayton, Australia: Monash Asia Institute, 1999, 183-97.

Evans, Harriet. Women and Sexuality in China: Female Sexuality and Gender Since 1949. NY: Continuum, 1997.

—–. “The Language of Liberation: Gender and Jiefang in Early Chinese Communist Party Discourse.” Intersections (Sept. 1998).

—–. “Defining Difference: The ‘Scientific’ Construction of Sexuality and Gender in the PRC.” Signs 20, 2 (Winter 1995).

Farris, Catherine, Anru Lee, and Murray Rubinstein, eds. Women in the New Taiwan: Gender Roles and Gender Consciousness in a Changing Society. Armonk, NY: M. E. Sharpe, 2004.

Feeley, Jennifer. “Transforming Sylvia Plath through Contemporary Chinese Women’s Poetry.” Frontiers of Literary Studies in China 11, 1 (2017): 38-72.

[Abstract: The introduction and translation of Sylvia Plath’s (1932–63) poetry into Chinese in the 1980s had a significant impact on women’s poetry in contemporary China, particularly the work of Zhai Yongming (b. 1955) and Lu Yimin (b. 1962). Expanding on Lawrence Venuti’s theory of translation and intertextuality, this article explores the relationship between Chinese translations of Plath and the poetry of Zhai and Lu. It examines four sets of Plath translations and the accompanying paratextual commentaries, demonstrating how Plath’s Chinese translators inscribe their individual interpretations onto their translations. It shows how these texts are integral in shaping the early poetic output of Zhai and Lu, who further recontextualize Plath through their own poetry, revealing how Plath has been understood, evaluated, and transformed in contemporary China. Ultimately, this process results in a bold new gendered poetics that marks a turning point in Chinese women’s writing.]

Feng, Jin. The New Woman in Early Twentieth-Century Chinese Fiction. Lafayette, IN: Purdue UP, 2004. [“Introduction to The New Woman in Early Twentieth-Century Chinese Fiction.” Comparative Literature and Culture: A WWWeb Journal 6, 4 (Dec. 2004).]

Ferry, Megan. Chinese Women Writers of the 1930s and Their Critical Reception. Ph.d diss. St. Louis: Washington University, 1998.

—–. “Women’s Literary History: Inventing Tradition in Modern China.” Modern Language Quarterly 66, 3 (Sept. 2005).

—–. “Woman and Her Affinity to Literature: Defining Women Writers’ Roles in China’s Cultural Modernity.” In Charles Laughlin, ed., Contested Modernities in Chinese Literature. NY: Palgrave Macmillan, 2005, 33-50.

—–. “Marketing Chinese Women Writers in the 1990s, or the Politics of Self-Fashioning.” Journal of Contemporary China 12 (37) (2003): 655-75. Rpt in Jie Lu, ed., China’s Literary and Cultural Scenes at the Turn of the 21st Century. NY: Routledge, 2008, 59-80.

[Abstract: This article examines the sensation a young group of woman writers are causing in 1990s China. Variously named the ‘New, New Generation’, or Glam Lit writers, these women have received critical attention from the literary field and the market. While critics debate the seriousness of their literature, publishing houses are producing their literature at a rapid pace. A governmental ban on the works of two authors, Zhou Weihui and Mian Mian, has fueled readership of black market copies and spurred commentary on the Internet. I argue that the unbridled female sexuality that fuels the sensation of these writers is driven by the publishing market and cultural production, with the complicity of women authors themselves. While the article is critical of the media for exploiting female sexuality, it is also critical of the ambivalence these women writers have toward their own sexuality as well as the authority their writing accords them. While their writings bring discussion offemale  to a public forum that previously denied such discussion, they also reinforce stereotyped notions of female sexuality. I point out that while the authors seek to manipulate the market and cultural forces to achieve self-representation they paradoxically support the very same essentialized understanding of female sexuality that the market, critics, and publishers uphold. Ultimately, the article questions whether the public consumption of female sexuality, as witnessed in the sensation these young writers have caused, undermines women’s literary agency and self-representation.]

Finnane, Antonie and Anne McLaren, eds. Dress, Sex and Text in Chinese Culture. Clayton, Australia: Monash Institute, 1999.

Fiss, Geraldine. “Feminine and Masculine Dimensions of Feminist Thought and Transcultural Modernism in Republican China.” Frontiers of Literary Studies in China 8, 1 (March 2014): 101-24.

[Abstract: This study examines critical essays and imaginative fiction by three key writers of the Republican period: Mao Dun, Ba Jin and Lu Yin. I argue that, while Mao Dun and Ba Jin fuse elements of classical Chinese and modern Western sources so as to create strong heroines and a critique of “new men” for the purpose of revolutionary cultural and national reform, Lu Yin foregrounds an inward examination of the self, multiple narrative points of view and a dialogical perspective which fuses her protagonists’ interior consciousness with external reality as well as other characters’ streams of feeling and thought. My reading of Lu Yin’s texts reveals that she not only succeeds in bringing communion and solace to her readers but also creates “moments of being,” markedly similar to Virginia Woolf’s modernist aesthetics and Walter Benjamin’s mosaic-like “moments of recognition,” which allow her characters to perceive “wholeness” from fragmentary flashes of understanding. These intense moments of awareness enhance Lu Yin’s dialogic imagination and enable her to create discursive feminine narratives that convey the full complexity of women’s consciousness while simultaneously resisting the male realist literary discourse and strengthening her feminist-activist agenda in the national public sphere.]

Gerstlacher, Anna, et al, eds. Women and Literature in China. Bochum: Brockmeyer, 1985.

Gilmartin, Christina, et. al., eds. Engendering China: Women, Culture, and the State. Cambridge: Harvard UP, 1994.

Glosser, Susan L. “‘The Truths I Have Learned’: Nationalism, Family Reform, and Male Identity in China’s New Culture Movement, 1915-1923 .” In Susan Brownell and Jeffrey N. Wasserstrom, eds. Chinese Femininities, Chinese Masculinities: A Reader. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2002, 120-44.

Goodman, Bryna. “The New Woman Commits Suicide: The Press, Cultural Memory and the New Republic.” Journal of Asian Studies 64, 1 (February 2005).

Goodman, Bryna and Wendy Larson, eds. Gender in Motion: Divisions of Labor and Cultural Change in Late Imperial and Modern China. Lanham: Rowman and Littlefield, 2005. [contributors: Madeleine Yue Dong, Bryna Goodman, Gail Hershatter, Ellen R. Judd, Joan Judge, Wendy Larson, Susan Mann, Kenneth Pomeranz, Tze-lan Deborah Sang, Matthew H. Sommer, Luo Suwen, Catherine Vance Yeh, and Wang Zheng;table of contents]

Gunn, Edward. “Gender and Performativity in Contemporary Narratives from Taiwan and China.” In Sung-sheng Yvonne Chang and Michelle Yeh, eds., Contemporary Chinese Literature: Crossing the Boundaries. Special issue of Literature East and West. Austin, TX: Department of Middle Eastern Languages and Cultures, 1995, 5-24.

Guo, Shumei. “New Modes of Women’s Writing in the Age of Materialism.” In Kwok-kan Tam and Terry Siu-han Yip, eds., Gender, Discourse and the Self in Literature: Issues in Mainland China, Taiwan and Hong Kong. HK: The Chinese University Press, 2010, 159-69.

Haddon, Rosemary. “Representation of Women in Chinese Fiction: The Female Body Subdued, Re(s)trained, (Dis)posessed.” In Anatomy of Gender: Women’s Struggle for the Body. Ottawa: Carleton UP, 1991, 81-96.

Hershatter, Gail. “Sexing Modern China.” In Gail Hershatter, et.al., eds., Remapping China: Fissures in Historical Terrain. Stanford: Stanford UP, 1996, 77-93.

—–. Dangerous Pleasures: Prostitution and Podernity in Twentieth-Century Shanghai. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1997.

Hildebrand, Margeret. “Beleaguered Husbands: Representations of Marital Breakdown in Some Recent Chinese Fiction.” Tamkang Review 30, 2 (Winter 1999): 111-).

Hom, Sharon K., ed. Chinese Women Traversing Diaspora: Memoirs, Essays, and Poetry. Levittown, NY: Garland, 1998.

Hong, Fan. Footbinding, Feminism, and Freedom: The Liberation of Women’s Bodies in Modern China. London: Frank Cass, 1997.

Hong, Ying. “Mirror and Water–Love Among Women in Chinese Fiction of the 1990s.” In Breaking the Barriers: Chinese Literature Facing the World. Stockholm: The Olof Palme International Center, 1997, 164-177.

Hu, Ying. “Writing Erratic Desire: Sexual Politics in Contemporary Chinese Fiction.” In Xiaobing Tang and Stephen Snyder, eds., In Pursuit of Contemporary East Asian Culture. Boulder: Westview Press, 1996.

—–. Tales of Translation: Composing the New Woman in China, 1898-1918. Stanford: Stanford UP, 2000.

—–. “Naming the First New Woman.” NAN NÜ: Men, Women and Gender in Early and Imperial China 3, 2 (2001).

Huang, Hans Tao-Ming. “From Glass Clique to Tongzhi Nation: Crystal Boys, Identity Formation, and the Politics of Sexual Shame.” positions: east asia cultures critique 18, 2 (Fall 2010): 373-98.

Hung, Chang-tai. “Female Symbols of Resistance in Chinese Wartime Spoken Drama.” Modern China 15 (April 1989): 149-177.

Jenner, W. J. F. “Tough Guys, Mateship and Honour: Another Chinese Tradition.” East Asian History 12 (Dec. 1996).

Jiang, Haixin. “Reclaiming the Female Body: Cases in Chinese Women’s Writing.” New Zealand Journal of Asian Studies 2, 2 (Dec. 2000).

Jiang, Hong. “The Personalization of Literature: Chinese Women’s Writing in the 1990s.” The China Review 3, 1 (Spring 2002).

Jin, Siyan. “Triple Conflicts: Tradition/Modernity, Etiquette/Alienation, We/I.” Tr. James Chin. Chinese Cross Currents 1, 2 (2004): 44-.

Jin, Yanyu. “Three Chinese Women Writers and the City in the 1990s.” In Kwok-kan Tam and Terry Siu-han Yip, eds., Gender, Discourse and the Self in Literature: Issues in Mainland China, Taiwan and Hong Kong. HK: The Chinese University Press, 2010, 147-57. [deals with Wang Anyi, Shi Shuqing, and Zhu Tianxin]

Judge, Joan. “Talent, Virtue, and the Nation: Chinese Nationalism and Female Subjectivities in the Early Twentieth Century.” The American Historical Review 106, 3 (June 2001): 765-803.

—–. “Meng Mu Meets the Modern: Female Exemplars in Late-Qing Textbooks for Girls and Women.” Jindai Zhongguo funu shi yanjiu (Research on women in modern Chinese history) 8 (June 2000): 133-77.

—–. “Re-forming the Feminine: Female Literacy and the Legacy of 1898.” In Rebecca Karl and Peter Zarrow, eds., The Historical Legacies of the 1898 Reforms in China. Cambridge, MA: Harvard East Asian Center, 2002, 158-79.

—–. “Citizens or Mothers of Citizens?: Gender and the Meaning of Modern Chinese Citizenship.” In Elizabeth Perry and Merle Goldman, eds., Citizenship in Modern China. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Contemporary China Series, 2002, 23-43.

—–. “The Ideology of ‘Good Wives and Wise Mothers’: Meiji Japan and the Formulation of Feminine Modernity in Late Qing China.” In Joshua A. Fogel, eds., Sagacious Monks and Bloodthirsty Warriors: Chinese Views of Japan in the Ming-Qing Period. San Francisco: EastBridge, 2002, 218-48.

—–. “Blended Wish Images: Chinese and Western Exemplary Women at the Turn of the Twentieth Century.” Nan Nu: Men, Women, and Gender in China 6, 1 (2004). Rpt. in n Grace S. Fong, Nanxiu Qian, and Harriet T. Zurndorfer, eds., Beyond Tradition and Modernity: Gender, Genre, and Cosmopolitanism in Late Qing China. Leiden: Brill, 2004, 102-35.

