Period

| Histories | Late Qing | May Fourth | Post-May Fourth | War Period1950s-1960s | Cultural Revolution | Post-Mao | Post-1989/Postsocialist |


Histories

Bady, Paul. La littérature chinoise moderne. Paris: Press Universitaire de France (PUF), 1993.

Birch, Cyril. “Literature under Communism.” In Roderick MacFarquhar and John K. Fairbank, eds., The Cambridge History of China, vol 15: The People’s Republic of China, pt. 2. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1991, 270-328.

Chen Sihe 陈思和. Zhongguo dangdai wenxue shi jiaocheng 中国当代文学史教程 (Lectures on contemporary Chinese literature). Shanghai: Fudan daxue, 1999.

Chen, Yu-chin. “Writers and 50 Years of Chinese Communism.” The Chinese Pen (Autumn 1972): 21-41.

Denton, Kirk A., ed. The Columbia Companion to Modern Chinese Literature. New York: Columbia University Press, 2016.

[Abstract: More than 50 short essays centered on specific writers and literary trends create an engaging and easily digestible history of Chinese literature from the Qing period (1895–1911) to today. The essays in this volume can be read sequentially for a chronological account or separately in conjunction with reading the literary works in Chinese or English-language translation. Each entry features author names and titles, as well as key terms and references, in English and in Chinese characters for readers who know or are learning Chinese, and each concludes with a bibliography of relevant primary and secondary sources. The volume opens with eight thematic essays addressing general issues in the study of Chinese literature: the ethics of writing a literary history, the formation of the canon, the relationship between language and form, the influence of literary institutions and communities, the effects of censorship, and the role of different media on the development of literature. Subsequent essays focus on authors, their works, and their schools, with entries on Wang Anyi, Eileen Chang, Shen Congwen, Yu Dafu, Mao Dun, Xiao Hong, Yang Jiang, Ba Jin, Yan Lianke, Ding Ling, Liang Qichao, Lao She, Wang Shuo, Zhu Tianwen, Zhu Tianxin, Xi Xi, Gao Xingjian, Lu Xun, Mo Yan, and Qian Zhongshu. Woven throughout are more general pieces on late Qing fiction, popular entertainment fiction, martial arts fiction, experimental theater, post-Mao avant-garde poetry in China, post–martial law fiction from Taiwan, contemporary genre fiction from China, and recent Internet literature, among other topics.]

—–. “Historical Overview.” In Kirk A. Denton, ed., Columbia Companion to Modern Chinese Literature. NY: Columbia University Press, 2016, 3-26

Dolezalova, Anna. “Periodization of Modern Chinese Literature.” Asian and African Studies (Bratislava) 14 (1978): 27-32.

—–. “Suggestions Regarding Periodization of Liteature in the People’s Republic of China.” Asian and African Studies (Bratislava) 16 (1980): 153-59.

The Giants Within: A Portrait of Chinese Writers. 13 part video tapes. Taibei: Spring International, 1998.

Giafferri-Huang, Xiaomin. Le roman chinois depuis 1949. Paris: Presses Universitaires de France, 1991.

Guo Tingli 郭延礼. Zhongguo jindai wenxue fazhan shi 中国近代文学发展史 (History of the development of modern Chinese literature). 3 vols. Ji’nan: Shandong jiaoyu, 1990. [vol. 1, 1840-1873; vol 2, 1873-1905; vol. 3, 1905-1919]

Herdan, Innes. The Pen and the Sword: Literature and Revolution in Modern China. London: Red Books, 1992.

Hong, Zicheng. A History of Contemporary Chinese Literature. Tr. Michael Day. Brill, 2007.

[Abstract: This groundbreaking book by the eminent Peking University professor Hong Zicheng covers the literary scene in China during the 1949-1999 period, primarily focusing on fiction, poetry, drama, and prose writing. Reprinted sixteen times since its publication in the PRC in 1999 it is now available in English translation at last. The first section of the book deals with the 1949-1976 period. Often derided and ignored as an arid era for literature by both Chinese and overseas critics, Professor Hong describes the literature that was popular and officially acceptable at the time, and the cultural policies and political campaigns that shaped the tastes of readers and the literary creativity of writers during the period. This part of the book is remarkable for Professor Hong’s candidness and open-mindedness, qualities that would have made this text difficult to publish at an earlier date in China. Furthermore, the platform that the first part of the text provides renders the second part even more understandable to readers unfamiliar with the post-1976 literary scene – and offers new insights to those who are familiar with it – demonstrating as it does the close links between the two distinctive eras. These links are provided by the resumption of literary traditions that had been more-or-less abandoned during the preceding ten-year period, as well as reactions against literature nurtured and guided by the state cultural apparatus. The second part of the book consists of a comprehensive description of developments – and insightful explanations of those developments – in the literary arts and literary criticism since 1976.]

Hsia, C. T. A History of Modern Chinese Fiction. New Haven: Yale University Press,  1961, second edition, 1971. Third edition: Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1999.

Huang, Nicole. “War, Revolution, and Urban Transformations: Chinese Literature of the Republican Era, 1920s-1940s.” In Yingjin Zhang, ed., A Companion to Modern Chinese Literature. Chicester: Wiley Blackwell, 2016, 67-80.

Lai, Ming. A History of Chinese Literature. W/preface by Lin Yutang. NY: Capricorn Books, 1964. [pp. 346-400 deal with modern literature]

Lee, Leo Ou-fan. “Literary Trends I: The Quest for Modernity, 1895-1927.” In The Cambridge History of China. Fairbank and Feuerwerker, eds. Cambridge UP, 1989, 12: 452-504

—–. “Literary Trends II: The Road to Revolution, 1927-1949.” In The Cambridge History of China. Fairbank and Feuerwerker, eds. Cambridge UP, 1989, 13: 421-491.

Louie, Kam and Bonnie McDougall. The Literature of China in the Twentieth Century. NY: Columbia UP, 1997.

McDougall, Bonnie S. “Chinese Literature, 1900 to the Present.” The Literary Encyclopedia. The Literary Dictionary Company, 2007.

Monsterleet, Jean. Sommets de la litterature chinoise contemporaine. Paris: Editions Domat, 1953.

[includes a general overview of the literary renaissance from 1917-1950, as well as sections on Novel (with chapters on Ba Jin, Mao Dun, Lao She and Shen Congwen), Stories and Essays (with chapters on Lu Xun, Zhou Zuoren, Bing Xin, and Su Xuelin), Theater (Cao Yu, Guo Moruo), and Poetry (Xu Zhimo, Wen Yiduo, Bian Zhilin, Feng Zhi, and Ai Qing).]

Nienhauser, William and Howard Goldblatt. “Modern Chinese Literature.” Britannica.com.

Rojas, Carlos and Andrea Bachner, eds. The Oxford Handbook of Modern Chinese Literature. NY: Oxford University Press, 2016.

Scott, A.C. Literature and the Arts in Twentieth Century China. NY: Doubleday, 1963.

Spence, Jonathan. 1981. The Gate of Heavenly Peace: The Chinese and Their Revolution 1895-1980. New York: The Viking Press.

Su, Hsueh-lin. “Present Day Fiction and Drama in China.” In Joseph Schyns, ed., 1500 Modern Chinese Novels and Plays. Beiping (Peiping): 1948.

Tang, Tao. History of Modern Chinese Literature. Beijing: Foreign Languages Press, 1993.

Ting, Yi. A Short History of Modern Chinese Literature. Peking: FLP, 1959.

Wang, David Der-Wei, ed. A New Literary History of Modern China. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2016.

Yang Yi 杨义. Zhongguo xiandai xiaoshuo shi 中国现代小说史 (History of modern Chinese fiction). 3 vols. Beijing: Renmin wenxue, 1986-98.

Xie, Mian. The Ideological Transformation of 20th Century Chinese Literature. Beijing: Enrich Professional, 2015.

[Abstract: The 20th century was an era of tremendous changes for Chinese society, and these changes shaped the development of Chinese literature as revealed in The Ideological Transformation of 20th Century Chinese Literature. Rulers in the late-Qing dynasty era were subjected to unwilling reforms which saw the abolition of the “eight-legged” essays and the imperial examination as these had notoriously restricted the thinking of the Chinese literati. Shortly after the fall of the Qing, leaders of the New Culture Movement started to promote vernacular literature, stressed the need for a re-examination of the ancient classics, and championed the popularization of Western values. After that, Chinese literature was taken on a completely different trajectory, not only in stylistic terms but also in ideological ones. The Ideological Transformation of 20th Century Chinese Literature is the fruit of poet and critic Xie Mian’s decades-long study of contemporary Chinese literature during his earlier years as a professor at Peking University. Grouped thematically and in accordance with the periods in discussion, this collection of nearly 50 essays provides an integrated examination of the historical backdrop and ideologies that underpinned Chinese literature from the days of the New Culture Movement to the New Era beyond the Cultural Revolution through a mix of microscopic criticisms and macroscopic overviews.]

Zhang, Yinde. Le roman chinois moderne 1918-1949. Paris: Presses Universitaires de France, 1992

Zhang, Yingjin, ed. A Companion to Modern Chinese Literature. Chichester, UK: Wiley Blackwell, 2016.

[Abstract: This wide-ranging Companion provides a vital overview of modern Chinese literature in different geopolitical areas, from the 1840s to now. It reviews major accomplishments of Chinese literary scholarship published in Chinese and English and brings attention to previously neglected, important areas. Offers the most thorough and concise coverage of modern Chinese literature to date, drawing attention to previously neglected areas such as late Qing, Sinophone, and ethnic minority literature. Several chapters explore literature in relation to Sinophone geopolitics, regional culture, urban culture, visual culture, print media, and new media. The introduction and two chapters furnish overviews of the institutional development of modern Chinese literature in Chinese and English scholarship since the mid-twentieth century. Contributions from leading literary scholars in mainland China and Hong Kong add their voices to international scholarship.] 


Late Qing (1895-1911)

A Ying 阿英. WanQing wenxue congchao 晚清文学丛抄 (Compendium of late Qing literature). Beijing Zhonghua shuju, 1962.