—–. The Precious Raft of History The Past, the West, and the Woman Question in China. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2008.

[Abstract: This book develops a new approach to historical change at the turn of the twentieth century, a crucial stage in the unfolding of Chines modernity. Its focus is on the fraught and momentous woman question, which foregrounded the cultural paradoxes and political aspirations that define the era. Judge probes Chinese approaches to their own past and the modern West (mediated via Japan) through close examination of the varied cultural and political uses of female biography—a genre with a 2,000-year history in China and a new political salience in the early twentieth century. She analyzes the way a range of male and female actors appropriated historical Chinese and modern Western women’s biographies to promote competing vision of female virtue, talent, and heroism—and by extension, to advance competing evaluations of China’s ritual teachings, cultural heritage and national future. Judge cogently maps these various approaches and establishes a new hermeneutics of historical change. At the same time, she highlights disjunctions among representations of exemplar heroines and between such representations and women’s actual lives by ending each chapter with a methodologically innovative counterpoint. Excavating traces of the often highly mediate experience of China’s first generation of female political activists, overseas students, schoolteachers, and public writers, she question the ways long-standing and newly defined gender categories took on–or failed to take on—efficacy in women’s everyday lives. Judge concludes by evaluating how women’s issues continue to illuminate Chinese understandings of the past, the West, and the nation at the turn of the twenty-first century.]

Kao, Hsin-sheng C. Nativism Overseas: Contemporary Chinese Women Writers. Albany: SUNY Press, 1993. [translations of and articles about women’s exile writing]

Karl, Rebecca E.. “‘Slavery,’ Citizenship, and Gender in Late Qing China’s Global Contexts.” In Rebecca E. Karl and Peter Zarrow, eds., Rethinking the 1898 Reform Period: Political and Cultural Change in late Qing China. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Asia Center, 2002, 212-44.

Kwok, Pui-lan. Chinese Women and Christianity, 1860-1927. Atlanta: Scholars Press, 1992.

Lan, Hua and Vanessa Fong, guest eds. “The ‘Woman Question’: Selected Essays form the May Fourth Era Women’s Emancipation Movement.” Special issue of Chinese Studies of History 31, 2 (Winter 1997/98).

—–, eds. Women in Republican China: A Sourcebook. Armonk: M.E. Sharpe, 1999.

Larson, Wendy. “The End of ‘Funu wenxue’: Women’s Literature from 1925 to 1935.” Modern Chinese Literature 4, 1/2 (1988): 39-54. Rpt. in Tani Barlow, ed., Gender Politics in Modern China. Durham: Duke University Press, 1993, 58-73.

—–. “Female Subjectivity and Gender Relations: The Early Stories of Lu Yin and Bing Xin.” In Xiaobing Tang and Kang Liu, eds. Politics, Ideology, and Literary Discourse in Modern China: Theoretical Interventions and Cultural Critique. Durham: Duke University Press, 1993, 124-43.

—–. Women and Writing in Modern China. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1998.

—–. “The Self Loving the Self: Men and Connoisseurship in Modern Chinese Literature.” In Susan Brownell and Jeffrey N. Wasserstrom, eds. Chinese Femininities, Chinese Masculinities: A Reader. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2002, 175-97.

—–. “Woman, Moral Virtue, and Literary Text” [edited chapter of Women and Writing in Modern China]. In Corinne H. Dale, ed., Chinese Aesthetics and Literature: A Reader. Albany: State University of New York Press, 2004, 55-69.

Lee, Mabel. “Chinese Women and Social Change: A Theme in Late Ch’ing Fiction and Its Subsequent Development.” In Gungwu Wang, ed., Society and the Writer: Essays on Literature in Modern Asia. Canberra: Research School of Pacific Studies, The Australian National University, 1981, 123-38.

Leutner, Mechthild and Nicola Spakowski, eds. Women in China: The Republican Period in Historical Perspetive. Munster: Lit Verlag, 2005.

Li, Jessica Tsui Yan. “Food, Body and Female Subjectivity: Reading between Western and Chinese Perspectives.” In Kwok-kan Tamand Terry Siu Han Yip, eds., Gender, Discourse and the Self in Literature: Issues in Mainland China, Taiwan and Hong Kong. HK: The Chinese University Press, 2010, 53-76.

—–. “Female Body and Identities: Re-presenting Ibsen’s Nora in China Doll.” In K.K. Tam, Terry S. Yip and Frode Helland eds. Ibsen and the Modern Self. Hong Kong: Open University of Hong Kong Press, and Oslo: Centre for Ibsen’s Studies, University of Oslo Publications, 2010, 298-310.

Li, Xiaojiang. “Resisting While Holding the Tradition: Claims for Rights Raised in Literature by Chinese Women Writers in the New Period.” Tamkang Review 30, 2 (Winter, 1999): 99-110. Rpt. in Peng-hisang Chen and Whitney Crothers Dilley, eds., Feminism/Femininity in Chinese Literature. Amsterdam,: Rodopi, 2002, 109-116.

Li, Xiaojiang and Zhang Xiaodan. “Creating a Space for Women: Women’s Studies in China.” In China for Women: Travel and Culture. NY: Feminist Press, 1995, 173-90.

Li, Ziyun. “The Disappearance and Revival of Feminine Discourse.” In Peng-hisang Chen and Whitney Crothers Dilley, eds., Feminism/Femininity in Chinese Literature. Amsterdam,: Rodopi, 2002, 117-26.

Lieberman, Sally Taylor. The Mother and Narrative Politics in Modern China. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1998.

Lin, Shuming and He Songyu. “Feminist Literary Criticism in China since the Mid-1990s.” In Kwok-kan Tam and Terry Siu-han Yip, eds., Gender, Discourse and the Self in Literature: Issues in Mainland China, Taiwan and Hong Kong. HK: The Chinese University Press, 2010, 35-52.

Liou, Liang-ya. “Gender Crossing and Decadence in Taiwan Fiction at the Fin-de-siecle.” In John C. Hawley ed., Post-colonial and Queer Theories: Intersections and Essays. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 2001. 71-86.

Liu, Jen-Peng. “The Disposition of Hierarchy and the Late Qing Discourse of Gender Equality.” Inter-Asia Cultural Studies 2, 1 (April 2001): 69-79.

Liu, Lydia. “Invention and Intervention: The Making of a Female Tradition in Modern Chinese Literature.” In Ellen Widmer and David Wang, eds., From May Fourth to June Fourth: Fiction and Film in Twentiety-Century China. Cambridge: Harvard UP, 1993, 194-220.

—–. “The Female Tradition in Modern Chinese Literature: Negotiating Feminisms across East/West Boundaries.” Genders 12 (Winter, 1991): 22-44.

Liu, Lydia, Rebecca Karl, and Dorothy Ko, eds. The Birth of Chinese Feminism: Essential Texts in Transnational Theory. NY: Columbia University Press, 2013. [MCLC Resource Center review by Shaoling Ma /MCLC Resource Center review by Tani Barlow]

[Abstract: He-Yin Zhen (ca. 1884-1920?) was a theorist who figured centrally in the birth of Chinese feminism. Unlike her contemporaries, she was concerned less with China’s fate as a nation and more with the relationship among patriarchy, imperialism, capitalism, and gender subjugation as global historical problems. This volume, the first translation and study of He-Yin’s work in English, critically reconstructs early twentieth-century Chinese feminist thought in a transnational context by juxtaposing He-Yin Zhen’s writing against works by two better-known male interlocutors of her time. The editors begin with a detailed analysis of He-Yin Zhen’s life and thought. They then present annotated translations of six of her major essays, as well as two foundational tracts by her male contemporaries, Jin Tianhe (1874-1947) and Liang Qichao (1873?1929), to which He-Yin’s work responds and with which it engages. Jin, a poet and educator, and Liang, a philosopher and journalist, understood feminism as a paternalistic cause that liberals like themselves should defend. He-Yin presents an alternative conception that draws upon anarchism and other radical trends. Ahead of her time, He-Yin Zhen complicates conventional accounts of feminism and China’s history, offering original perspectives on sex, gender, labor, and power that remain relevant today.]

Lo, Kwai-Cheung. “Men Aren’t Men: Feminization of the Masculine Subject in the Works of Some Hong Kong Male Writers.” In Kwok-kan Tam and Terry Siu-han Yip, eds., Gender, Discourse and the Self in Literature: Issues in Mainland China, Taiwan and Hong Kong. HK: The Chinese University Press, 2010, 225-44.

Lo, Man-wa. “Female Initiation and Subjectivity in Contemporary Chinese Fiction.” Comparative Literature and Culture 3 (Sept. 1998): 74-87.

Louie, Kam. Theorising Chinese Masculinity: Society and Gender in China. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2002. [reviewed by Chris Berry in Intersections 8 (Oct. 2002)].

Louie, Kam and Morris Low, eds. Asian Masculinities: The Meaning and Practice of Manhood in China and Japan. NY, London: RoutledgeCurzon, 2003.

Lu, Sheldon H. “Popular Culture and Body Politics: Beauty Writers in Contemporary China.” Modern Language Quarterly 69, 1 (2008): 167-85.

[Abstract: This essay is a study of a group of women writers who emerged on the Chinese literary scene in the late 1990s and the turn of the twenty-first century. They have been called beauty writers (meinü zuojia), referring to the authors themselves being beautiful women. Their writings are characterized by an unabashed, unprecedented foregrounding of female sexuality. While their novels were censored by the state now and then, they circulate on the Internet and contribute to the formation of China’s booming Internet literature. The initial core group of beauty writers has made a large impact on other aspiring female writers eager to explore and expose their sensuality and sexuality. The parading and pandering of female subjectivity via a body politics have become a major literary fad in contemporary mainland China.]

Lu, Tonglin. Gender and Sexuality in Twentieth-Century Chinese Literature and Society. Albany: SUNY Press, 1993.

Luo, Suwen. “Gender on Stage: Actresses in an Actors’ World (1895-1930).” In Bryna Goodman and Wendy Larson, eds., Gender in Motion: Divisions of Labor and Cultural Change in Late Imperial and Modern China. Lanham: Rowman and Littlefield, 2005, 75-96.

Ma, Yuxin. “Women Journalists in the Chinese Enlightenment, 1915-1923.” Gender Issues 22, 1 (Dec. 2005): 56-84.

—–. “Male Feminism and Women’s Subjectivities: Zhang Xichen, Chen Xuezhao, and the New Woman.” Twentieth-Century China 29, no.1 (Nov 2003) 1-37.

—–. “Constructing Manchukuo Womanhood to Serve Japanese Imperialism.” The Journal of Georgia Association of History (2005).

Martin, Fran. Situating Sexualities: Queer Representations in Taiwanese Fiction, Film and Public Culture. HK: University of Hong Kong Press, 2003. [reviewed by Kam Louie in Intersections 10 (Aug. 2004)].

McDougall, Bonnie S. “Discourse on Privacy by Women Writers in Late Twentieth Century China.” China Information 19, 1 (March 2005): 97-119.

McLaren, Anne E. “Crossing Gender Boundaries in China: Nushu Narratives.” Intersections (Sept. 1998).

Mei Sheng, ed. Zhongguo funu wenti taolun ji (Collection of discussion on the Chinese women’s question). 6 vols. Shanghai: Xin wenhua, 1934 (originally published in 1923).

Meng, Liansu. The Inferno Tango: Gender Politics and Modern Chinese Poetry, 1917-1980. Ph.d. diss. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan, 2010. [see Dissertation Reviews review by Dun Wang]

Meng, Yue. “Female Images and National Myth.” In T. Barlow, ed. Gender Politics in Modern China: Writing and Feminism. Durham: Duke UP, 1993.

Meng Yue and Dai Jinhua. Fuchu lishi dibiao (Emerging from the horizon of history). Henan: Henan renmin, 1989.

Ono, Kazuko. Chinese Women in a Century of Revolution, 1850-1950. Stanford: Stanford UP, 1989.

Orliski, Constance. “The Bourgeois Housewife as Laborer in Late Qing and Early Republican Shanghai.” Nan Nü 5, 1 ( 2003): 43-68.

Palandri, Angela, ed. Women Writers of Twentieth-Century China. Eugene: Asian Studies Publications, University of Oregon, 1982.

Peng, Hsiao-yen. “Sex Histories: Zhang Jingsheng’s Sexual Revolution.” Tamkang Review 30, 2 (Winter 1999): 71-98.

Roberts, Rosemary. “Chinese Women Writers and Their Responses to Western Feminism.” Asian Studies Review 18, 2 (1994).

—–. “Women’s Studies in Literature and Feminist Literary Criticism in Contemporary China.” In Antonia Finnane and Ann McLaren, eds., Dress, Sex, and Text in Chinese Culture. Clayton, AUS: Monash Asia Institute, 1999, 225-40.

—–. “Gendering the Revolutionary Body: Theatrical Costume in Cultural Revolution China.” Asian Studies Review 30, 2 (June 2006).

Rofel, Lisa. Other Modernities: Gendered Yearnings in China after Socialism. Berkeley: UCP, 1999.

Sang, Tze-lan D. The Emerging Lesbian: Female Same-Sex Desire in Modern China. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2003.

—–. “The Modern Girl in Modern Chinese Literature.” In Yingjin Zhang, ed., A Companion to Modern Chinese Literature. Chichester, UK: Wiley Blackwell, 2016, 411-23.

Sheng, Ying. “Feminist Critique: The Patriarchal Dicourse of Chinese Male Writers.” In Kwok-kan Tam and Terry Siu-han Yip, eds., Gender, Discourse and the Self in Literature: Issues in Mainland China, Taiwan and Hong Kong. HK: The Chinese University Press, 2010, 125-46.

Siu, Bobby. Women of China: Imperialism and Women’s Resistance, 1900-1949. London: ZED Press, 1982.

Smedley, Agnes. Portraits of Chinese Women in Revolution. Old Westbury, NY: Feminist Press, 1976.

Smith, Norman. “‘I Am an Ordinary Woman’: Yang Xu and the Articulation of Chinese Ideals of Womanhood in Japanese Occupied Manchuria.” Asian Journal of Women’s Studies 8, 3 (2002): 35-54.

[Abstract: Yang Xu’s (1918- ) second volume of collected works, My Diary (Wo de riji; 1944), articulates the key themes that prevailed in Chinese women’s literature in the Japanese colonial state of Manzhouguo. In Manzhouguo, literature was a vital domain for the negotiation of Chinese cultural identities in a Japanese colonial context. This paper seeks to reveal how Yang Xu, like other contemporary Chinese women writers in Manzhouguo, was driven by the May Fourth ideals of women’s emancipation that dominated social discourse in the Republic of China during the 1920s to defy the conservative cultural aspirations of the Japanese colonial regime.]

—–. “Disrupting Narratives: Chinese Women Writers and the Japanese Cultural Agenda in Manchuria, 1936-1945.” Modern China 30, 3 (2004): 295-325.

[Abstract: This article assesses the lives, careers, and literary legacies of the most prominent Chinese women writers during the latter stage of the Japanese occupation of Manchuria. The article reveals how they articulated dissatisfaction with the Japanese cultural agenda while working within Japanese colonial institutions. Empowered by ineffectual state policies and misogynous official neglect, the women embarked on a decade-long quest to describe and expose the reality of Chinese women’s lives under Japanese occupation. May Fourth ideals of women’s emancipation inspired them to forge careers as critics of Japan’s cultural agenda, and they undermined Japanese efforts to sever ties between Manchuria and the rest of China. This study adds to a growing body of recent critical scholarship incorporating Chinese-language sources into received interpretations of Japan’s colonial state of Manchukuo.]

—–. “Regulating Chinese Women’s Sexuality During the Japanese Occupation of Manchuria: Between the Lines of Wu Ying’s “Yu” (Lust) and Yang Xu’s Wo de Riji (My Diary).” Journal of the History of Sexuality 13, 1 (Jan. 2004): 49-70.

Song, Geng. The Fragile Scholar: Power and Masculinity in Chinese Culture. Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press, 2004.

Spakowski, Nicola. “‘Gender’ Trouble: Feminism in China under the Impact of Western Theory and the Spatialization of Identity.” positions: east asia cultures critique 19, 1 (Spring 2011): 31-54.

Stacy, Judith. Patriarchy and Socialist Revolution in China. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1983.

Stevens, Sarah E. “Figuring Modernity: The New Woman and the Modern Girl in Republican China.” NWSA Journal 15, 3 (2003): 82-103.

—–. Making Female Sexuality in Republican China: Women’s Bodies in the Discourses of Hygiene, Education, and Literature. Ph. D. diss. Bloomington: Indiana University, 2001.

Tam, Kwok-kan. “Gender Construction, Stereotyping and Cross-Gender Writing.” In Kwok-kan Tam and Terry Siu-han Yip, eds., Gender, Discourse and the Self in Literature: Issues in Mainland China, Taiwan and Hong Kong. HK: The Chinese University Press, 2010, 19-34.

Tam, Kwok-kan and Terry Siu-han Yip, eds. Gender, Discourse and the Self in Literature: Issues in Mainland China, Taiwan and Hong Kong. HK: The Chinese University Press, 2010.

Teoh, Karen M. “Exotic Flowers, Modern Girls, Good Citizens: Female Education and Overseas Chinese Identity in British Malaya and Singapore, 1900s-1950s.” Twentieth-Century China 35, 2 (2010): 25-51.

Thakur, Ravni. Rewriting Gender: Reading Contemporary Chinese Women. London: Zed Books, 1997.

Wang, David Der-wei. “Fin de siecle Splendor: Contemporary Women Writers’ Vision of Taiwan.” Modern Chinese Literature 6, 1/2 (1992): 39-60. [treats Zhu Tianwen, Ping Lu and Li Ang]

—–. “Feminist Consciousness in Modern Chinese Male Fiction.” In Michael S. Duke, ed., Modern Chinese Women Writers. Armonk, NY: M.E. Sharpe, Inc., 1989.

Wang, Jing M. When “I” Was Born: Women’s Autobiography in Modern China. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 2008.

[Abstract: In the period between the 1920s and 1940s, a genre emerged in Chinese literature that would reveal crucial contradictions in Chinese culture that still exist today. At a time of intense political conflict, Chinese women began to write autobiography, a genre that focused on personal identity and self-exploration rather than the national, collective identity that the country was championing. The author seeks to reclaim the voices of these particular writers, voices that have been misinterpreted and overlooked for decades. Tracing women writers as they move from autobiographical fiction, often self-revelatory and personal, to explicit autobiographies that focused on women’s roles in public life, Jing M. Wang reveals the factors that propelled this literary movement, the roles that liberal translators and their renditions of Western life stories played, and the way in which these women writers redefined writing and gender in the stories they told. But Wang reveals another story as well: the evolving history and identity of women in modern Chinese society. When “I” Was Born adds to a growing body of important work in Chinese history and culture, women’s studies, and autobiography in a global context. Writers discussed include Xie Bingying, Zhang Ailing, Yu Yinzi, Fei Pu, Lu Meiyen, Feng Heyi, Ye Qian, Bai Wei, Shi Wen, Fan Xiulin, Su Xuelin, and LuYin.]

Wang, Fei. “Literary Calls from Women Novelists.” In Peng-hisang Chen and Whitney Crothers Dilley, eds., Feminism/Femininity in Chinese Literature. Amsterdam,: Rodopi, 2002, 187-98.

Wang, Lingzhen. Personal Matters: Women’s Autobiographical Practice in Twentieth Century China. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2004.

—–. “Reproducing the Self: Consumption, Imaginary, and Identity in Chinese Women’s Autobiographical Practice in the 1990s.” In Charles Laughlin, ed., Contested Modernity in Chinese Literature. NY: Palgrave Macmillan, 2005, 173-92. [deals primarily with Chen Ran’s Private Life and Lin Bai’s Self at War]

Wang, Ning. “Feminist Theory and Contemporary Chinese Female Literature.” In Peng-hisang Chen and Whitney Crothers Dilley, eds., Feminism/Femininity in Chinese Literature. Amsterdam,: Rodopi, 2002, 199-210.

Wang, Shuzhu. The Double-Voiced Feminine Discourses: A Comparative Study of Women Writers in Modern Chinese Literature and Modern American Literature. Ph.d. diss. Purdue University, 2001.

Wang, Zheng. Women and the Chinese Enlightenment: Oral and Textual Histories. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1999.

—–. “Creating a Feminist Discourse.” In Wang, Women and the Chinese Enlightenment: Oral and Textual Histories. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1999, 35-66.

Wei, Yanmei. The Representation of Femininity and Mother-Daughter Relationships in Chinese Literature. Ph.D. diss. SUNY, Stonybrook, 1999.

Wesoky, Sharon. Chinese Feminism Faces Globalization. NY: Routledge, 2002.

Widmer, Ellen. “Inflecting Gender: Zhan Kai/Siqi Zhai’s “New Novels” and Courtesan Sketches.” Nan Nu: Men, Women, and Gender in China 6, 1 (2004).

Witke, Roxanne. Transformation of Attitudes towards Women during the May Fourth Era of Modern China. Ph.D. diss. Berkeley: University of California, 1970.

Wong, Lisa Lai-Ming. “Liberation of Femininity? Women’s Poetry in Post-Mao China.” In Kwok-kan Tam and Terry Siu-han Yip, eds., Gender, Discourse and the Self in Literature: Issues in Mainland China, Taiwan and Hong Kong. HK: The Chinese University Press, 2010, 91-108.

Wong, Kam-ming and Angelina Yee. Better by Half: Contemporary Chinese Women Writers. Forthcoming.

Wu, Cuncun. “Beautiful Boys Made Up as Beautiful Girls: Anti-Masculine Taste in Qing China.” In Kam Louie and Morris Low, eds., Asian Masculinities: The Meaning and Practice of Manhood in China and Japan. NY, London: RoutledgeCurzon, 2003.

Wusi shiqi funu wenti wenxuan (Selected writings of the May Fourth ‘women’s problem’ debate). Beijing: Sanlian, 1981.

Xiao, Hui Faye. Family Revolution: Marital Strife in Contemporary Chinese Literature and Visual Culture. Seattle and London: University of Washington Press, 2014. [MCLC Resource Center review by Yipeng Shen]

Xiong, Yuezhi. “The Theory and Practice of Women’s Rights in Late Qing Shanghai, 1843-1911.” In Kai-wing Chow, Tze-ki Hon, Hung-yok Ip, and Don Price, eds., Beyond the May Fourth Paradigm: In Search of Chinese Modernity. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 2008.

Xu, Xiaoqun. “The Discourse of Love, Marriage, and Sexuality in Post-Mao China; or, A Reading of the New Journalistic Literature on Women.” Positions 4, 2 (Fall 1996).

Yan, Haiping. Chinese Women Writers and the Feminist Imagination, 1905-1948. Routledge, 2006.

[Contents: Introduction; (1) Unseen Rhythms, Sea Change; (2) Qiu Jin and Her Imaginary; (3) The Stars of Night: Bing Xin and the Literary Constellation of the 1920s; (4) Other Life: Bai Wei, Yuan Changying, and Social Dramas in the 1930s; (5) War, Death, and the Art of Existence: Mobile Women in the 1940s; (6) Rhythms of the Unreal [I]: Early Ding Ling and a Feminist Passage; (7) Rhythms of the Unreal [II]: The Ding Ling Story and the Chinese Revolution]

Yang, Mayfair Mei Hui, ed. Spaces of Their Own: Women’s Public Sphere in Transnational China. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1999.