—–. WanQing xiaoshuo shi 晚清小说史 (History of late Qing fiction). Nanjing: Jiangsu wenyi, 2009.

Andrs, Dusan. Formulation of Fictionality: Discourse on Fiction in China between 1904 and 1915. Ph.d. Diss. Prague: Charles University, 2000.

Anonymous. “The New Novel Before the New Novel: John Fryer’s Fiction Contest.” In Judith T. Zeitlin and Lydia Liu, with Ellen Widmer, eds., Writing and Materiality in China: Essays in Honor of Patrick Hanan. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Asia Center, 2003, 317-40.

Blitstein, Pablo Ariel. “From ‘Ornament’ to ‘Literature’: An Uncertain Substitution in Nineteenth-Twentieth Century China.” Modern Chinese Literature and Culture 28, 1  (Spring 2016): 222-272.

Chabrowski, Igor Iwo. “Reforming the State and Constructing Commercial Opera in Sichuan, 1902–1920s: An Entangled History of Performing Arts and Administrative Reforms.” Modern China 44, 5 (2018).

[Abstract: This article analyzes the thorough reformulation of opera in Sichuan in the first two decades of the twentieth century. It argues that theater developed in Sichuan during the eighteenth century as a part of the social and religious life of market towns and cities and that it was indivisibly connected with the political and administrative structure of the country. As such, it was fragmented along musical, dialectic, and geographic lines. The introduction of the New Policies in 1905, which most affected the largest urban centers such as Chengdu and Chongqing, was the main cause of organizational reconstruction of theatrical performances. They changed both opera’s place in social life and the way it was produced and staged. Within the new legal framework, opera was placed under the Company Law and therefore moved from the sphere of festivity to that of business, while playhouses’ prosperity was bound with the police departments that taxed and protected them. The mutual dependence of law enforcement and entertainment persisted during the early Republic and was revived in the 1930s, making theaters among the most stable and important institutions of early twentieth-century Sichuan cities. The Sichuan opera we know now is a product of this historical process. The study of the institutional development of opera shows the aims, scope, and limitations of the political reforms that reshaped China in the late Qing and Republican periods.]

Chan, Leo Tak-hung. “Liberal Versions: Late Qing Approaches to Translating Aesop’s Fables.” In David Pollard, ed., Translation and Creation: Readings of Western Literature in Early Modern China. Amsterdan, Philadelphia: J. Benjamins, 1998, 57-78.

Chang, Hao. Chinese Intellectuals in Crisis: Search for Order and Meaning, 1890-1911. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1987.

Chen, Dakeng. “The Price of Novels in the Late Qing Dynasty.” Frontiers of Literary Studies in China 1, 1 (Feb. 2007): 125-34.

Chen, Jianhua. “The Late Qing Poetry Revolution: Liang Qichao, Huang Zunxian, and Chinese Literary Modernity.” In Joshua Mostow, ed, and Kirk A. Denton, China section, ed., Columbia Companion to Modern East Asian Literatures. NY: Columbia UP, 2003, 333-40. Rpt. in Denton, ed, Columbia Companion to Modern Chinese Literature. NY: Columbia University Press, 2016, 89-96.

—–. “Zhou Shoujuan’s Love Stories and Mandarin Ducks and Butterfly Fiction.” In Joshua Mostow, ed, and Kirk A. Denton, China section, ed., Columbia Companion to Modern East Asian Literatures. NY: Columbia UP, 2003, 354-63. Rpt. in Denton, ed, Columbia Companion to Modern Chinese Literature. NY: Columbia University Press, 2016, 111-20.

Chen, Liana. “The Empress Dowager as Dramaturg: Reinventing Late-Qing Court Theatre.” Nannu: Men, Women and Gender in China 14, 1 (2012): 21-46.

Chen, Pingyuan 陈平原. “The Modern Transition of Chinese Novel.” Sungkyun Journal of East Asian Studies 2, 1 (Feb. 2002): 44- 67.

—–. Zhongguo xiandai xiaoshuo de qidian: Qingmo Minchu xiaoshuo yanjiu 中国现代小说的起点: 清末民初小说研究 (The starting point for modern Chinese fiction: studies in late Qing and early Republican fiction). Beijing: Beijing daxue, 2005.

Cheng, Stephen. Flowers of Shanghai and the Late Qing Courtesan Novel. Ph. D. diss. Cambridge: Harvard University, 1979.

Chin, Carol C. “Translating the New Woman: Chinese Feminists View of the West, 1905-1915.” Gender and History 18, 5 (Nov. 2006): 490-518.

Chow, Kai-wing. “Imagining Boundaries of Blood: Zhang Binglin and the Invention of the Han ‘Race’ in Modern China.” In Frank Dikotter, ed., The Construction of Racial Identities in China and Japan: Historical and Contemporary Perspectives. London: Hurst, 1997, 34-52.

Denton, Kirk A. “Introduction.” In Denton, Modern Chinese Literary Thought: Writings on Literature, 1893-1945. Stanford: Stanford UP, 1996, 1-61.

Des Forges, Alexander. Street Talk and Alley Stories: Tangled Narratives of Shanghai from Lives of Shanghai Flowers (1892) to Midnight (1933). Ph.D. diss. Princeton: Princeton University, 1998.

—–. “From Source Texts to ‘Reality Observed’: The Creation of the ‘Author’ in Nineteenth-Century Vernacular Fiction.” Chinese Literature: Essays, Articles and Reviews 22 (2000): 67-84.

—–. “The Uses of Fiction: Liang Qichao and His Contemporaries.” In Joshua Mostow, ed, and Kirk A. Denton, China section, ed., Columbia Companion to Modern East Asian Literatures. NY: Columbia UP, 2003, 341-47. Rpt. in Denton, ed, Columbia Companion to Modern Chinese Literature. NY: Columbia University Press, 2016, 97-103.

—–. “Building Shanghai, One Page at a Time: The Aesthetics of Installment Fiction at the Turn of the Century.” The Journal of Asian Studies 62, 3 (Aug. 2003): 781-810.

—–. Mediasphere Shanghai: The Aesthetics of Cultural Production. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 2007. [MCLC Resource Center review by Chris Berry]

—–. “Professional Anxiety, Brand Names, and Wild Chickens: From 1909.” In Carlos Rojas and Eileen Cheng-yin Chow, eds., Rethinking Chinese Popular Culture: Cannibalizations of the Canon. NY: Routledge, 2009, 40-53.

Dolezelova-Velingerova, Milena. “The Origins of Modern Chinese Literature.” In Merle Goldman, ed., Modern Chinese Literature in the May Fourth Era. Cambridge: Harvard UP, 1977, 17-36.

—–, ed. The Chinese Novel at the Turn of the Century. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1980.

—–. “Literary Historiography in Early Twentieth-Century China (1904-1928): Construction of Cultural Memory.” In Milena Dolezelova-Velingerova and Oldrich Kral, eds., The Appropriation of Cultural Capital: China’s May Fourth Project. Cambridge: Harvard University Asia Center, 2001, 123-66.

—–. “Fiction from the End of the Empire to the Beginning of the Republic (1897-1916).” In Victor H. Mair, ed. The Columbia History of Chinese Literature. NY: Columbia UP, 2001, 697-731.

—— and Rudolf Wagner, eds. Chinese Encyclopaedias of New Global Knowledge (1870-1930). Berlin: Springer Verlag, 2014.

Drunken Whiskers. That Chinese Woman: The Life of Sai-Chin-Hua. Tr. Henry McAleavy. London: Allen and Unwin, 1959; New York: Crowell 1959.

Feng, Jin. The New Woman in Early Twentieth-Century Chinese Fiction. Lafayette, IN: Purdue UP, 2004. [“Introduction to The New Woman in Early Twentieth-Century Chinese Fiction.” Comparative Literature and Culture: A WWWeb Journal 6, 4 (Dec. 2004).]

—–. “The Great (Surrogate) Mother of the West: The Genealogy of Masculinity in Yung Wing’s My Life in China and America.” Tamkang Review XXXV, 1 (Autumn 2004): 57-78.

Fogel, Joshua and Peter Zarrow, eds. Imagining the People: Chinese Intellectuals and the Concept of Citizenship, 1890-1920. Armonk, NY: M.E. Sharpe, 1997.

Fong, Grace S., Nanxiu Qian, and Harriet Zurndorfer, eds., “Beyond Tradition and Modernity: Gender, Genre, and Cosmopolitanism in Late Qing China.” Special issue of Nan Nu: Men, Women, and Gender in China6, 1 (2004).

Furth, Charlotte . “Intellectual Change: From the Reform Movement to the May Fourth Movement, 1895-1920.” In Merle Goldman an Leo Ou-fan Lee, eds., An Intellectual History of Modern China. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 2002, 13-96.

Gimpel, Denise. “A Neglected Medium: The Literary Journal and the Case of The Short Story Magazine (Xiaoshuo yuebao), 1910-1914.” Modern Chinese Literature and Culture 11, 2 (Fall 1999): 53-106.

—–. Lost Voices of Modernity: A Chinese Popular Fiction Magazine in Context. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 2001.

Green, Frederik H. “Painted in Oil, Composed in Ink: Late-Qing Ekphrastic Poetry and the Encounter with Western-Style Painting.” Frontiers of Literary Studies in China 9, 4 (Dec. 2015): 525-50.

Guan, Aihe. “The Traditional and Modern Conflicts of the Literary Innovation at the Threshold of the 20th Century.” Frontiers of Literary Studies in China 2, 4 (Dec. 2008): 583-98.

Guo, Yanli. “An Introduction to Modern Chinese Female Literature.” Sungkyun Journal of East Asian Studies 3, 2 (2003): 109-22.

Hamm, John Christopher. “Reading the Swordsman’s Tale: Shisanmei and Ernu yingxiong zhuan.” T’oung Pao 84 (1998): 328-55.

Hanan, Patrick. “The Missionary Novels of Nineteenth-Century China.” Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies LX, 2 (2000): 413-44.

—–. “A Study in Acculturation–The First Novels Translated into Chinese.” Chinese Literature: Essays, Articles and Reviews 23 (2002): 55-80.

—–. Chinese Fiction of the Nineteenth and Early Twentieth Centuries. NY: Columbia UP, 2004.