—–. “From Gender Erasure to Gender Difference: State Feminism, Consumer Sexuality, and Women’s Public Sphere in China.” In Mayfair Mei Hui Yang, ed. Spaces of Their Own: Women’s Public Sphere in Transnational China. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1999, 1-31.

Yang, Xin. From Beauty Fear To Beauty Fever: A Critical Study of Contemporary Chinese Female Writers. New York: Peter Lang, 2011.

[Abstract: looks at a ?glamorous? literary and cultural moment in China at the turn of the twenty-first century, namely that of the high-profile female writers born in the 1970s. Dubbed as ?beauty writers?, they brought to light a series of literary, cultural, and social issues at an important moment of institutional and ideological transformation, when China was more actively participating in the global market economy. The discourse of beauty writers is closely related to the changing ideology from ?beauty fear? to ?beauty fever?. Beauty fear resulted from the revolutionary ambition of denouncing the old institutionalized ideologies and embracing gender equality. Beauty fever was driven by commercialization in the mid- and late 1990s, when globalization became the new social reality and broke the boundaries of world/China, official/folk, and elite/mass. After years of revolutionary policies of gender erasure, beauty fever was the product of the intertwined narratives of resistance politics, feminism, capitalism, consumerism, and the postmodern ludic carnival.]

Yeh, Catherine Vance. “Playing with the Public: Late Qing Courtesans and Their Opera Singer Lovers.” In Bryna Goodman and Wendy Larson, eds., Gender in Motion: Divisions of Labor and Cultural Change in Late Imperial and Modern China. Lanham: Rowman and Littlefield, 2005, 145-68.

Yen, Hsiao-Pei. “Body Politics, Modernity and National Salvation: The Modern Girl and the New Life Movement.” Asian Studies Review 29 (June 2005): 165-86.

Yip, Terry Siu-han. “Place, Gender and Identity: The Global-Local Interplay in Three Stories from China, Taiwan and Hong Kong.” In Kwok-kan Tam et al., eds., Sights of Contestation: Localism, Globalism and Cultural Production in Asia and the Pacific. HK: The Chinese University Press, 2002, 17-34. [deals with stories by Tie Ning, Zhang Xiguo (Chang Shi-kuo), and Ye Si]

—–. “Women’s Self-Identity and Gender Relations in Twentieth-Century Chinese Fiction.” In Kwok-kan Tam and Terry Siu-han Yip, eds., Gender, Discourse and the Self in Literature: Issues in Mainland China, Taiwan and Hong Kong. HK: The Chinese University Press, 2010, 1-18.

Yue, Daiyun and Carolyn Wakeman. “Women in Recent Chinese Fiction–A Review Article.” Journal of Asian Studies 42 (1983): 884-87.

Yue, Mingbao. Woman and Representation: Feminist Readings of Modern Chinese Fiction. Ph.D. diss. Stanford University, 1991.

—–. “Gendering the Origins of Modern Chinese Fiction.” In Lu Tonglin, ed., Gender and Sexuality in Twentieth-Century Chinese Literature and Society. Albany: SUNY Press, 1993, 47-65.

—–. “Am I That Name?: Women’s Writing as Cultural Translation in Early 1920’s China.” Journal of Comparative Literature (Fall 2000).

Zang, Jian. “‘Women Returning Home’–A Topic of Chinese Women’s Liberation.” In Mechthild Leutner and Nicola Spakowski, eds., Women in China: The Republican Period in Historical Perspective. Munster: Lit, 2005, 376-95.

Zhang, Jeanne Hong. “Gender in Post-Mao China.” European Review 11, 2 (May 2003): 209-24.

[Abstract: Post-Mao gender discourse readjusts a politicized vision of gender based on Maoist ethics. While rejecting revolutionary concepts of sex equality, contemporary Chinese women embrace a notion of femininity through the revision of a traditional conception of womanhood as well as the construction of new role models. Women poets participate in this construction process with a fresh, powerful voice to express their gender consciousness. In their efforts to (re-)define womanhood, they present by poetic means radically gendered perspectives.]

—–. The Invention of a Discourse: Women’s Poetry from Contemporary China. Leiden: CNWS Publications, 2004. [MCLC Resource Center review by Paul Manfredi]

—–. “A Night of Their Own: Gender Identity in Women’s Poetry after Mao.” Journal of Modern Literature in Chinese 6, 1 (2005): 90-118.

Zhang, Jingyuan. “Breaking Open: Chinese Women’s Writing in the Late 1980s and 1990s.” In Pang-yuan Chi and David Wang, eds., Chinese Literature in the Second Half of the Twentieth Century: A Critical Survey. Bloomington: Indiana UP, 2000, 1161-79.

Zhongguo funu yundong lishi ziliao 中国妇女运动历史资料 (History materials on the history of the Chinese women’s movement). Vol 1: 1840-1918; vol 2 1918-1937; vol 3 1937-1945. Beijing: Zhongguo funu, 1991.

Zhong, Xueping. Masculinity Besieged? Issues of Modernity and Male Subjectivity in Chinese Literature of the Late Twentieth Century. Durham: Duke UP, 2000.

Zhou, Jinghao. Remaking China’s Public Philosophy and Chinese Women’s Liberation: The Volatile Mixing of Confucianism, Marxism, and Feminism. Lewiston, NY: Mellen Press, 2006.

Zhu, Ping. Gender and Subjectivities in Early Twentieth-Century Chinese Literature and Culture. NY: Palgrave Macmillan, 2015. [MCLC Resource Center review by Yi Zheng]

[Abstract: offers an in-depth study on how late Qing and modern Chinese intellectuals used gender as a discursive battlefield to demand power vis-à-vis colonial discourses. Through a combination of cultural analysis and literary analysis, including discussions of modern Chinese writers such as Lu Xun, Yu Dafu, Zhang Ziping, Guo Moruo, Mu Shiying, Liu Na’ou, Bai Wei, and Ding Ling, Ping Zhu shows the resilience and malleability of Chinese modernity via a femininity imagined an empowered and empowering. By focusing on ‘the feminine at large,’ this book draws a contrasting image of the docile, contained feminine in colonial gender ideology to provide one salient example of China’s politics of resistance.]

Zhu, Yun. Imagining Sisterhood in Modern Chinese Texts, 1890-1937. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 2017.

[Abstract: This book investigates sisterhood as a converging thread that wove female subjectivities and intersubjectivities into a larger narrative of Chinese modernity embedded in a newly conceived global context. It focuses on the period between the late Qing reform era around the turn of the twentieth century and the outbreak of the Second Sino-Japanese War in 1937, which saw the emergence of new ways of depicting Chinese womanhood in various kinds of media. In a critical hermeneutic approach, Zhu combines an examination of an outside perspective (how narratives and images about sisterhood were mobilized to shape new identities and imaginations) with that of an inside perspective (how subjects saw themselves as embedded in or affected by the discourse and how they negotiated such experiences within texts or through writing). With its working definition of sisterhood covering biological as well as all kinds of symbolic and metaphysical connotations, this book exams the literary and cultural representations of this elastic notion with attention to, on the one hand, a supposedly collective identity shared by all modern Chinese female subjects and, on the other hand, the contesting modes of womanhood that were introduced through the juxtaposition of divergent “sisters.” Through an interdisciplinary approach that brings together historical materials, literary and cultural analysis, and theoretical questions, Zhu conducts a careful examination of how new identities, subjectivities and sentiments were negotiated and mediated through the hermeneutic circuits around “sisterhood.”]


Same-Sex Literature

Bao, Hongwei. Queer Comrade: Gay Identity and Tongzhi Activism in Postsocialist China. Leiden: NIAS Press, 2018.

[Abstract: This very timely, well-written and insightful exploration of gay identity and queer activism in the People’s Republic of China today is more than a study of ‘queer China’ through the lens of male homosexuality; it also examines the PRC’s socialist legacy and considers how the country is undergoing rapid transformations under the influence of transnational capitalism. Moreover, although the first of its kind from a cultural studies perspective, this interdisciplinary study speaks to scholars working in disparate fields and provides a sorely needed historical perspective on a very recent phenomenon: queer activism in China. Combining textual analysis of contemporary queer films, fiction and personal diaries, in conjunction with ethnographic research conducted in Beijing, Shanghai and Guangzhou’s urban gay communities, the book offers a queer Marxist analysis of sexual identity and social movements in contemporary China, where ideological negotiations between socialism and neoliberalism are constantly played out in the formation of public cultures and intimate spheres. Here, the book critically assesses the role of Marxism and China’s socialist legacy in shaping sexual identity, queer popular culture and political activism. Apart from its rich data and incisive analysis, the book has a freshness and persuasiveness in approach and argument. The text is also pleasant and readable, with the author’s intelligence, engagement and sunny humour shining through his writing.]

Berry, Chris. Fran Martin and Audrey Yue, eds. Mobile Cultures: New Media in Queer Asia. Durham: Duke University Press, 2003.

Chen, Li-fen. “Queering Taiwan: In Search of Nationalism’s Other.” Modern China 37 (2011): 384-421.

[Abstract: This article deals with the formation of Taiwan’s homosexual cultural politics in the 1990s, the impact and implications of which are yet to be examined within the larger context of Taiwan’s cultural and political development and ethnic relationships. It is argued that the rise of this cultural politics is both a reflection and a source of a growing sense of identity crisis on the island. By examining the configurations of “queer” in various discursive domains, this interdisciplinary study seeks to delineate the cross-referencing ideological network of this cultural movement and its entanglement with the complexity of Taiwan’s nationalism. At the same time, to the extent that this movement tends to present itself as a radical politics from a privileged epistemological and cultural standpoint, this claimed radicalism is also scrutinized for its problematics and ironies.]

Chiang, Howard Hsueh-Hao and Larisa N. Heinrich, eds., Queer Sinophone Cultures. NY: Routledge, 2013.

Chou, Wah-Shan. Tongzhi: Politics of Same-Sex Eroticism in Chinese Societies. New York: Haworth Press, 2000.

Cristini, Remy. The Rise of Comrade Literature: Significance and Development of a New Chinese Genre. MA Thesis. Leiden University, 2005.

Damm, Jens. “Same Sex Desire and Society in Taiwan, 1970–1987.” The China Quarterly 181 (March 2005): 67

—–. “Contemporary Discourses on Homosexuality in Republican China: A Critical Analysis of Terminology and Current Research.” In Mechthild Leutner and Nicola Spakowski, eds., Women in China: The Republican Period in Historical Perspective. Munster: Lit, 2005, 282-311.

Engebretsen, Elisabeth L., Willam F. Schroeder, and Hongwei Bao, eds., Queer/Tongzhi ChinaNew Perspectives on Research, Activism and Media Cultures. Copenhagen: Nordic Institute of Asian Studies, 2015.

[Abstract: This book brings together some of the most exciting, original and cutting-edge work being conducted on contemporary queer China. The volume includes original essays by some of the most prolific and central queer activists and artists in the PRC, placing their writing alongside work by emergent and established scholars from a variety of disciplines and backgrounds. The book offers unique perspectives by presenting primary accounts of the creative and multi-faceted strategies that activists and community organizers have developed in their various activities. The volume also presents rich, empirical evidence of every-day queer lives across China, offering a unique record not only of cosmopolitan community and activist perspectives but also of voices and experiences from a broad range of locations and identifications. As a whole it offers invaluable insights into sexual and gender diversity in China today. Queer/Tongzhi China thus breathes as it speaks, providing through its diverse approaches a different understanding of queer China than standard mono-ethnographies or social-scientific documentaries.]

Fang, Fu Ruan and Vern L. Bullough. “Lesbianism in China.” Archives of Sexual Behavior 21, 3 (1992): 217-226.

——.”Same-Sex Love in Contemporary China.” In Aart Hendriks, Rob Tielman and Evert van der Veen, eds., The Third Pink Book: A Global View of Lesbian and Gay Liberation and Oppression. Prometheus Books, 1993, 46-53.

Guo, Jie. “From Patriarchal Polygamy to Conjugal Monogamy: Imagining Male Same-Sex Relationship in Modern China.” Modern Chinese Literature and Culture 25, 1 (Spring 2013): 165-205.

He, Xiaopei. “My Fake Wedding: Stirring Up the Tongzhi Movement in China.” Development 52, 1 (2009): 101-104.

Ho, Aaron K. H. “The Lack of Chinese Lesbians: Double Crossing in Blue Gate Crossing.” Genders 49 (2009).

Huang, Hans Tao-Ming. Queer Politics and Sexual Modernity in Taiwan. HK: Hong Kong University Press, 2011.

[Abstract: This book delineates the history and politics of gender and sexuality since postwar Taiwan. Tracking the interface between queerness and national culture, it underscores the imbrications of male homosexuality, prostitution and feminism within the modernizing process and offers a trenchant critique of the violence of sexual modernity.]

Kam, Lucetta Y. L. Shanghai Lalas: Female Tongzhi Communities and Politics in Urban China. HK: Hong Kong University Press, 2013.

[Abstract: This is the first ethnographic study of lala (lesbian, bisexual, and transgender) communities and politics in China, focusing on the city of Shanghai. Based on several years of in-depth interviews, the volume concentrates on lalas’ everyday struggle to reconcile same-sex desires with a dominant rhetoric of family harmony and compulsory marriage, all within a culture denying women active and legitimate sexual agency. Kam reads discourses on homophobia in China, including the rhetoric of ?Chinese tolerance,? and considers the heteronormative demands imposed on tongzhi subjects. She treats ?the politics of public correctness? as a newly emerging tongzhi practice developed from the culturally specific, Chinese forms of regulation that inform tongzhi survival strategies and self-identification. Alternating between Kam’s own experiences with queer identity and her extensive ethnographic findings, this text offers a contemporary portrait of female tongzhi communities and politics in urban China, making an invaluable contribution to global discussions and international debates on same-sex intimacies, homophobia, coming-out politics, and sexual governance.]

Kang, Wenqing. Obsession: Male Same-Sex Relations in China, 1900-1950. Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press, 2009.

—–. “Male Same-Sex Relations in Modern China: Language, Media Representations, Law, 1900-1949.” positions: east asia cultures critque 18, 2 (Fall 2010): 498-510.

—–. ” The Decriminalization and Depathologization of Homosexuality in China.” In Timothy B. Weston and Lionel M. Jensen, eds., China In and Beyond the Headlines. Lanham: Rowman and Littlefield, 2012, 231-248

Lauvin, Maud, Ling Yang, and Jing Jamie Zhao, eds. Boys’ Love, Cosplay, and Androgynous Idols Queer Fan Cultures in Mainland China, Hong Kong, and Taiwan. HK: Hong Kong University Press, 2017.

[Abstract: Chinese-speaking popular cultures have never been so queer in this digital, globalist age. The title of this pioneering volume . . . already gives an idea of the colorful, multifaceted realms the fans inhabit today. Contributors to this collection situate the proliferation of (often online) queer representations, productions, fantasies, and desires as a reaction against the norms in discourses surrounding nation-states, linguistics, geopolitics, genders, and sexualities. Moving beyond the easy polarities between general resistance and capitulation, Queer Fan Cultures explores the fans’ diverse strategies in negotiating with cultural strictures and media censorship. It further outlines the performance of subjectivity, identity, and agency that cyberspace offers to female fans. Presenting a wide array of concrete case studies of queer fandoms in Chinese-speaking contexts, the essays in this volume challenge long-established Western-centric and Japanese-focused fan scholarship by highlighting the significance and specificities of Sinophone queer fan cultures and practices in a globalized world. The geographic organization of the chapters illuminates cultural differences and the other competing forces shaping geocultural intersections among fandoms based in Mainland China, Hong Kong, and Taiwan.]

Leung, Helen Hok-Sze. “Thoughts on Lesbian Genders in Contemporary Chinese Cultures.” Journal of Lesbian Studies 6, 2 (Summer 2002): 123-133.

—–. “Notes on Sexual Dissidence in Hong Kong and Taiwan.” West Coast Line 33, vol. 34, no.3 (Winter 2001): 8-26.

—–. Undercurrents: Queer Culture and Postcolonial Hong Kong. Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press, 2008.

[Abstract: Leung explores Hong Kong cultural productions–cinema, fiction, popular music and subcultural projects–and argues that while there is no overt consolidation of gay and lesbian identities in Hong Kong culture, undercurrents of diverse and complex expressions of gender and sexual variance are widely in evidence. ]

Li Yinhe and Wang Xiaobo. Tamen de shijie: Zhongguo nan tongxinglian qunluo toushi (Their world: a look at the Chinese male homosexuality community). Hong Kong: Tiandi tushu youxian gongsi, 1993.

Lin, Song Hwee. Celluloid Comrade: Representations of Male Homosexuality in Contemporary Chinese Cinemas. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 2007.

—–. “How to be Queer in Taiwan: Translation, Appropriation, and the Construction of a Queer Identity in Taiwan.” In Fran Martin, Peter Jackson, Mark McLelland, and Audrey Yue, eds., AsiaPacifiQueer: Rethinking Genders and Sexualities. Urbana: University of Illinois, 2008.

Liou, Liang-Ya. “At the Intersection of the Global and the Local: Representations of Male Homosexuality in Fictions by Pai Hsien-yung [Bai Xianyong], Li Ang, Chu Tien-wen [Zhu Tianwen] and Chi Ta-wei [Ji Dawei].”Postcolonial Studies 6, 2 (2010): 191-206.

Liu, Petrus. “Why Does Queer Theory Need China?” positions: east asia cultures critique 18, 2 (2010): 291-320.

Liu, Petrus and Lisa Rofel, eds. Beyond the Strai(gh)ts: Transnationalism and Queer Chinese Politics. Special issue of positions: east asia cultures critique 18, 2 (Fall 2010).

Martin, Fran. “Surface Tensions: Reading Productions of Tongzhi in Contemporary Taiwan.” GLQ 6, 1 (2000): 61-86.

—–. “Introduction.” In Martin, ed., Angelwings: Contemporary Queer Fiction from Taiwan. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 2003, 1-28.

—–. Situating Sexualities: Queer Representations in Taiwanese Fiction, Film and Public Culture. HK: University of Hong Kong Press, 2003.

—–. Backward Glances: Contemporary Chinese Cultures and the Female Homoerotic Imaginary. Durham: Duke University Press, 2010.

[Abstract: reveals that the passionate love one woman feels for another occupies a position of unsuspected centrality in contemporary Chinese mass cultures. By examining representations of erotic and romantic love between women in popular films, elite and pulp fiction, and television dramas, Fran Martin shows how youthful same-sex love is often framed as a universal, even ennobling, feminine experience. She argues that a temporal logic dominates depictions of female homoeroticism, and she traces that logic across texts produced and consumed in mainland China, Hong Kong, and Taiwan during the twentieth century and the early twenty-first. Attentive to both transnational cultural flows and local particularities, Martin shows how loving relations between women in mass culture are usually represented as past experiences. Adult protagonists revel in the repeated, mournful narration of their memories. Yet these portrayals do not simply or finally consign the same-sex loving woman to the past–they also cause her to reappear ceaselessly in the present. As Martin explains, memorial schoolgirl love stories are popular throughout contemporary Chinese cultures. The same-sex attracted young woman appears in both openly homophobic and proudly queer-affirmative narratives, as well as in stories whose ideological valence is less immediately clear. Martin demonstrates that the stories, television programs, and films she analyzes are not idiosyncratic depictions of marginal figures, but manifestations of a broader, mainstream cultural preoccupation. Her investigation of representations of same-sex love between women sheds new light on contemporary Chinese understandings of sex, love, gender, marriage, and the cultural ordering of human life.]

—–. “Utopian Yearning: Reconstructing China’s Queer Cultural Histories.” Inter-Asia Cultural Studies 12, 1 (2011): 132-38.

Martin, Fran, Peter Jackson, Mark McLelland, and Audrey Yue, eds., AsiaPacifiQueer: Rethinking Genders and Sexualities. Urbana: University of Illinois, 2008.

Moran, Thomas. “Same-Sex Love in Recent Chinese Literature.” In Joshua Mostow, ed, and Kirk A. Denton, China section, ed., Columbia Companion to Modern East Asian Literatures. NY: Columbia UP, 2003, 488-95.

—–. “Homoeroticism in Modern Chinese Literature.” In Kirk A. Denton, ed., Columbia Companion to Modern Chinese Literature. NY: Columbia University Press, 2016, 336-44.

Payne, Christopher. “Queer Otherwise: Anti-Sociality in Wuhe’s Gui’er and Ayao.” Archiv orientální 81, 3 (2013): 539-554.

Parry, Amie and Liu Jen-peng. “The Politics of Schadenfreude: Violence and Queer Cultural Critique in Lucifer Hung’s Science Fiction.” positions: east asia cultures critique 18, 2 (Fall 2010): 351-372.

Rofel, Lisa. “The Traffic in Money Boys.” positions: east asia cultures critique 18, 2 (Fall 2010): 425-58.

Sang, Tze-lan Deborah. The Emerging Lesbian: Female Same-sex Desire in Modern Chinese Literature and Culture. Ph. D. diss (Comp Lit). Berkeley: University of California. 1996.

—–. “Translating Homosexuality: The Discourse of Tongxing’ai in Republican China (1912-1949).” In Lydia Liu, ed., Tokens of Exchange: The Problem of Translation in Global Circulations. Durham: Duke UP, 1999, 276-304.

—–. “Lesbian Feminism in the Mass-Mediated Public Sphere of Taiwan.” In Mayfair Mei-hui Yang, ed., Spaces of Their Own: Women’s Public Sphere in Transnational China. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1999, 132-61.

—–. “At the Juncture of Censure and Mass Voyeurism: Narratives of Female Homoerotic Desire in Post-Mao China.” GLQ: A Journal of Lesbian and Gay Studies 8, no. 4 (2002).

—–. The Emerging Lesbian: Female Same-Sex Desire in Modern China. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2003.

Shi, Liang. “Mirror Rubbing: A Critical Genealogy of Pre-Modern Chinese Female Same-Sex Eroticism.” Journal of Homosexuality 60, 5 (2013): 750-772.

Sieber, Patricia. “Introduction.” In Seiber, ed. Red is Not the Only Color: Contemporary Chinese Fiction on Love and Sex between Women, Collected Stories. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield, 2001, 1-36.

Yue, Audrey and Jun Zubillago-Pow. Queer Singapore: Illiberal Citizenship and Mediated Cultures. HK: Hong Kong University Press, 2013.

[Abstract: Singapore remains one of the few countries in Asia that has yet to decriminalise homosexuality. Yet it has also been hailed by many as one of the emerging gay capitals of Asia. This book accounts for the rise of mediated queer cultures in Singapore?s current milieu of illiberal citizenship. This collection analyses how contemporary queer Singapore has emerged against a contradictory backdrop of sexual repression and cultural liberalisation. Using the innovative framework of illiberal pragmatism, established and emergent local scholars and activists provide expansive coverage of the impact of homosexuality on Singapore?s media cultures and political economy, including law, religion, the military, literature, theatre, photography, cinema, social media and queer commerce. It shows how new LGBT subjectivities have been fashioned through the governance of illiberal pragmatism, how pragmatism is appropriated as a form of social and critical democratic action, and how cultural citizenship is forged through a logic of queer complicity that complicates the flows of oppositional resistance and grassroots appropriation.]

Zhu, Ying. “Chinese Comrade Literature.” In David Gerstner, ed., International Encyclopedia of Queer Culture – Contemporary Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual and Transexual Cultures. London: Routledge: 2006.


Minority, Aboriginal, Indigenous Literature

Baranovitch, Nimrod. “Inverted Exile: Uyghur Writers and Artists in Beijing and the Political Implications of their Works.” Modern China 33, 4 (2007): 462-504.