[Abstract: It has often been said that the nineteenth century was a relatively stagnant period for Chinese fiction, but preeminent scholar Patrick Hanan shows that the opposite is true: the finest novels of the nineteenth century show a constant experimentation and evolution. In this collection of detailed and insightful essays, Hanan examines Chinese fiction before and during the period in which Chinese writers first came into contact with western fiction. Hanan explores the uses made of fiction by westerners in China; the adaptation and integration of western methods in Chinese fiction; and the continued vitality of the Chinese fictional tradition. Some western missionaries, for example, wrote religious novels in Chinese, almost always with the aid of native assistants who tended to change aspects of the work to “fit” Chinese taste. Later, such works as Washington Irving’s “Rip Van Winkle,” Jonathan Swift’s “A Voyage to Lilliput,” the novels of Jules Verne, and French detective stories were translated into Chinese. These interventions and their effects are explored here for virtually the first time. Contents: (1) The Narrator’s Voice Before the “Fiction Revolution”; (2) Illusion of Romance and the Courtesan Novel; (3) The Missionary Novels of the Nineteenth Century; (4) The First Novel Translated Into Chinese; (5) The Translated Fiction in the Early Shen Bao; (6) The New Novel Before the New Novel—John Fryer’s Fiction Contest; (7) The Second Stage of Vernacular Translation; (8) Wu Jianren and the Narrator; (9) Specific Literary Relations of Sea of Regret; (10) The Autobiographical Romance of Chen Diexian; (11) The Technique of Lu Xun’s Fiction]

Harrell, Paula. Sowing the Seeds of Change: Chinese Students, Japanese Teachers, 1895-1905. Stanford: Stanford UP, 1992.

Heroldova, Helena. “Glass Submarines and Electric Balloons: Creating Scientific and Technical Vocabulary in Chinese Science Fiction.” In Lackner, Michael and Natascha Vittinghoff, eds. Mapping Meanings: The Field of New Learning in Late Qing China. Leiden: Brill, 2004, 537-554.

Hon, Tze-ki. “National Essence, National Learning, and Culture: Historical Writings in Guocui xuebao, Xueheng, and Guoxue jikan.” Historiography East and West 1, 2 (2003): 241-86.

—–. Revolution as Restoration: Guocui xuebao and China’s Path to Modernity, 1905-1911. Leiden: Brill, 2013. [MCLC Resource Center review by Peter Zarrow]

[Abstract: Revolution as Restoration examines the journal Guocui xuebao (1905-1911) to elucidate the momentous political and social changes in early twentieth-century China. Rather than viewing the journal as a collection of documents for studying a thinker (e.g., Zhang Taiyan), a concept (e.g., national essence), or an intellectual movement (e.g., cultural conservatism), this book focuses on the global network of commerce and communication that allowed independent publications to appear in the Chinese print market. As such, this book offers a different perspective on the Chinese quest for modernity. It shows that, from the start, the Chinese quest for modernity was never completely orchestrated by the central government, nor was it static and monolithic as the teleology of revolution describes.]

Hsia, C.T. “Yen Fu and Liang Ch’i-ch’ao as Advocates of New Fiction.” In A. Rickett, ed., Chinese Approaches to Literature from Confucius to Liang Ch’i-ch’ao. Princeton: PUP, 1978, 221-57.

Hu, Ying. “Reconfiguring Nei/Wai: Writing the Woman Traveler in the Late Qing.” Late Imperial China 18, 1 (1997): 72-99.

—–. Tales of Translation: Composing the New Woman in China, 1898-1918. Stanford: Stanford UP, 2000.

—–. “Naming the First New Woman: The Case of Kang Aide.” NAN NÜ: Men, Women and Gender in Early and Imperial China 3, 2 (2001).

—–. “Naming the First ‘New Woman.'” In Rebecca E. Karl and Peter Zarrow, eds., Rethinking the 1898 Reform Period: Political and Cultural Change in late Qing China. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Asia Center, 2002.

—–. “Late Qing Fiction.” In Joshua Mostow, ed, and Kirk A. Denton, China section, ed., Columbia Companion to Modern East Asian Literatures. NY: Columbia UP, 2003, 348-54. Rpt. in Denton, ed, Columbia Companion to Modern Chinese Literature. NY: Columbia University Press, 2016, 104-110.

—–. “‘How Can a Daughter Glorify the Family Name?’ Filiality and Women’s Rights in the Late Qing.” Nannu: Men, Women and Gender in China 11, 2 (2009): 234-69.

[Abstract: This paper examines married daughters’ filiality toward their natal families through three case studies. The protagonists are Qiu Jin (1875?-1907), Wu Zhiying (1868-1934) and Xu Zihua (1873-1935). Using the lens of filiality, we are able to observe the finer nuances of their gendered self-conception within the context of the rapidly changing world at the end of China’s imperial era. I argue that the language and sentiment of filiality facilitated a substantial broadening of women’s rights: in expanding what a literati daughter can claim as her intellectual inheritance, in providing the basis of a legal argument for a daughter’s inheritance rights, and in offering a conduit for the experience of women’s participation in political changes.]

—–. “Late Qing Literature, 1890s-1910s.” In Yingjin Zhang, ed. A Companion to Modern Chinese Literature. Chichester, UK: Wiley Blackwell, 2016, 54-66.

—–. Burying Autumn: Poetry, Friendship, and Loss. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Asia Center, 2016.

Hung, Eva. “Giving Texts a Context: Chinese Translations of Classical English Detective Stories, 1896-1916.” In David Pollard, ed., Translation and Creation: Readings of Western Literature in Early Modern China. Amsterdan, Philadelphia: J. Benjamins, 1998, 25-36.

Huntington, Rania. “The Weird in the Newspaper.” In Judith T. Zeitlin and Lydia Liu, with Ellen Widmer, eds., Writing and Materiality in China: Essays in Honor of Patrick Hanan. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Asia Center, 2003, 341-97. [deals mostly with the Dianshizhai huabao]

Huters, Theodore. “From Writing to Literature: The Development of Late Qing Theories of Prose.” Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies 47, 1 (1987): 50-96.

—–. “A New Way of Writing: The Possibility for Literature in Late Qing China, 1895-1908.” Modern China 14, 3 (1988): 243-76.

—–. “Between Praxis and Essence: The Search for Cultural Expression in the Chinese Revolution.” In Arif Dirlik and Maurice Meisner eds., Marxism and the Chinese Experience. Armonk, NY: M. E. Sharpe, 1989, 316-37.

—–. Bringing the World Home: Appropriating the West in Late Qing and Early Republican China. Honolulu: University of Hawai’i Press, 2005. [MCLC Resource Center review by Bonnie S. McDougall]

Jin, Wen. “Sentimentalism’s Translational Journeys: Bitter Society and Lin Shu’s Translation of Uncle Tom’s Cabin.” Modern Chinese Literature and Culture 26, 1 (Spring 2014): 105-140.

Jin, Yuan. “The Influence of Translated Fiction on Chinese Romantic Fiction.” In David Pollard, ed., Translation and Creation: Readings of Western Literature in Early Modern China. Amsterdam, Philadelphia: J. Benjamins, 1998, 283-302.

Judge, Joan. “Reforming the Feminine: Female Literacy and the Legacy of 1898.” In Rebecca E. Karl and Peter Zarrow, eds., Rethinking the 1898 Reform Period: Political and Cultural Change in late Qing China. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Asia Center, 2002.

—–. “Key Words in the Late Qing Reform Discourse: Classical and Contemporary Sources of Authority.” Indiana East Asian Working Paper Series on Language and Politics in Modern China.

Karl, Rebecca E.. “‘Slavery,’ Citizenship, and Gender in Late Qing China’s Global Contexts.” In Rebecca E. Karl and Peter Zarrow, eds., Rethinking the 1898 Reform Period: Political and Cultural Change in late Qing China. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Asia Center, 2002, 212-44.

Karl, Rebecca E. and Peter Zarrow, eds. Rethinking the 1898 Reform Period: Political and Cultural Change in late Qing China. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Asia Center, 2002.

Kaske, Elisabeth. “Mandarin, Vernacular and National Language–China’s Emerging Concept of a National Language in the Early Twentieth Century.” In Lackner, Michael and Natascha Vittinghoff, eds. Mapping Meanings: The Field of New Learning in Late Qing China. Leiden: Brill, 2004, 265-304.

—–. The Politics of Language in Chinese Education, 1895-1919. Leiden: Brill, 2008.

[Abstract: The study examines the origins of the “literary revolution” proclaimed in 1917 which laid the foundation for the replacement of the classical language by the vernacular as China’s national language and medium of national literature. A unique, multifaceted approach is used to explain the political significance of the classical/vernacular divide against the backdrop of social change that followed the Sino-Japanese War of 1894-5. Seeing education as the central battleground for all debates on language, the study in six thoroughly documented chapters investigates the language policy of the Qing and Republican governments, vernacular journalism of the revolutionaries, the activities of urban script reformers, the linguistic thought of the national essence advocates, and the emergence of a scholarly interest in the vernacular in academic circles.]

Keulemans, Paize. “Recreating the Storyteller Image: Publishing Martial Arts Fiction to Renew the Public in the Late Qing.” Twentieth-Century China 29, 2 (April 2004): 7-38.

—–. “Printing the Sound of Cosmopolitan Beijing: Dialect Accents in Nineteenth-Century Martial Arts Fiction.” In Cynthia Brokaw and Christopher A. Reed, eds., From Woodblocks to the Internet: Chinese Publishing and Print Culture in Transition, circa 1800 to 2008. Leiden, Brill, 2010, 159-84.