Bender, Mark. “Dying Hunters, Poison Plants, and Mute Slaves: Nature and Tradition in Nuosu Yi Poetry.” Asian Highlands Perspectives 1 (2009): 117-158.

—–. “Echoes from Si gang lih: Burao Yilu’s ‘Moon Mountain.'” Asian Highlands Perspectives 10 (2011): 99-128.

—–. “Cry of the Silver Pheasant: Contemporary Ethnic Poetry in Sichuan and Yunnan.” Chinese Literature Today 2, 2, (2012).

—–. “Ethnic Minority Literature.” In Yingjin Zhang, ed., A Companion to Modern Chinese Literature. Chichester, UK: Wiley Blackwell, 2016, 267-75.

—–. The Borderlands of Asia: Culture, Place, Poetry. Amherst, NY: Cambria, 2017.

[Abstract: This unprecedented volume presents important cultural works from the borders, margins, buffer zones, transitional areas, and frontiers from within and around the mega-states of China and India, subsumed within the larger geo-political constructs of East Asia, Southeast Asia, and South Asia. Many are from communities of poets or individuals writing within the watersheds of the Eastern Himalayas, an area encompassing North East India, Myanmar, and Southwest China. A number are from farther north in Western China and the steppes of Inner Mongolia and the nation of Mongolia.]

Bhum, Pema. “‘Heartbeat of a New Generation’: A Discussion of the New Poetry.” In Lauren R. Hartley and Patricia Schiaffini, eds. Modern Tibetan Literature and Social Change. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2008, 112-47.

Chiu, Kuei-fen. “The Production of Indigeneity: Contemporary Indigenous Literature in Taiwan and Trans-cultural Inheritance.” The China Quarterly (Dec. 2009): 1071-87.

[Abstract: This study investigates the complicated interplay between indigenous and mainstream discourse in the production of Taiwanese indigeneity. Via the case study of Syaman Rapongan, an indigenous writer in Taiwan known for his ethnographic portrayal of his tribal culture, I examine how the production of indigeneity in Taiwan involves not only inscription of resistance from indigenous people but also strategic exploitations of transnational legacies by different social groups as they struggle over the definition of indigeneity to formulate their own specific agendas. It is the contention of this article that the question of Taiwanese indigeneity is not just about indigenous self-representation, that is, claiming the subject position of the indigenous people and seeking to restore declining, oppressed indigenous cultural heritages. The study shows that we need to go beyond the familiar scheme of binary opposition to deal with the complexity of the question of indigeneity. The article ends with a re-theorization of the relationship between indigenous and new Taiwanese identity discourse in terms of Jacques Derrida’s notion of ‘inheritance.”]

Dhondup, Yangdon. “Roar of the Lion: Tibetan Poetry in Chinese.” In Lauren R. Hartley and Patricia Schiaffini, eds. Modern Tibetan Literature and Social Change. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2008, 32-60.

Ethnic ChinaLit (writing by and about non-Han ethnic peoples of China). Bruce Humes.

Gyatso, Sangye (Gangzhun). “Modern Tibetan Literature and the Rise of Writer Coteries.” In Lauren R. Hartley and Patricia Schiaffini, eds. Modern Tibetan Literature and Social Change. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2008, 263-80.

Hartley, Lauren R. “Heterodox Views and the New Orthodox Poems: Tibetan Writers in the Early and Mid-Twentieth Century.” In Lauren R. Hartley and Patricia Schiaffini, eds. Modern Tibetan Literature and Social Change. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2008, 3-31.

Hartley, Lauren R. and Patricia Schiaffini, eds. Modern Tibetan Literature and Social Change. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2008.

Huang, Hsinya. “Sinophone Indigenous Literature of Taiwan: History and Tradition.” In Shu-mei Shih and Chien-hsin Tsai eds. Sinophone Studies: A Critical Reader. NY: Columbia University Press, 2013, 242-54.

Jigme, Hortsang. “Tibetan Literature in the Diaspora.” In Lauren R. Hartley and Patricia Schiaffini, eds. Modern Tibetan Literature and Social Change. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2008, 281-300.

Maconi, Lara. “One Nation, Two Discourses: Tibetan New Era Lierature and the Language Debate.” In Lauren R. Hartley and Patricia Schiaffini, eds. Modern Tibetan Literature and Social Change. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2008, 173-201.

Poupard, Duncan. “The Translated Identities of Chinese Minority Writers: Sinophone Naxi Authors.” Journal of Modern Literature in Chinese 14, 1 (Summer 2017): 189-208.

[Abstract: On the relationship between culture, identity and power, perhaps the question to ask is not whether the subaltern can speak, but with what voice can the subaltern group speak? It would seem from the case of China’s Naxi minority3 (alongside many of China’s other ethnic groups) that the subaltern can only be heard when speaking the language of the dominant group, in this case, mandarin, the language of the Han Chinese. As the “true” Naxi literature (what is called “dongba”4 literature), written in their native Naxi scripts,5 is constrained (for the most part) to its religious tracts, we must instead look to Naxi literature written in Chinese. How do Naxi writers construct their own ethnic identity while writing in Chinese? I contend that we must follow the example of Bassnett and Trivedi, and try to understand the link between colonization and translation in conceiving of Naxi writers of Naxi literature as belonging to the category of postcolonial writers. They are “postcolonial” in the sense that they are translating a subaltern source culture for a dominant target culture.

Robin, Francoise. “‘Oracles and Demons’ in Tibetan Literature Today: Representations of Religion in Tibetan-Medium Fiction.” In Lauren R. Hartley and Patricia Schiaffini, eds. Modern Tibetan Literature and Social Change. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2008, 148-71.

Russell, Terence, guest editor.  The Mythology and Oral Literature of Taiwan’s Indigenous Peoples, special issue of Taiwan Literature: English Translation Series 24 (2009).

Schiaffini, Patricia. “The Language Divide: Identity and Literary Choices in Modern Tibet.” Journal of International Affairs 57, 2 (Spring 2004).

—–. “On the Margins of Tibetanness: Three Decades of Modern Sinophone Tibetan Literature.” In Shu-mei Shih and Chien-hsin Tsai eds. Sinophone Studies: A Critical Reader. NY: Columbia University Press, 2013, 281-95.

Shakya, Tsering. “The Development of Modern Tibetan Literature in the People’s Republic of China.” In Lauren R. Hartley and Patricia Schiaffini, eds. Modern Tibetan Literature and Social Change. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2008, 61-85.

Sterk, Darryl. “The ‘Indian Gift’ and the Taiwan Indigenous Literary Hunter’s Gift.” Studia Orientalia Slovaca 11, 1 (2012).

—–. “The Hunter’s Gift in Ecorealist Indigenous Fiction from Taiwan.” Oriental Archive 81 (2013): 555-80.

Tu, Kuo-ch’ing. “Aboriginal Literature in Taiwan.” Taiwan Literature: English Translation Series 3 (1998).

Venturino, Steven J. “Placing Tibetan Fiction in a World of Literary Studies: Jamyang Norbu’s The Mandala of Sherlock Holmes.” In Lauren R. Hartley and Patricia Schiaffini, eds. Modern Tibetan Literature and Social Change. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2008, 301-24.

Virtanen, Riika J. “Development and Urban Space in Contemporary Tibetan Literature.” In Lauren R. Hartley and Patricia Schiaffini, eds. Modern Tibetan Literature and Social Change. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2008, 236-62.


Eco-Literature and Nature Writing

Bender, Mark. “Dying Hunters, Poison Plants, and Mute Slaves: Nature and Tradition in Nuosu Yi Poetry.” Asian Highlands Perspectives 1 (2009): 117-158.

Chang, Chia-ju and Scott Slovic, eds., Ecocriticism in Taiwan: Identity, Environment, and the Arts. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 2016.

Chang, Kathryn Yalan. “Ang Li’s The Butcher’s Wife (Shafu) and Taiwan Ecocriticism.” In Simon C. Estok and Won-Chung Kim, eds., East Asian Ecocriticisms: A Critical Reader. NY: Palgrave MacMillan, 2013.

Chen, Lily Hong Chen. “Between Animalizing Nature and Dehumanizing Culture: Reading Yingsong Chen’s Shennongjia Stories.” In Simon C. Estok and Won-Chung Kim, eds.,East Asian Ecocriticisms: A Critical Reader. NY: Palgrave MacMillan, 2013.

Cheng, Xiangzhan. “On the Four Keystones of Ecological Aesthetic Appreciation.” In Simon C. Estok and Won-Chung Kim, eds.,East Asian Ecocriticisms: A Critical Reader. NY: Palgrave MacMillan, 2013.

Chou, Shiuhhuah Serena. “Sense of Wilderness, Sense of Time: Mingyi Wu’s Nature Writing and the Aesthetics of Change.” In Simon C. Estok and Won-Chung Kim, eds., East Asian Ecocriticisms: A Critical Reader. NY: Palgrave MacMillan, 2013.

Estok, Simon C. and Won-Chung Kim, eds. East Asian Ecocriticisms: A Critical Reader. NY: Palgrave MacMillan, 2013.

Gong, Haomin. “Toward a New Leftist Ecocriticism in Postsocialist China: Reading the ‘Poetry of Migrant Workers’ as Ecopoetry.” In Ban Wang and Jie Lu, eds., China and New Left Visions: Political and Cultural Interventions. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 2012, 139-57.

[Abstract: This essays discusses the poetry writing of migrant worker poets, including Zheng Xiaoqiong, and addresses some theoretical issues of ecopoetry within the paradigm of Chinese postsocialism.]

Huang, Peter I-min. “Corporate Globalizatin and the Resistance to It in Linda Hogan’s People of the Whale and in Sheng Wu’s Poetry.” In Simon C. Estok and Won-Chung Kim, eds.,East Asian Ecocriticisms: A Critical Reader. NY: Palgrave MacMillan, 2013.

Kaldis, Nicholas. “Steward of the Ineffable: ‘Anxiety-Reflex’ in/as the Nature Writing of Liu Kexiang (Or: Nature Writing against Academic Colonization).” In Christopher Lupke ed., New Perspectives on Contemporary Chinese Poetry. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2007, 85-103.

Li, Cheng. “Echoes from the Opposite Shore: Chinese Ecocritical Studies as a Transpacific Dialogue Delayed.” Interdisciplinary Studies in Literature and Environment 21, 4 (2014): 821-43.

Li, Cheng and Yanjun Liu. “Red China, Green Amnesia: Locating Environmental Justice in Contemporary Chinese Literature.” In Scott Slovic, Swarnalatha Rangarajan, and Vidya Sarveswaran, eds., Ecoambiguity, Community, and Development: Toward a Politicized Ecocriticism. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 2014, 33-58.

Moran, Thomas. “Lost in the Woods: Nature in Soul Mountain.” Modern Chinese Literature and Culture 14, no. 2 (Fall 2002): 207-236.

Sterk, Darryl. “The Hunter’s Gift in Ecorealist Indigenous Fiction from Taiwan.” Oriental Archive 81 (2013): 555-80.

Thornber, Karen Laura. Ecoambiguity: Environmental Crises and East Asian Literatures. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2012.

[Abstract: East Asian literatures are famous for celebrating the beauties of nature and depicting people as intimately connected with the natural world. But in fact, because the region has a long history of transforming and exploiting nature, much of the fiction and poetry in the Chinese, Japanese, and Korean languages portrays people as damaging everything from small woodlands to the entire planet. These texts seldom talk about environmental crises straightforwardly. Instead, like much creative writing on degraded ecosystems, they highlight what Thornber calls ecoambiguity–the complex, contradictory interactions between people and the nonhuman environment. Ecoambiguity is the first book in any language to analyze Chinese, Japanese, Korean, and Taiwanese literary treatments of damaged ecosystems. Thornber closely examines East Asian creative portrayals of inconsistent human attitudes, behaviors, and information concerning the environment and takes up texts by East Asians who have been translated and celebrated around the world, including Gao Xingjian, Ishimure Michiko, Jiang Rong, and Ko Un, as well as fiction and poetry by authors little known even in their homelands. Ecoambiguity addresses such environmental crises as deforesting, damming, pollution, overpopulation, species eradication, climate change, and nuclear apocalypse. This book opens new portals of inquiry in both East Asian literatures and ecocriticism (literature and environment studies), as well as in comparative and world literature.]

—–. “Afterword: Ecocritical and Literary Futures.” In Simon C. Estok and Won-Chung Kim, eds.,East Asian Ecocriticisms: A Critical Reader. NY: Palgrave MacMillan, 2013.

—–. “Chinese Literature and Environmental Crises: Plundering Borderlands North and South.” In Scott Slovic, Swarnalatha Rangarajan, and Vidya Sarveswaran, eds., Ecoambiguity, Community, and Development: Toward a Politicized Ecocriticism. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 2014, 1-12.

—–. “Paradoxes of Conservation and Comparison: Taiwan, Environmental Crises, and World Literature.” In Shu-mei Shih and Ping-hui Liao, eds., Comparatizing Taiwan. London: Routledge, 2015, 100-22.

Wu, Dingbo. “Environmental Literature: A Chinese Perspective.” In Patrick D. Murphy ed., Literature of Nature: An International Sourcebook. Chicago: Fitzroy Dearborn, 1998, 300-3.

Yang, Jincai. “Ecological Awareness in Contemporary Chinese Literature.” Neohelicon 39, 1 (March 2012):

[Abstract: If perceived from a thematic perspective, Contemporary Chinese fiction harbors a variety of political dimensions. To subvert the conventions of socialist realism, many works in the 1980s joined to affirm the Party’s reform policies, but writers today seem to be keen on the status quo resulting from the economic reform. The fiction of the new century has fully recovered from the sentimental retrospection and naive, simplistic socialist realism in the decades following the end of the Cultural Revolution. The main characteristic of Chinese fiction in the twenty-first century is its sheer diversity featured by various thematic concerns. Examples of novels can be identified that address issues of globalization, hi-tech, urbanization, marketing economy, internet and poverty and their impact upon the lowly common Chinese such as the disadvantaged rural farmers. This turn to reality gives rise to a burgeoning ecological awareness in Chinese literature. Writers in the new century have diverged from the conventional way to sing along with or speak for the dominant ideology of the economic reform as many did during Deng Xiaoping’s time. They have shifted their attention to the shaded side of contemporary China, writing about the marginalized and reflecting on the social issues that accompany the existing social order. Efforts have been made to explore specific national and regional identities, displaying a reengagement with a realist tradition. It is argued that more and more Chinese, having felt distressed by increasing evidence of environmental deterioration, are now becoming conscious of environmental issues and speaking out about their concerns. This paper then attempts to examine how contemporary Chinese writers contemplate the consequences of China’s explosive capitalist growth and environmental issues in order to fashion their greening dimensions.]

—–. “Environmental Dimensions in Contemporary Chinese Literature and Criticism.” In Simon C. Estok and Won-Chung Kim, eds., East Asian Ecocriticisms: A Critical Reader. NY: Palgrave MacMillan, 2013.

Yang, Ming-tu. “Ecological Consciousness in the Contemporary Literature of Taiwan.” In Patrick D. Murphy ed., Literature of Nature: An International Sourcebook. Chicago: Fitzroy Dearborn, 1998, 304-14.

Yue, Gang. “The Strange Landscape of the Ancients: Environmental Consciousness in ‘The King of Trees.'” American Journal of Chinese Studies 5, 1 (1998): 68-88.

—– . “Tibet, a Topos in Ecopolitics of the Global South.” In Scott Slovic, Swarnalatha Rangarajan, and Vidya Sarveswaran, eds., Ecoambiguity, Community, and Development: Toward a Politicized Ecocriticism. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 2014, 13-32.


Nativist and Roots Literature

Chang, Sung-sheng Yvonne. Modernism and Nativist Resistance: Contemporary Chinese Fiction from Taiwan. Durham: Duke UP, 1993.

Chen, Aili. The Search for Cultural Identity: Taiwan ‘Hsiang-T’u’ Literature in the Seventies. Ph.d. diss. Columbus: The Ohio State University, 1991.

Chen, Li-fen. “Nativist Literature.” In Ke-wan Wang, ed., Modern China: An Encyclopedia of History, Culture, and Nationalism. NY: Garland Publishing Co., 1998, 234-235.

Galik, Marian. “Searching for Roots and Lost Identity in Contemporary Chinese Literature.” Asian and African Studies [Brataslava] 9, 2 (2000): 154-67.

Haddon, Rosemary M. “Taiwan Xiangtu wenxue: The Sojourner-Narrator.” B.C. Asian Review 3-4 (1990).

—–. “The Xiangtu Wenxue Movement in Taiwan.” B.C. Asian Review 1 (Dec. 1991).

—–. Nativist Fiction in China and Taiwan: A Thematic Survey. Ph.D. diss. Vancouver: University of British Columbia, 1993.

—–. “Chinese Nativist Literature of the 1920s: The Sojourner-Narrator.” Modern Chinese Literature 8 (1994): 97-124.

—–. “Introduction: Taiwanese Nativism and the Colonial/Post-Colonial Discourse.” In Rosemary Haddon, tr./ed , Oxcart: Nativist Stories from Taiwan, 1934-1977. Dortmund: Projekt Verlag, 1996, v-xxv.

Han, Shaogong. “After the ‘Literature of the Wounded’: Local Cultures, Roots, Maturity, and Fatigue.” In Helmut Martin, ed., Modern Chinese Writers: Self-Portrayals. Armonk, NY: M.E. Sharpe, 1992.

Huot, Claire. “Colorful Folk of the Landscape: Fifth Generation Filmmakers and Roots Searchers.” In Huot, China’s New Cultural Scene: A Handbook of Changes. Durham: Duke University Press, 2000, 91-125.

Knight, Sabina. “Defiance and Fatalism in Roots-Seeking and Avant-Garde Fiction.” In The Heart of Time: Moral Agency in Twentieth-Century Chinese Fiction. Cambridge: Harvard University Asia Center, 2006, 191-221.

Kong, Haili. “The Spirit of ‘Native-Soil’ in the Fictional World of Duanmu Hongliang and Mo Yan.” China Information 11, 4 (Spring 1997): 58-67.

Lau, Joseph. “Echoes of the May Fourth Movement in Taiwan Hsiang-t’u Fiction.” In Hung-mao Tien, ed., Mainland China, Taiwan and US Policy. Cambridge, MA: OG Publishers, 1983, 135-50.

Lee, Haiyan. “The Other Chinese: Romancing the Folk in May Fourth Native Soil Fiction.” Concentric: Literary and Cultural Studies ( special issue: “Ethics and Ethnicity”) 33, 2 (Sept. 2007): 9-34. [Deals with the works of Yang Zhensheng, Fei Ming, and Shen Congwen.]

Lee, Leo Ou-fan. “Introduction.” In Jeanne Tai, ed./tr., Spring Bamboo: A Collection of Contemporary Chinese Short Stories. NY: Random House, 1989, xi-xvii.

Leenhouts, Mark. “Culture Against Politics: Roots-Seeking Literature.” In Joshua Mostow, ed, and Kirk A. Denton, China section, ed., Columbia Companion to Modern East Asian Literatures. NY: Columbia UP, 2003, 533-40. Rpt in Kirk A. Denton, ed., Columbia Companion to Modern Chinese Literature. NY: Columbia University Press, 2016, 299-306.

—–. Leaving the World to Enter the World: Han Shaogong and Chinese Root-Seeking Literature. Leiden: CNWS Publications, 2005. [CNWS blurb]

Li, Qingxi. “Searching for Roots: Anticultural Return in Mainland Chinese Literature of the 1980s.” In Pang-yuan Chi and David Wang, eds., Chinese Literature in the Second Half of the Twentieth Century: A Critical Survey. Bloomington: Indiana UP, 2000, 110-123.

Lin, Sylvia Li-chun. “Toward a New Identity: Nativism and Popular Music in Taiwan.” China Information 17, 2 (2003): 83-107.

Lin, Yaofu. “Language as Politics: The Metamorphosis of Nativism in Recent Taiwan Fiction.” Modern Chinese Literature 6, 1/2 (1992): 7-22.

Liu, Tao Tao. “Local Identity in Chinese Fiction and Fiction of the Native Soil (Xiangtu wenxue)” In Liu and David Faure, eds., Unity and Diversity: Local Cultures and Identities in China. HK: HKUP, 1996, 139-60.

Lupke, Christopher. Modern Chinese Literature in the Post-Colonial Diaspora. Ph.D. diss. Ithaca: Cornell University, 1993.

Stuckey, Andrew. “The Lyrical and the Local: Shen Congwen, Rooots, and Temporality.” In Stuckey, Old Stories Retold: Narrative and Vanishing Pasts in Modern China. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 2010, 83-98.

Turc-Crisa, Daniele. “La litterature des racines.” In La Litterature chinoise contemporaine, tradition et modernite: colloque d’Aix-en-Provence, le 8 juin 1988. Aix-en-Provence: Publications de l’Universite de Provence, 1989, 23-26.

Wang, Jing. “Taiwan Hsiang-t’u Literature: Perspectives in the Evolution of a Literary Movement.” In J. Faurot, ed. Chinese Fiction from Taiwan: Critical Perspectives. Bloomington: Indiana UP, 1980.

Wang, Rujie. “The Mosaic of Chinese Modernism in Fiction and Film: The Aesthetics of Primitivism, Taoism, and Buddhism.” Canadian Review of Comparative Literature 35, 1-2 (March-June 2008): 14-39.

Wang, Tuo. “Native Literature as a Stimulus for Social Change: From a Writing Career to Political Activism.” Tr. Juliettte Gregory. In Helmut Martin Modern Chinese Writers: Self-Portrayals. Armonk, NY: M.E. Sharpe, 1992, 224-30.

Wang, Yiyan. “Literary Nativism, the Native Place and Modern Chinese Fiction.” Portal: Journal of Multidisciplinary International Studies 4, 1 (Jan. 2007). [In Chinese]

[Abstract: Although the importance of the native place in Chinese life is beyond dispute and it has been a significant preoccupation of Chinese authors throughout history, literary representations of the native place still remain to be studied systematically. This paper attempts to examine the construction of the native place in modern Chinese fiction and its role in literary representations of China. Until the beginning of the twentieth century, the native place in Chinese literature remained an abstract notion without specific geographical locations and the narrative focus was on the ‘native-place sentiment’ (Bryna Goodman 1995). It is a modern phenomenon that the native place appears as a local cultural space with ethnographic details and is closely related to the need for narrating China, although it can still be abstract and symbolic. The construction of the native place is crucial in the project of national narration for modern Chinese fiction, as it is often created as the nation’s cultural origin and authentication. However, the relationship between the native place and national representation in Chinese fiction is paradoxical, because, on the one hand the native place necessarily differs in origin, and on the other hand, many Chinese authors are devoted to China as a cultural totality.This paper will focus on the paradoxical relationship between the authors’ nativist aspirations to create distinctive local cultural identities and their commitment to the abstract idea of a single Chinese nation. Furthermore, both the native place and national narration are intricately associated with the tendency of literary nativism, i.e. the belief and the practice that literary writing should focus on constructing the native place and that the narrative style should continue and develop the indigenous narrative traditions. In other words, poetics is part of the politics in the configuration of the native place. The initial questions I shall try to answer include: How is the native place viewed and configured in modern Chinese fiction? What kinds of local stories are generated as national tales and what is the role of the native place in such narratives? Why do writers ‘write local but think national’? Why do national myths in Chinese regional literatures compete to identify with the central nation-state?]

Yang, Chao. “Beyond ‘Nativist Realism’: Taiwan Fiction in the 1970s and 1980s.” In Pang-yuan Chi and David Wang, eds., Chinese Literature in the Second Half of the Twentieth Century: A Critical Survey. Bloomington: Indiana UP, 2000, 96-109.