—–. Sound Rising from the Paper: Nineteenth-Century Martial Arts Fiction and the Chinese Acoustic Imagination. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Asia Center, 2014. [MCLC Resource Center review by Mengjun Li]

[Abstract: Chinese martial arts novels from the late nineteenth century are filled with a host of suggestive sounds. Characters cuss and curse in colorful dialect accents, vendor calls ring out from bustling marketplaces, and martial arts action scenes come to life with the loud clash of swords and the sounds of bodies colliding. What is the purpose of these sounds, and what is their history? In Sound Rising from the Paper, Keulemans answers these questions by critically reexamining the relationship between martial arts novels published in the final decades of the nineteenth century and earlier storyteller manuscripts. He finds that by incorporating, imitating, and sometimes inventing storyteller sounds, these novels turned the text from a silent object into a lively simulacrum of festival atmosphere, thereby transforming the solitary act of reading into the communal sharing of an oral performance. By focusing on the role sound played in late nineteenth-century martial arts fiction, Keulemans offers alternatives to the visual models that have dominated our approach to the study of print culture, the commercialization of textual production, and the construction of the modern reading subject.]

Knight, Sabina. “Predicaments of Modernity in Late-Qing Novels, 1895-1911.” In The Heart of Time: Moral Agency in Twentieth-Century Chinese Fiction. Cambridge: Harvard University Asia Center, 2006, 51-72.

Kockum, Keiko. Japanese Achievement, Chinese Inspiration: A Study of the Japanese Influence on the Modernisation of the Late Qing Novel. Stockholm: Orientaliska Studier, 1990.

Kowallis, Jon. “Melancholy in Late Qing and Early Republican Verse.” In Wolfgang Kubin, ed., Symbols of Anguish: In Search of Melancholy in China. Bern: Peter Lang, 2001, 289-314.

—–. The Subtle Revolution: Poets of the “Old Schoos” during Late Qing and Early Republican China. Berkeley: Center for Chinese Studies, University of California, 2006.

Kwong, S.K. A Mosaic of the Hundred Days: Personalities, Politics and Ideas of 1898. Cambridge, MA: Council on East Asian Studies, Harvard University, 1984.

Lackner, Michael, Iwo Amelung, and Joachim Kurtz, eds. New Terms for New Ideas: Western Knowledge and Lexical China in Late Imperial China. Boston, Koln: Leiden, 2001.

Lackner, Michael and Natascha Vittinghoff, eds. Mapping Meanings: The Field of New Learning in Late Qing China. Leiden: Brill, 2004.

[AbstractMapping Meanings is essentially a broad-ranged introduction to China’s intellectual entry into the family of nations. Written by a fine selection of experts, it guides the reader into the terrain of China’s (late Qing) encounter with Western knowledge and modern sciences, and at the same time connects convincingly to the broader question of the mobility of knowledge. The late Qing literati’s pursue of New Learning was a transnational practice inseparable from the local context. Mapping Meanings therefore attempts to highlight what the encountered global knowledge could have meant to specific social actors in the specific historical situation. Subjects included are the transformation of the examination system, the establishment of academic disciplines, and new social actors and questions of new terminologies.]

Larson, Wendy. “Psychology and Freudian Sexual Theory in Early 20th Century China.” In Larson, From Ah Q to Lei Feng: Freud and Revolutionary Spirit in 20th Century China. Stanford: Stanford UP, 2009, 31-76.

Lee, Haiyan. “All the Feelings That Are Fit to Print: The Community of Sentiment and the Literary Public Sphere in China, 1900-1918.” Modern China 27, no. 3 (July 2001): 291-327.

—–. Revolution of the Heart: A Genealogy of Love in China, 1900-1950. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2006. [MCLC Resource Center review by Charles Laughlin]

Lee, Mabel. “Chinese Women and Social Change: A Theme in Late Ch’ing Fiction and Its Subsequent Development.” In Gungwu Wang, ed., Society and the Writer: Essays on Literature in Modern Asia. Canberra: Research School of Pacific Studies, The Australian National University, 1981, 123-38.

Li, Danke. “Popular Culture in the Making of Anti-Imperialist and Nationalist Sentiments in Sichuan.” Modern China 30, 4 (Oct. 2004): 470-505.

[Abstract: Existing Western scholarship on the rights recovery movement in Sichuan mainly focuses on the role played by elites. This article argues that popular culture, in the form of folk stories, songs, and children’s primers, also contributed to that movement by shaping and expressing popular anti-imperialist attitudes. Its analysis of primers available in late Qing Sichuan and popular stories about the activities of foreigners prevalent in the early 1900s serves to reveal a rich local cultural milieu of time-nurtured anti-imperialist sentiment among common people, which broadly influenced local political action. The protests over the Jiangbei mining concession encompassed both elite and ordinary people, although each group understood the issue differently.]

Li, Hsiao-t’i. Opera, Society, and Politics: Chinese Intellectuals and Popular Culture, 1901-1937. Ph. D. diss. Cambridge: Harvard University, 1996.

—–. “Making a Name and a Culture for the Masses in China.” positions: east asia cultures critique 9, 1 (Spring 2001): 29-68.

Li, Wai-yee. Women and National Trauma in Late Imperial Chinese Literature. Harvard-Yenching Institute Monograph Series 92. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Asia Center, 2014.

Li, Yuhang. “Oneself as a Female Deity: Representations of Empress Dowager Cixi as Guanyin.” Nannu: Men, Women and Gender in China 14, 1 (2012): 75-118.

Liang, Samuel Y. Mapping Modernity in Shanghai: Space, Gender, and Visual Culture in the Sojourners’ City, 1853-98. NY: Routledge, 2010.

[Abstract: This book argues that modernity first arrived in late nineteenth-century Shanghai via a new spatial configuration. This city’s colonial capitalist development ruptured the traditional configuration of self-contained households, towns, and natural landscapes in a continuous spread, producing a new set of fragmented as well as fluid spaces. In this process, Chinese sojourners actively appropriated new concepts and technology rather than passively responding to Western influences. Liang maps the spatial and material existence of these transient people and reconstructs a cultural geography that spreads from the interior to the neighbourhood and public spaces.]

Lin, Shaoyang. “Making National History with Literary History: Hegel’s Influence via Taine on Meiji Japan and the Late Qing and Early Republican China.” Frontiers of Literary Studies in China 9, 2 (2015): 160-89.

[Abstract: The essay sheds lights on the process of the making of national history with literary history in modern Japan and its influences on modern China. It argues that the simultaneous establishment of modern Japanese historiography and the writing of literary history in Japan had a direct impact on the establishment of Chinese historiography in the late Qing, and the writing of Chinese literary history in twentieth-century China. It will focus more on the philosophical ideas of Taine and Hegel and their influence in Japanese literary historiography and, due to the limited length of this paper, only by extension, that of China as well. The primary focus of this paper is the interaction of the modern Japanese and Chinese pursuit of new historical narratives in the construction of new national and cultural identities in the context of global modernity. It also stresses that, an invisible “origin,” the writing of Chinese (literary) history in the early twentieth-century, ironically, directly and indirectly, has been internalized by the writing of Japanese national history in an exclusive framework of nation-building.]

Liu, Jen-Peng. “The Disposition of Hierarchy and the Late Qing Discourse of Gender Equality.” Inter-Asia Cultural Studies 2, 1 (April 2001): 69-79.

Liu, Jianmei. “Nation, Women, and Gender in the Late Qing.” In Tao Dongfeng, Yang Xiaobin, Rosemary Roberts, and Yang Ling, eds. Chinese Revolution and Chinese Literature. Cambridge: University of Cambridge Press, 2009, 71-92.

Liu, Joyce C. H. “Force of Psyche: Electricity or Void? Re-examination of the Hermeneutics of the Force of Psyche in Late Qing China.” In Peng Hsiao-yen and Isabelle Rabut, eds., Modern China and the West: Translation and Cultural Mediation. Leiden: Brill, 2014, 151-81.

Liu, Lydia, ed. Tokens of Exchange: The Problem of Translation in Global Circulations. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1999.

—–. “The Translator’s Turn: The Birth of Modern Chinese Language and Fiction.” In Victor H. Mair, ed. The Columbia History of Chinese Literature. NY: Columbia UP, 2001, 1055-1066.

Liu, Lydia, Rebecca Karl, and Dorothy Ko, eds. The Birth of Chinese Feminism: Essential Texts in Transnational Theory. NY: Columbia University Press, 2013.

[Abstract: He-Yin Zhen (ca. 1884-1920?) was a theorist who figured centrally in the birth of Chinese feminism. Unlike her contemporaries, she was concerned less with China’s fate as a nation and more with the relationship among patriarchy, imperialism, capitalism, and gender subjugation as global historical problems. This volume, the first translation and study of He-Yin’s work in English, critically reconstructs early twentieth-century Chinese feminist thought in a transnational context by juxtaposing He-Yin Zhen’s writing against works by two better-known male interlocutors of her time. The editors begin with a detailed analysis of He-Yin Zhen’s life and thought. They then present annotated translations of six of her major essays, as well as two foundational tracts by her male contemporaries, Jin Tianhe (1874-1947) and Liang Qichao (1873¡V1929), to which He-Yin’s work responds and with which it engages. Jin, a poet and educator, and Liang, a philosopher and journalist, understood feminism as a paternalistic cause that liberals like themselves should defend. He-Yin presents an alternative conception that draws upon anarchism and other radical trends. Ahead of her time, He-Yin Zhen complicates conventional accounts of feminism and China’s history, offering original perspectives on sex, gender, labor, and power that remain relevant today.]

Liu, Siyuan. Performing Hybridity in Colonial-Modern China. NY: Palgrave Macmillan, 2013.

[Abstract: n Shanghai during the early portion of the twentieth century, a hybrid theatrical form emerged that was based on Western spoken theatre, classical Chinese theatre, and a Japanese hybrid form ofkabuki and Western-style spoken theatre called shinpa (new school drama). Known as wenmingxi (civilized drama), this form has, until recently, largely been ignored by scholars in China and the West as it does not fit into the current binary “traditional/modern” model in non-Western theatre and performance studies. This book places wenmingxi in the context of its hybridized literary and performance elements, giving it a definitive place in modern Chinese theatre.]

Liu, Wei-p’ing. “The Poetry Revolution of the Late Ch’ing Period: A Reevaluation.” In A.R. Davis and A.D. Stefanowska, eds. Austrina Marricksville: Oriental Society of Australia, 1982, 188-99.

Martin, Helmut. “A Transitional Concept of Chinese Literature 1897-1917: Liang Qichao on Poetry Reform, Historical Drama and the Political Novel.” Oriens Extremus 20, 2 (1973): 175-217.