Yeh, Catherine Vance. “Root Literature of the 1980s as a Double Burden.” In Milena Dolezelova-Velingerova and Oldrich Kral, eds., The Appropriation of Cultural Capital: China’s May Fourth Project. Cambridge: Harvard University Asia Center, 2001, 229-56.

Yip, June. “Confronting the Other, Defining the Self: Hsiang-t’u Literature and the Emergence of a Taiwanese Nationalism.” In Yip, Envisioning Taiwan: Fiction Cinema and the Nation in the Cultural Imaginary. Durham, NC: Duke UP, 2004, 12-48.

Zhong, Xueping. “Manhood, Cultural Roots, and National Identity.” In Masculinity Besieged? Issues of Modernity and Male Subjectivity in Chinese Literature of the Late Twentieth Century. Durham: Duke UP, 2000, 150-70.


Science Fiction

Chen, Pingyuan. “From Popular Science to Science Fiction: An Investigation of ‘Flying Machines.'” In David Pollard, ed., Translation and Creation: Readings of Western Literature in Early Modern China. Amsterdan, Philadelphia: J. Benjamins, 1998, 209-40.

Clements, Jonathan, and Wu Dingbo. “China.” In John Clute, ed., The Encyclopedia of Science Fiction. Online (4 Dec. 2012).

Han, Song. “Chinese Science Fiction: A Response to Modernization.” Science Fiction Studies 40, 1 (2013).

Heroldova, Helena. “Glass Submarines and Electric Balloons: Creating Scientific and Technical Vocabulary in Chinese Science Fiction.” In Lackner, Michael and Natascha Vittinghoff, eds., Mapping Meanings: The Field of New Learning in Late Qing China. Leiden: Brill, 2004, 537-554.

Huss, Mikael. “Hesitant Journey to the West: SF’s Changing Fortunes in Mainland China.” Science Fiction Studies 27, 1 (Mar. 2000): 92-104.

Iovene, Paola. “How I Divorced My Robot Wife: Visionary Futures between Science and Literature.” In Iovene, Tales of Future Past: Anticipation and the Ends of Literature in Contemporary China. Stanford: Stanford UP, 2014, 19-50.

Isaacson, Nathaniel. “Science Fiction for the Nation: Tales of the Moon Colony and the Birth of Modern Chinese Fiction.” Science Fiction Studies 40, 1 (2013): 33-54.

—–. Celestial Empire: The Emergence of Chinese Science Fiction. Middleton, CT: Wesleyan University Press, 2017.

[Abstract: Challenging assumptions about science fiction’s Western origins, Nathaniel Isaacson traces the development of the genre in China, from the late Qing Dynasty through the New Culture Movement. Through careful examination of a wide range of visual and print media—including historical accounts of the institutionalization of science, pictorial representations of technological innovations, and a number of novels and short stories—Isaacson makes a case for understanding Chinese science fiction as a product of colonial modernity. By situating the genre’s emergence in the transnational traffic of ideas and material culture engendered by the presence of colonial powers in China’s economic and political centers, Celestial Empires explores the relationship between science fiction and Orientalist discourse. In doing so it offers an innovative approach to the study of both vernacular writing in twentieth-century China and science fiction in a global context.]

Jia, Liyuan. “Gloomy China: China’s Image in Han Song’s Science Fiction.” Science Fiction Studies 40, 1 (2013).

Li, Hua. “Manufactured Landscapes in Contemporary Chinese Science Fiction.” Forum for World Literature Studies, 6, 3 (Sept. 2014): 443–456.

—–. “A Functionalist Scientific Worldview in the Early Chinese Science Fiction Story ‘Tales of the New Mr. Bragadoccio.'” In Jesse Glass and Philip F. Williams, eds.,  Salutations; a Festschrift for Burton Watson. Tokyo: Ahabada Books, 2015, 46-70.

Liu, Cixin. “Beyond Narcissism: What Science Fiction Can Offer Literature.” Science Fiction Studies 40, 1 (2013).

Ma, Shaoling. “‘A Tale of Mr. Braggadocio’: Narrative Subjectivity and Brain Electricity in Late Qing Science Fiction.” Science Fiction Studies 40, 1 (2013).

Ming, Feng-ying. “Baoyu in Wonderland: Technological Utopia in the Early Modern Chinese Science Fiction Novel.” In Yingjin Zhang, ed., China in a Polycentric World: Essays in Chinese Comparative Literature. Stanford: Stanford UP, 1998, 152-72.

Parry, Amie and Liu Jen-peng. “The Politics of Schadenfreude: Violence and Queer Cultural Critique in Lucifer Hung’s Science Fiction.” positions: east asia cultures critique 18, 2 (Fall 2010): 351-372.

Qian, Jiang. “Translation and the Development of Science Fiction in Twentieth –Century China.” Science Fiction Studies 40, 1 (2013): 116-32.

Raphals, Lisa. “Alterity and Alien Contact in Lao She’s Martian Dystopia, Cat Country.” Science Fiction Studies 40, no. 1 (2013): 73-85.

Song, Mingwei. “Preface.” [special issue on Chinese Science Fiction: Late Qing and the Contemporary]. Renditions 77/78 (Spring/Autumn 2012): 6-14.

—–. “Variations on Utopia in Contemporary Chinese Science Fiction.” Science Fiction Studies 40, 1 (2013): 86-102.

[Abstract: This essay focuses on the variations of utopian narrative in contemporary Chinese sf, with a view toward appreciating the genre’s historical development since the late Qing. Through analyzing the writings of three writers, Han Song, Wang Jinkang, and Liu Cixin, this essay examines three themes that characterize China’s current new wave of science fiction: China’s rise, the myth of development, and posthumanity. Deeply entangled with the politics of a changing China, science fiction today both strengthens and complicates the utopian vision of a new and powerful China: it mingles nationalism with utopianism/dystopianism, sharpens social criticism with an acute awareness of China’s potential for further reform, and wraps political consciousness in scientific discourse about the powers of technology and the technologies of power.]

—–. “After 1989: The New Wave of Chinese Science Fiction.” China Perspectives 1 (2015): 7-14.

[Abstract: This paper examines the new wave of Chinese science fiction as both a subversion and variation of the genre’s utopianism of the earlier age. Wang Jinkang’s Ant Life (2007), Liu Cixin’s China 2185 (1989), the Three-Body Trilogy (2006-2010), and the short story “The Micro-Era” (1999) are the main texts this paper studies. Their reflections on utopianism speak to the post-1989 changing intellectual culture and political economy. This paper argues that the new wave of Chinese science fiction contains a self-conscious effort to energise the utopian/dystopian variations rather than a simple denial of utopianism or a total embrace of dystopian disillusionment, and this is particularly represented in Liu Cixin’s novels. The paper also provides some preliminary thoughts on the vision of a post-human future depicted in Liu Cixin’s science fiction.]

—–. “Popular Genre Fiction: Science Fiction and Fantasy.” In Kirk A. Denton, ed., Columbia Companion to Modern Chinese Literature. NY: Columbia University Press, 2016, 394-99.

—–. “Representations of the Invisible: Chinese Science Fiction in the Twenty-first Century.” In Carlos Rojas and Andrea Bachner, eds., The Oxford Handbook of Modern Chinese Literatures. New York: Oxford University Press, 2016, 546-565.

Sterk, Darryl. “The Apotheosis of Montage: The Videomosaic Gaze of The Man with the Compound Eyes as Postmodern Ecological Sublime.”  Modern Chinese Literature and Culture 28, 2  (Fall 2016): 183-222.

Tarantino, Matteo. “Toward a New ‘Electrical World’: Is There a Chinese Technological Sublime?” in Pui-lam Law, ed., New Connectivities in China: Virtual, Actual and Local Interactions (Dordrecht: Springer, 2012), 185-200.

[Abstract: Drawing from multiple disciplines and from empirical work, the chapter attempts to establish a broad frame for the cultural meaning assigned to computer technology by Chinese culture. Using as a key concept Leo Marx and Vincent Mosco’s formulation of the technological sublime, the chapter discusses its dynamics on the Western context. Here, the technological sublime feeds from the man/nature duality and the nostalgia for a transcendental state of unity. Narrations about the technology being able to bridge this gap assume the form of “techno-myths” and structure Western technological imaginary. The chapter then discusses the dynamics in Chinese context. Here, man and nature are not in a dichotomy, and the unity state is not transcendental but immanent. Therefore, technology has never been symbolically invested until the Opium Wars’ trauma. The chapter employs Chinese science fiction to illustrate this dynamic. Henceforth, the chapter argues, technology in China has been connected with the idea of national rebirth – at least at the elite level. In its last part, the chapter illustrates thorough an empirical case how this frame shapes the social meaning of computer technology.]

Thieret, Adrian. “Society and Utopia in Liu Cixin.” China Perspectives 1 (2015): 33-40.

[Abstract: This article examines utopianism in contemporary China through the short stories “Taking Care of God” and “Taking Care of Humans” by best-selling science fiction author Liu Cixin. It argues that these stories constitute an ethical resistance to the shortcomings of the capitalist world order into which China has merged during the reform period. Read as a continuation of the modern Chinese utopian tradition as well as a reaction to contemporary trends, these stories offer an articulation of hope that a more just social order can yet be achieved despite the seemingly intractable problems facing the world today.]

Wang, Dun. “The Late Qing’s Other Utopias: China’s Science-Fictional Imagination, 1900-1910.” Concentric: Literary and Cultural Studies 34, 2 (Sept. 2008).

[Abstract: This research paper examines the genesis and mechanism of China’s imagination of the future at the turn of the 20th century, a time when the country’s current socio-political reality was seen as being in many ways abominable, while the future was seen as a utopian dreamland of possibility and hope. An analysis of Wu Jianren’s the late Qing fiction The New Story of the Stone (1905), especially its second half which depicts the future China as a “Civilized Realm,” shows the influence on the young Chinese writers of contemporary Western science fiction and (especially) utopian fiction. It also shows that these late Qing writers wanted to portray their imagined China of the future as being “better” than the contemporary West (and also future West of Western utopian narratives) inasmuch as it will be using (originally Western) technology in a manner which is fundamentally moral and spiritual, as befits China’s traditional culture. Here the key contrast is between, on the one hand, ancient (Confucian, Daoist) Chinese civilization, moral idealism and spirituality, and on the other hand (contemporary and future) Western barbarism, empiricism, materialism, pragmatism, a “non-humanism” which seems to ignore moral and spiritual life. The author points out that Wu Jianren’s future Chinese Civilized Realm has turned Western technology (the X-ray machine) into a “spiritual technology” (the Moral Nature Inspection Lens) which justifies China’s own cultural and philosophical past while simultaneously placing this past in a distant future which seems to go even “beyond” the one imagined by Western writers. That is, finally China will be technologically superior to the West on account of its age-old moral and spiritual superiority.]

Wagner, Rudolf. “Lobby Literature: The Archaeology and Present Functions of Science Fiction in the People’s Republic of China.” Jeffrey Kinkley ed. After Mao: Chinese Literature and Society l978-l981. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, l985, 17-62.

Wang, Chaohua and Mingwei Song, eds. Special Feature on Utopian and Dystopian Fiction in Contemporary China. China Perspectives 1 (2015).

Wei, Yang. “Voyage into an Unknown Future: A Genre Analysis of Chinese SF Film in the New Millenium.” Science Fiction Studies 40, 1 (2013).

Yan, Wu. “Great Wall Planet: Introducing Chinese Science Fiction.” Science Fiction Studies 40, 1 (2013).

Yan, Wu and Veronica Hollinger, guest editors. “Special Issue on Chinese Science Fiction.” Science Fiction Studies 40, 1 (March 2013).

Yang, Qiong. A Writer’s Dilemma: Gu Junzheng and a Turning Point of Chinese Science Fiction. MA thesis. Columbus: The Ohio State University, 2010.