Ming, Feng-ying. “Baoyu in Wonderland: Technological Utopia in the Early Modern Chinese Science Fiction Novel.” In Yingjin Zhang, ed., China in a Polycentric World: Essays in Chinese Comparative Literature. Stanford: Stanford UP, 1998, 152-72.

Murthy, Viren. “The Politics of Fengjian in Late Qing and Early Republican China.” In Kai-wing Chow, Tze-ki Hon and Hung-yok Ip eds., Modernities as Local Practices, Nationalism, and Cultural Production: Deconstructing the May-Fourth Paradigm on Modern China. Lanham: Lexington Books, 2008.

Ng, Kenny K. K. “Ending as Beginning: Chinese. Translations of Edward Bellamy’s Utopian Novel Looking Backward: 2000–1887.Frontiers of Literary Studies in China 10, 1 (2016): 9-35.

[Abstract: The Chinese translation of Edward Bellamy’s Looking Backward: 2000–1887 (1887) at the turn of the twentieth century has been little studied, in spite of Bellamy’s obvious influence on Chinese intellectuals and reformist thinkers. Enthusiastically embraced by the intelligentsia as a gospel of social change, the utopian fiction has inspired subsequent Chinese writings of science fantasy in popular fiction. Bellamy’s tale centers on the adventure of time-traveler Julian West, a young Bostonian who is put into a hypnotic sleep in the late nineteenth century and awakens in the year 2000 in a socialist utopia. He discovers an ideally realized vision of the future, one unthinkable in his own century. This article argues that Chinese translators, in their conventional form of storytelling, have intentionally converted Bellamy’s original religious prophesy into a vision of a new and modernized state that is in line with the Chinese evolutionary historical imagination. It discusses the problematic of imagining the future by delineating the relationships of utopianism, social modernity, and temporality as the novel was written by an engaged American writer and then rendered into various Chinese versions by Western missionaries, Chinese intellectuals, and popular writers.]

Pan, Jianguo. “Metal Typography, Stone Lithography, and the Dissemination of Ming-Qing Popular Fictions in Shanghai between 1874-1911. Frontiers of Literary Studies in China 2, 4 (Dec. 2008): 561-582

Pollard, David E., ed. Translation and Creation: Reading of Western Literature in Early Modern China, 1840-1918. Amsterdam; Philadelphia: J. Benjamins, 1998.

Qian, Nanxiu. “Revitalizing the Xianyuan (Worthy Ladies) Tradition: Women in the 1898 Reforms.” Modern China 29, 4 (Oct. 2003): 399-454.

—–. Politics, Poetics, and Gender in Late Qing China: Xue Shaohui and the Era of Reform. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2015.

[Abstract: The “Hundred Day’s Reform” has received a great deal of attention from historians who have focused on the well-known male historical actors, but until now the Qing women reformers have received almost no consideration. In this book, historian Nanxiu Qian reveals the contributions of the active, optimistic, and self-sufficient women reformers of the late Qing Dynasty. Qian examines the late Qing reforms from the perspective of Xue Shaohui, a leading woman writer who openly argued against male reformers’ approach that subordinated women’s issues to larger national concerns, instead prioritizing women’s self-improvement over national empowerment. Drawing upon intellectual and spiritual resources from the freewheeling, xianyuan (worthy ladies) model of the Wei-Jin period of Chinese history (220–420) and the culture of women writers of late imperial China, and open to Western ideas and knowledge, Xue and the reform-minded members of her social and intellectual networks went beyond the inherited Confucian pattern in their quest for an ideal womanhood and an ideal social order. Demanding equal political and educational rights with men, women reformers challenged leading male reformers’ purpose of achieving national “wealth and power,” intending instead to unite women of all nations in an effort to create a just and harmonious new world.]

Rankin, Mary. Early Chinese Revolutionaries: Radical Intellectuals in Shanghai and Chekiang, 1902-1911. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1971.

Rea, Christopher. The Age of Irreverence: A New History of Laughter in China. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2015. [MCLC Resource Center review by David Moser]

Saari, Hon L. Legacies of Childhood: Growing Up Chinese in a Time of Crisis, 1890-1920. Cambridge, MA: Council on East Asian Studies, Harvard University, 1990.

Starr, Chloë F. “Shifting Boundaries: Gender in Pinhua Baojian.” Nan nü 1, 2 (1999): 268-302.

—–. “Narrating the Passage of Text: Reading Multiple Editions of the Nineteenth-century novel Huayue hen (Traces of Flowers and the Moon).” In Daria Berg, ed., Reading China. Leiden: Brill, 2006.

—–. Red-light Novels of the Late Qing. Leiden: Brill, 2007. [MCLC Resource Center review by John Christopher Hamm]

[Abstract: Chinese literature has traditionally been divided by both theorists and university course providers into ‘classical’ and ‘modern.’ This has left nineteenth-century fiction in limbo, and allowed negative assessments of its quality to persist unchecked. The popularity of Qing dynasty red-light fiction – works whose primary focus is the relationship between clients and courtesans, set in tea-houses, pleasure gardens, and later, brothels – has endured throughout the twentieth century. This volume explores why, arguing that these novels are far from the ‘low’ work of ‘frustrated scholars’ but in their provocative play on the nature of relations between client, courtesan and text, provide an insight into wider changes in understandings of self and literary value in the nineteenth century.]

Song, Gang. “A Paradox In-Between: The Dianshizhai Pictorial and Late 19th Century Chinese Literature.” The International Journal of the Humanities 2, 1 (n.d.).

Song, Mingwei. “The Adventures of Old Youth: Late Qing Travelers and Reformers.” In Song, Young China: National Rejuvenation and the Bildungsroman, 1900–1959. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Asia Center, 2015, 60-112.

Swislocki, Mark. “Imagining Irreconcilability: Cultural Differentiation through Human-Animal Relations in Late Qing Shanghai.” positions: asia critique 20, 4 (Fall 2012): 1159-1189.

Tang, Xiaobing. “‘Poetic Revolution,’ Colonization, and Form at the Beginning of Modern Chinese Literature.” In Rebecca E. Karl and Peter Zarrow, eds., Rethinking the 1898 Reform Period: Political and Cultural Change in late Qing China. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Asia Center, 2002.

Teruo, Tarumoto. “A Statistical Survey of Translated Fiction, 1840-1920.” In David Pollard, ed., Translation and Creation: Readings of Western Literature in Early Modern China. Amsterdan, Philadelphia: J. Benjamins, 1998, 37-42.

Tschanz, Dietrich. “The New Drama before the New Drama: Drama Journals and Drama Reform in Shanghai before the May Fourth Movement.” Theatre InSight 10, 1 (1999): 49-59.

Tsu, Jing. Failure, Nationalism, and Literature: The Making of a Modern Chinese Identity, 1895-1937. Palo Alto, CA: Stanford UP, 2005.

[Abstract: How often do we think of cultural humiliation and failure as strengths? Against prevailing views on what it means to enjoy power as individuals, cultures, or nations, this provocative book looks at the making of cultural and national identities in modern China as building success on failure. It reveals the exercise of sovereign power where we least expect it and shows how this is crucial to our understanding of a modern world of conflict, violence, passionate suffering, and cultural difference. ]

Tu, Wei-ming. “The Enlightenment Mentality and the Chinese Intellectual Dilemma.” In K. Lieberthal et al., eds., Perspectives on Modern China: Four Anniversaries. Armonk: M.E. Sharpe, 1991, 103-18.

Wang, Cheng-hua. “‘Going Public’: Portraits of the Empress Dowager Cixi, Circa 1904.” Nannu: Men, Women and Gender in China 14, 1 (2012): 119-76.

Wang, David Der-wei. Fin-de-siecle Splendor: Repressed Modernities of Late Qing Fiction, 1848-1911. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1997.

[Abstract: The reigning view of literary historians has been that the May Fourth movement of 1919 marks the division between the traditional and the modern in Chinese literature. This book argues that signs of reform and innovation can be discerned long before May Fourth, and that as China entered the arena of modern, international history in the late Qing, it was already developing its own complex matrix of incipient modernities. It demonstrates that late Qing fiction nurtured a creative, innovative poetics, one that was spurned by the reformers of the May Fourth generation in favor of Western-style realism. The author recognizes that a full account of modern Chinese fiction needs to ask why so many genres, styles, themes, and figures found in late imperial fiction were repressed by “modern” Chinese literary discourse. He focuses on four genres of late Qing fiction that have been either rudely dismissed in pejorative terms or simply ignored: depravity romances, court-case and chivalric cycles, grotesque expose, and scientific fantasies. The author shows that in spite of the realist orthodoxy that has dominated Chinese literature since the May Fourth movement, these unwelcome genres have continually found their way back into mainstream discourse, their influence being increasingly evident in recent decades. This first comprehensive study of late Qing fiction discusses more than sixty works, at least half of which have rarely or never been dealt with by Western or Chinese scholars. Richly informed by contemporary literary theory, this book constitutes a polemical rethinking of the nature of Chinese literary and cultural modernity.]

—–. “Translating Modernity.” In David Pollard, ed., Translation and Creation: Readings of Western Literature in Early Modern China. Amsterdan, Philadelphia: J. Benjamins, 1998, 303-329.

—–. “Return to Go: Fictional Innovation in the Late Qing and the Late Twentieth Century.” In Milena Dolezelova-Velingerova and Oldrich Kral, eds., The Appropriation of Cultural Capital: China’s May Fourth Project. Cambridge: Harvard University Asia Center, 2001, 257-97.

—-. “Nonconformism as Narrative Strategy: A Reappraisal of Late Ch’ing Fiction.” Asian Culture Quarterly 7, 2 (1984): 55-72.

—–. “Storytelling Context in Chinese Fiction: A Preliminary Examination of It as a Mode of Narrative Discourse.” Tamkang Review 6, 1 (1984/85): 133-50.

Wang, Dun. “Give Me a Day, and I Will Give You the World”: Chinese Fiction Periodicals in Global Context. Ph. D. diss. Berkeley: University of California, 2008.

—–. “The Late Qing’s Other Utopias: China’s Science-Fictional Imagination, 1900-1910.” Concentric: Literary and Cultural Studies 34, 2 (Sept. 2008).

[Abstract: This research paper examines the genesis and mechanism of China’s imagination of the future at the turn of the 20th century, a time when the country’s current socio-political reality was seen as being in many ways abominable, while the future was seen as a utopian dreamland of possibility and hope. An analysis of Wu Jianren’s the late Qing fiction The New Story of the Stone (1905), especially its second half which depicts the future China as a “Civilized Realm,” shows the influence on the young Chinese writers of contemporary Western science fiction and (especially) utopian fiction. It also shows that these late Qing writers wanted to portray their imagined China of the future as being “better” than the contemporary West (and also future West of Western utopian narratives) inasmuch as it will be using (originally Western) technology in a manner which is fundamentally moral and spiritual, as befits China’s traditional culture. Here the key contrast is between, on the one hand, ancient (Confucian, Daoist) Chinese civilization, moral idealism and spirituality, and on the other hand (contemporary and future) Western barbarism, empiricism, materialism, pragmatism, a “non-humanism” which seems to ignore moral and spiritual life. The author points out that Wu Jianren’s future Chinese Civilized Realm has turned Western technology (the X-ray machine) into a “spiritual technology” (the Moral Nature Inspection Lens) which justifies China’s own cultural and philosophical past while simultaneously placing this past in a distant future which seems to go even “beyond” the one imagined by Western writers. That is, finally China will be technologically superior to the West on account of its age-old moral and spiritual superiority.

Wang, Hui. “The Fate of ‘Mr. Science’ in China: The Concept of Science and Its Application in Modern Chinese Thought.” positions 3, 1 (1995): 1-68.

—–. “How to Explain ‘China” and Its ‘Modernity’: Rethinking The Rise of Modern Chinese Thought.” Tr. Wang Yang. In Wang Hui, The Politics of Imagining Asia. Ed. Theodore Huters. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2011, 63-94. Previously published as “The Liberation of the Object and the Interrogation of Modernity: Rethinking the Rise of Modern China.” Modern China 4, 1 (Jan. 2008): 114-40.

—–. “Weber and the Question of Chinese Modernity.” Tr. Theodore Huters. In Wang Hui, The Politics of Imagining Asia. Ed. Theodore Huters. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2011, 264-305.

Wang, Xiaoming. “From Petitions to Fiction: Visions of the Future Propagated in Early Modern China.” In David Pollard, ed., Translation and Creation: Readings of Western Literature in Early Modern China. Amsterdan, Philadelphia: J. Benjamins, 1998, 43-56.

Widmer, Ellen. Fiction’s Family: Zhan Xi, Zhan Kai, and the Business of Women in Late-Qing China. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Asia Center, 2016.

[Abstract: At the end of the Qing dynasty, works of fiction by male authors placed women in new roles. Fiction’s Family delves into the writings of one literary family from western Zhejiang whose works were emblematic of shifting attitudes toward women. The mother, Wang Qingdi, and the father, Zhan Sizeng, published their poems during the second half of the nineteenth century. Two of their four sons, Zhan Xi and Zhan Kai, wrote novels that promoted reforms in women’s lives. This book explores the intergenerational link, as well as relations between the sons, to find out how the conflicts faced by the parents may have been refigured in the novels of their sons. Its central question is about the brothers’ reformist attitudes. Were they based on the pronouncements of political leaders? Were they the result of trends in Shanghai publishing? Or did they derive from Wang Qingdi’s disappointment in her “companionate marriage,” as manifested in her poems? By placing one family at the center of this study, Ellen Widmer illuminates the diachronic bridge between the late Qing and the period just before it, the synchronic interplay of genres during the brothers’ lifetimes, and the interaction of Shanghai publishing with regions outside Shanghai.]

Wong, Wang-chi. “An Act of Violence: Translation of Western Fiction in the late Qing and early Republican Period.” In Michel Hockx, ed., The Literary Field of Twentieth Century China. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1999, 21-39.

Wright, David. “Yan Fu and the Tasks of the Translator.” In Lackner et al. eds., New Terms for New Ideas: Western Knowledge and Lexical China in Late Imperial China. Boston, Koln: Leiden, 2001, 235-256.

Wu, Shengqing. “Gendering the Nation: The Proliferation of Images of Zhen Fei (1876-1900) and Sai Jinhua (1872-1936) in Late Qing and Republican China.” Nannu: Men, Women and Gender in China 11, 1 (2009): 1-64.

[Abstract: This paper analyzes the historical trajectories of the images of Zhen Fei and Sai Jinhua, who rose from an obscure royal concubine and an infamous prostitute, respectively, to become androgynous national heroines in wartime China. The study exposes the construction and the fictional elements of these images, thus providing concrete examples for establishing the interconnection between male fantasy and the invention of the modern national subject. It argues that the female body became the contested site for predominantly male-led discourses on eroticism and politics, and emphasizes that erotic desire may inform or enhance expressions and experiences of the formation of modern nationhood.]

—–. Modern Archaics: Continuity and Innovation in the Chinese Lyric Tradition, 1900-1937. Cambridge: Harvard University Asia Center, 2013. [MCLC Resource Center review by Jon Eugene von Kowallis]

[Abstract: After the collapse of the Qing dynasty in 1911 and the rise of a vernacular language movement, most scholars and writers declared the classical Chinese poetic tradition to be dead. But how could a longstanding high poetic form simply grind to a halt, even in the face of tumultuous social change? In this groundbreaking book, Wu explores the transformation of Chinese classical-style poetry in the early twentieth century. Drawing on extensive archival research into the poetry collections and literary journals of two generations of poets and critics, Wu discusses the continuing significance of the classical form with its densely allusive and intricately wrought style. She combines close readings of poems with a depiction of the cultural practices their authors participated in, including poetry gatherings, the use of mass media, international travel, and translation, to show how the lyrical tradition was a dynamic force fully capable of engaging with modernity. By examining the works and activities of previously neglected poets who maintained their commitment to traditional aesthetic ideals, Modern Archaics illuminates the splendor of Chinese lyricism and highlights the mutually transformative power of the modern and the archaic.]

—–. “Between Tradition and Modernity: Contested Classical Poetry.” In Kirk A. Denton, ed, Columbia Companion to Modern Chinese Literature. NY: Columbia University Press, 2016, 55-61.

Xiong, Yuezhi. “Degrees of Familiarity with the West in Late Qing Society.” In David Pollard, ed., Translation and Creation: Readings of Western Literature in Early Modern China. Amsterdan, Philadelphia: J. Benjamins, 1998, 25-36.

Yao, Dadui. “Translated Illustration and the Indigenization of Christianity in Late Qing Chinese Christian Novels.” Frontiers of Literary Studies in China 10, 2 (2016): 255-86.

[Abstract: “Intersemiotic translation” is categorized by Roman Jakobson as one of three types of translation. Translation of illustrations in the late Qing novels, either directly from verbal signs or visual signs, can also be regarded as a typical kind of “intersemiotic translation.” The present article studies illustrations in Chinese Christian literature in the late Qing period, especially those in the Chinese translations of John Bunyan’s works, The Pilgrim’s Progress and The Holy War. Questions to ponder are how inter-semiotic translation occurs between these illustrations—in either transferring or transplanting the meanings from one sign system to another—and how it establishes its legitimacy through religious negotiation, ideological conflict, and cultural integration. The illustrations in the Chinese translation versions of The Pilgrim’s Progress manifest the translators’ and illustrators’ manipulation of repertoires of Chinese religious signs, thereby indigenizing a foreign religion. These illustrations, nevertheless, are not only associated with Christianity, but also with the long-lasting visual signs of Chinese culture. Hence these translated illustrations could be considered as a type of “Translated Christianity.”]

Yeh, Catherine Vance. “The Life-Style of Four Wenren in Late Qing Shanghai.” Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies 57, 1 (1997): 419-70. [deals with Wang Tao, Chen Jitong, Zeng Pu, and Jin Songcen]

—–. “Creating the Urban Beauty: The Shanghai Courtesan in Late Qing Illustrations.” In Judith T. Zeitlin and Lydia Liu, with Ellen Widmer, eds., Writing and Materiality in China: Essays in Honor of Patrick Hanan. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Asia Center, 2003, 397-447.

—–. Shanghai Love: Courtesans, Intellectuals, and Entertainment Culture, 1850-1911. Seattle: University of Washington, 2006.

[Abstract: In this fascinating book, Catherine Yeh explores the Shanghai entertainment world at the close of the Qing dynasty. Established in the 1850s outside of the old walled city, the Shanghai Foreign Settlements were administered by Westerners and so were not subject to the strict authority of the Chinese government. At the center of the dynamic new culture that emerged was the courtesan, whose flamboyant public lifestyle and conspicuous consumption of modern goods set a style that was emulated by other women as they emerged from the “inner quarters” of traditional Chinese society.]

—–. The Chinese Political Novel: Migration of a World Genre. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2015. [MCLC Resource Center review by Kenny Kwok-kwan Ng]

[Abstract: The political novel, which enjoyed a steep yet short rise to international renown between the 1830s and the 1910s, is primarily concerned with the nation’s political future. It offers a characterization of the present, a blueprint of the future, and the image of the heroes needed to get there. With the standing it gained during its meteoric rise, the political novel helped elevate the novel altogether to become the leading literary genre of the twentieth century worldwide. Focusing on its adaptation in the Chinese context, Yeh traces the genre from Disraeli’s England through Europe and the United States to East Asia. Her study goes beyond comparative approaches and nation-state- and language-centered histories of literature to examine the intrinsic connections among literary works. Through detailed studies, especially of the Chinese exemplars, Yeh explores the tensions characteristic of transcultural processes: the dynamics through which a particular, and seemingly local, literary genre goes global; the ways in which such a globalized literary genre maintains its core features while assuming local identity and interacting with local audiences and political authorities; and the relationship between the politics of form and the role of politics in literary innovation.]

Yu, Chu Chi. “Lord Byron’s ‘The Isles of Greece: First Translations.” In David Pollard, ed., Translation and Creation: Readings of Western Literature in Early Modern China. Amsterdan, Philadelphia: J. Benjamins, 1998, 79-104.

Zamperini, Paola. “Elective Affinities: Literary Soulmates and the Marketplace in late Qing Fiction.” Late Imperial China 28, 1 (July 2007): 62-91.

—–. Lost Bodies. Prostitution and Masculinity in late Qing Fiction. Leiden: Brill, 2010.

[Abstract: This important contribution to the study of early modern Chinese fiction and representation of gender relations focuses on literary representations of the prostitute produced in the Ming and Qing periods. Following her heavily symbolic body, the present work maps this fictional heroine’s journey from innocence to sex-work and beyond. This crucial angle allows the author to paint a picture of gender identity, sexuality, and desire that is at once unitary and multi-layered, and that comes to illuminate some of the major themes in the construction of Chinese modernity. ]

Zimmer, Thomas. “Selective Outlooks on the World: The Problem of Exoticism in Chinese Novels from the Turn of the 19th and 20th Century.” Monumenta Serica 54 (2006): 269-78.

Zou, John. “Travel and Translation: An Aspect of China’s Cultural Modernity, 1862-1926.” In Yingjin Zhang, ed., China in a Polycentric World: Essays in Chinese Comparative Literature. Stanford: Stanford UP, 1998, 133-51.


May Fourth (1915-1925) / Early Republic

Anderson, Marsten. The Limits of Realism: Chinese Fiction in the Revolutionary Period. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1990.

Biasco, Margherita. “The Crisis of the Family System and the Search for a New Identity of Chinese Youth.” In Marian Galik, ed., Interliterary and Intraliterary Aspects of the May Fourth Movement 1919 in China. Bratislava: Veda, 1990, 189-200.

Bing, Sang. “The Divergence and Convergence of China’s Written and Spoken Languages: Reassessing the Vernacular Language During the May Fourth Period.” Twentieth-Century China 38, 1 (Jan. 2013): 71-93.

[Abstract: The development of the vernacular language during the New Culture Movement was only intended as a transitional stage to the goal of abolishing the Chinese language. Intellectuals such as Qian Xuantong, Lu Xun, Hu Shi, and Chen Duxiu all advocated to varying degrees the Romanization, Latinization, and abolition of the Chinese language. Chen Yinke, however, argued that the adoption of a Europeanized grammatical structure, and the borrowing of neologisms from abroad, such as Japan, altered the fundamental property of Chinese as an independent language. Reassessing the language reform of the May Fourth today, it is evident that the development of the simplified character, the vernacular language, and the pinyin did not achieve the goal of unifying the spoken and written Chinese. Instead by eliminating the classical language, the language reform removed the ability of the vernacular-speaking masses to create a literature of the written words.]

Braester, Yomi. “Dreaming a Cure for History: The Resistance to Historical Consciousness Within the May Fourth Movement.” In Braester, Witness Against History: Literature, Film, and Public Discourse in Twentieth-Century China. Stanford: Stanford UP, 2003, 31-55.

Button, Peter. Configurations of the Real in Chinese Literary and Aesthetic Modernity. Leiden: Brill, 2009. [MCLC Resource Center review by Thomas Moran]

[Abstract: The emergence of the Chinese socialist realist novel can best be understoodin light of the half-century long formation of the modern concept ofliterature in China. Globalized in the wake of modern capitalism, literary modernity configures the literary text in a relationship to both modern philosophy and literary theory. This book traces China’s unique, complex, and creative articulation of literary modernity beginning with Lu Xun’s “The True Story of Ah Q.” Cai Yi’s aesthetic theory of the type (dianxing) and the image (xingxiang) is then explored in relation to global currents in literary thought and philosophy, making possible a fundamental rethinking of Chinese socialist realist novels like Yang Mo’s Song of Youth and Luo Guangbin and Yan Yiyan’s Red Crag.]

Cai, Yuanpei. “The May Fourth Spirit, Now and Then.” China Heritage Quarterly 17 (March 2009).

Chan, Adrian. “Towards a Marxist Theory and Sociology of Literature in China, to 1933.” In Wang Gungwu, ed., Society and the Writer: Essays on Literature in Modern Asia. Canberra: Research School of Pacific Studies, Australian Nat. Univ., 1981, 155-171.

Chang, Shuei-May, ed. Casting Off the Shackles of Family : Ibsen’s Nora Figure in Modern Chinese Literature, 1918-1942. Peter Lang, 2002.

Chao, Anne. “Introduction: Re-engaging and Re-generating the May Fourth.” Twentieth-Century China 38, 1 (Jan. 2013): 1-4.

Chen, Jianhua. “Zhou Shoujuan’s Love Stories and Mandarin Ducks and Butterfly Fiction.” In Joshua Mostow, ed, and Kirk A. Denton, China section, ed., Columbia Companion to Modern East Asian Literatures. NY: Columbia UP, 2003, 354-63. Rpt. in Denton, ed, Columbia Companion to Modern Chinese Literature. NY: Columbia University Press, 2016, 111-20.

—–. “Canon Formation and Linguistic Turn: Literary Debates in Republican China, 1919-1949.” In Kai-Wing Chow, Tze-ki Hon, Hung-yok Ip, and Don C. Price, eds., Beyond the May Fourth Paradigm: In Search for Chinese Modernity. Lanham: Lexington Books, 2008, 51-67.

—–. “An Archaeology of Repressed Popularity: Zhou Shoujuan, Mao Dun, and their 1920s Literary Polemics.” In Carlos Rojas and Eileen Cheng-yin Chow, eds., Rethinking Chinese Popular Culture: Cannibalizations of the Canon. NY: Routledge, 2009, 91-114.

—–. “Revolution: From Literary Revolution to Revolutionary Literature.” In Ban Wang, ed., Words and Their Stories: Essays on the Language of the Chinese Revolution. Leiden: Brill, 2010, 15-32.

Chen, Joseph. The May Fourth Movement in Shanghai. Leiden: Brill, 1971.

Chen, Pingyuan. “Literature High and Low: ‘Popular Fiction’ in Twentieth-Century China.” In Michel Hockx, ed., The Literary Field of Twentieth Century China. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1999, 113-33.

—–. Touches of History: An Entry into “May Fourth” China. Trs. Michel Hockx, with Maria af Sandelberg, Uganda Sze Pui Kwan, Chistopher Neil Payne and Christopher Rosenmeier. Leiden: Brill, 2011. [MCLC Resource Center review by Tze-ki Hon]

[Abstract: The “May Fourth Movement” of 1919 is generally seen as the central event in China’s transformation from the traditional to the modern. It signalled the arrival of effective student activism on the political scene; it heralded the success of outspoken anti-imperialist ideologies; its slogans and pamphlets demonstrated the rhetorical qualities of the new vernacular writing; some of its participants went on to become leading cultural and political figures; it is said to have given birth to the Communist Party. The latter aspect has ensured that a particular narrative of the movement remained enshrined in official Chinese state ideology for many decades, a narrative often opposed by those outside China for similarly ideological reasons. No movement in modern Chinese history and culture has been more researched, yet none has been less understood. This award-winning book, by one of Peking University’s most famous professors, represents a groundbreaking attempt to return to a study of “May Fourth” that is solidly grounded in historical fact. Favouring smaller stories over grand narratives, concentrating on unknown, marginal materials rather than familiar key documents, and highlighting “May Fourth”‘s indebtedness to the cultural debates of the preceding late Qing period, Chen Pingyuan reconstructs part of the actual historical scenery, demonstrating the great variety of ideas expressed during those tumultuous decades.]

Chen, Sihe. “The Avant-garde Elements in the May Fourth New Literature Movement.” Frontiers of Literary Studies in China 1, 2 (May 2007): 163-96.

Cheng, Ching-mao. “The Impact of Japanese Literary Trends.” In Merle Goldman, ed., Modern Chinese Literature in the May Fourth Era. Cambridge: Harvard UP, 1977, 63-88.

Chow, Tse-tsung. “Anti-Confucianism in Early Republican China.” In Arthur Wright, ed., The Confucian Persuasion. Stanford: SUP, 1967.

—–. The May Fourth Movement: Intellectual Revolution in Modern China. Cambridge: Harvard UP, 1960.

Chow, William C. L. “The Development of Individualism in Modern China.” Hanxue yanjiu (Chinese Studies). 13, 2 (1995): 77-98.

Chung, Hilary. “Kristevan (Mis)understandings: Writing in the Feminine.” In Michel Hockx and Ivo Smits, eds., Reading East Asian Writing: The Limits of Literary Theory. New York and London: RoutledgeCurzon, 2003, 72-91. [analyzes fiction by Chen Hengzhe, Lu Yin, Ding Ling, and Feng Yuanjun]

Chung, Hilary and Tommy McClellan, “Images of Women: Exploring Apparent Changes of Attitude Towards Women in the May 4th Era Through Literary Imagery.” In Viviane Alleton and Alexeï Volkov eds., Notions et Perceptions du Changement en Chine. Paris: College de France, 1994, 187-198.

Cini, Francesca. “Le ‘problem des femmes’ dans La nouvelle jeunesse, 1915-1922″ (The women’s problem in New Youth, 1915-1922). Etudes chinoies 5, 1/2 (Spring/Autumn 1986): 133-56.

Crespi, John. “Form and Reform: New Poetry and the Crescent Moon Society.” In Joshua Mostow, ed, and Kirk A. Denton, China section, ed., Columbia Companion to Modern East Asian Literatures. NY: Columbia UP, 2003, 364-70. Rpt. in Denton, ed, Columbia Companion to Modern Chinese Literature. NY: Columbia University Press, 2016, 121-27.

Culp, Robert. “Teaching Baihua: Textbooks, Publishing, and the Production of Vernacular Language and New Literary Canon in Early Twentieth-Century China.” Twentieth-Century China 34, 1 (2009): 4-41.

Daruvala, Susan. Zhou Zuoren and an Alternative Chinese Response to Modernity. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Asia Center, 2000.

Davies, Gloria. “Towards Transcendental Knowledge: The Mapping of the May Fourth Modernity/Spirit.” East Asian History 4 (1992): 143-64.

Denton, Kirk A. “Introduction.” In Denton, Modern Chinese Literary Thought: Writings on Literature, 1893-1945. Stanford: Stanford UP, 1996, 1-61.

Des Forges, Alexander. Street Talk and Alley Stories: Tangled Narratives of Shanghai from Lives of Shanghai Flowers (1892) to Midnight (1933). Ph.D. diss. Princeton: Princeton University, 1998.

—–. Mediasphere Shanghai: The Aesthetics of Cultural Production. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 2007. [MCLC Resource Center review by Chris Berry]

Dirlik, Arif. “Ideology and Organization in the May Fourth Movement: Some Problems in the Intellectual Historiography of the May Fourth Period.” Republican China 12, 1 (Nov. 1986): 3-19.

Dolezelova-Velingerova, Milena. “Literary Historiography in Early Twentieth-Century China (1904-1928): Construction of Cultural Memory.” In Milena Dolezelova-Velingerova and Oldrich Kral, eds., The Appropriation of Cultural Capital: China’s May Fourth Project. Cambridge: Harvard University Asia Center, 2001, 123-66.

Dolezelova-Velingerova, Milena and Oldrich Kral, eds. The Appropriation of Cultural Capital: China’s May Fourth Project. Cambridge: Harvard University Asia Center, 2001.

Dooling, Amy D. Feminism and Narrative Strategies in Early Twentieth-Century Chinese Women’s Writing. Ph.D. Diss. NY: Columbia University, 1998.

—–. “Reconsidering the Origins of Modern Chinese Women’s Writing.” In Joshua Mostow, ed, and Kirk A. Denton, China section, ed., Columbia Companion to Modern East Asian Literatures. NY: Columbia UP, 2003, 371-77. Rpt. in Denton, ed, Columbia Companion to Modern Chinese Literature. NY: Columbia University Press, 2016, 128-35.

—–. Women’s Literary Feminism in Twentieth-Century China. NY: Palgrave MacMillan, 2005. [contains the following chapters: (1) National imaginaries : feminist fantasies at the turn of the century; (2) The new woman’s women; (3) Love and/or revolution? : fictions of the feminine self in the 1930s cultural left; (4) Outwitting patriarchy : comic narrative strategies in the works of Yang Jiang, Su Qing, and Zhang Ailing; (5) A world still to win]

Duara, Prasenjit. Rescuing History from the Nation:Questions and Narratives of Modern China. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1995. [see also “Symposium on Prasenjit Duara’s Rescuing History from the Nation.” Bulletin of Concerned Asian Scholars 29, 4 (Oct.-Dec. 1997)].

Eastman, Lloyd E. “The May Fourth Movement as a Historical Turning Point: Ecological Exhaustion, Militarization, and Other Causes of China’s Modern Crisis.” In K. Lieberthal et al., eds., Perspectives on Modern China: Four Anniversaries. Armonk: M.E. Sharpe, 1991, 123-38.

Eber, Irene. “Images of Oppressed Peoples and Modern Chinese Literature.” In Merle Goldman, ed., Modern Chinese Literature in the May Fourth Era. Cambridge: Harvard UP, 1977, 17-36.

Eide, Elizabeth. “The Balad of Kongque dongnan fei as Freudian Feminist Drama during the May Fourth Period.” In Marian Galik, ed., Interliterary and Intraliterary Aspects of the May Fourth Movement 1919 in China. Bratislava: Veda, 1990, 129-38.

Elvin, Mark. Self-Liberation and Self-Immolation in Modern Chinese Thought. Canberra: Australian National University, 1978.

Feng, Jin. The New Woman in Early Twentieth-Century Chinese Fiction. Lafayette, IN: Purdue UP, 2004. [“Introduction to The New Woman in Early Twentieth-Century Chinese Fiction.” Comparative Literature and Culture: A WWWeb Journal 6, 4 (Dec. 2004).]

Feng, Liping. “Democracy and Elitism: The May Fourth Ideal of Literature.” Critical Inquiry 20, 2 (Winter 1994): 328-56.

Feuerwerker, Yi-tsi Mei. “Reconsidering Xueheng: Neo-Conservatism in Early Republican China.” In Kirk A. Denton and Michel Hockx, eds., Literary Societies in Republican China. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 2008, 137-70.

Fincher, John H. “The Writ of Literature: The Chinese Disciples of Western New Humanism, ca.1919-1933.” In Wang Gungwu ed., Society and the Writer: Essays on Literature in Modern Asia. Canberra: Research School of Pacific Studies, Australian Nat. Univ., 1981, 139-153.

Findeisen, Raoul David. “From Literature to Love: Glory and Decline of the Love-Letter Genre.” In Michel Hockx, ed., The Literary Field of Twentieth Century China. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1999, 79-112.

Fitzgerald, John. Awakening China: Politics, Culture, and Class in the Nationalist Revolution. Stanford: SUP, 1996.

Fogel, Joshua A. “Japanese Literary Travelers in Prewar China.” Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies 49, 2 (1989): 575-602.

Forster, Elisabeth. “From Academic Nitpicking to a ‘New Culture Movement’: How Newspapers Turned Academic Debates into the Center of ‘May Fourth.'” Frontiers of History in China 9, 4 (2014): 534-557.

[Abstract: In early 1919, people like Hu Shi and Chen Duxiu were regarded as members of an ivory-tower “academic faction” (xuepai), embroiled in a debate with an opposing “faction.” After the May Fourth demonstrations, they were praised as the stars of a “New Culture Movement.” However, it was not obvious how the circle around Hu Shi and Chen Duxiu was associated with the May Fourth demonstrations. This link hinged on the way in which newspapers like Shenbao reported about the academic debates and the political events of May Fourth. After compartmentalizing the debating academics into fixed xuepai, Shenbao ascribed warlord-political allegiances to them. These made the Hu-Chen circle look like government victims and their “factional” rivals like the warlords’ allies. When the atmosphere became hostile to the government during May Fourth, Hu Shi’s “faction” became associated with the equally victimized May Fourth demonstrators. Their ideas were regarded as (now popular) expressions of anti-government sentiment, and soon this was labeled the core of the “New Culture Movement.” The idea and rhetoric of China’s “New Culture Movement” in this way emerged out of the fortuitous concatenation of academic debates, newspaper stories, and political events.]

—–. 1919 – The Year That Changed China: A New History of the New Culture Movement. Berlin: DeGruyter, 2017.

[Abstract: Interpreting the New Culture Movement in light of a new understanding of Republican Chinese society reached in the past two decades, this book includes empirical studies of famous intellectuals like Hu Shi and Chen Duxiu, of metropolitan and provincial newspapers, student essays, advertisements, textbooks and diaries to analyze how the ‘New Culture Movement’, as a buzzword, changed the course of Chinese cultural history.]

Fruehauf, Heinrich. Urban Exoticism in Modern Chinese Literature, 1910-1933. Ph.D. diss. Chicago: University of Chicago, 1990.

Furth, Charlotte. “May Fourth in History.” In Benjamin I. Schwartz, ed., Reflections on the May Fourth Movement: A Symposium. Cambridge: Harvard UP, 1973, 59-68.

—–. “Intellectual Change: From the Reform Movement to the May Fourth Movement, 1895-1920.” In Merle Goldman an Leo Ou-fan Lee, eds., An Intellectual History of Modern China. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 2002, 13-96.

Galik, Marian. “May Fourth Literature Reconsidered: Musing Over Mythopeia as Creation.” In Marian Galik, ed., Interliterary and Intraliterary Aspects of the May Fourth Movement 1919 in China. Bratislava: Veda, 1990, 269-83.

Ge, Baoquan. “The Influence of Russian Classical Literature on Modern Chinese Literature Before and After the May Fourth Movement.” In Marian Galik, ed., Interliterary and Intraliterary Aspects of the May Fourth Movement 1919 in China. Bratislava: Veda, 1990, 213-22.

Ge, Hongbin 葛红兵. “Wusi wenhua de neizai maodun” 五四文化的内在矛盾 (Inherent contradictions of May Fourth culture). Confucius2000. [in Chinese]

Gimpel, Denise. “Beyond Butterflies: Some Observations on the Early Years of the Journal Xiaoshuo yuebao.” In Michel Hockx, ed., The Literary Field of Twentieth Century China. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1999, 40-60.

—–. Lost Voices of Modernity: A Chinese Popular Fiction Magazine in Context. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 2001.

Goldman, Merle, ed. Modern Chinese Literature in the May Fourth Era. Boston: Harvard University Press. 1977.

—–. “Left-wing Criticism of the Pai Hua Movement.” In Benjamin I. Schwartz, ed., Reflections on the May Fourth Movement: A Symposium. Cambridge: Harvard UP, 1973, 85-94.

Glosser, Susan L. “‘The Truths I Have Learned’: Nationalism, Family Reform, and Male Identity in China’s New Culture Movement, 1915-1923 .” In Susan Brownell and Jeffrey N. Wasserstrom, eds. Chinese Femininities, Chinese Masculinities: A Reader. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2002, 120-44.

Grieder, Jerome. “The Question of Politics in the May Fourth Era.” In Benjamin I. Schwartz, ed., Reflections on the May Fourth Movement: A Symposium. Cambridge: Harvard UP, 1973, 95-102.

Guan, Aihe. “The Traditional and Modern Conflicts of the Literary Innovation at the Threshold of the 20th Century.” Frontiers of Literary Studies in China 2, 4 (Dec. 2008): 583-98.

Guo, Yanli. “An Introduction to Modern Chinese Female Literature.” Sungkyun Journal of East Asian Studies 3, 2 (2003): 109-22.

Hanan, Patrick. Chinese Fiction of the Nineteenth and Early Twentieth Centuries. NY: Columbia UP, 2004.

[Abstract: It has often been said that the nineteenth century was a relatively stagnant period for Chinese fiction, but preeminent scholar Patrick Hanan shows that the opposite is true: the finest novels of the nineteenth century show a constant experimentation and evolution. In this collection of detailed and insightful essays, Hanan examines Chinese fiction before and during the period in which Chinese writers first came into contact with western fiction. Hanan explores the uses made of fiction by westerners in China; the adaptation and integration of western methods in Chinese fiction; and the continued vitality of the Chinese fictional tradition. Some western missionaries, for example, wrote religious novels in Chinese, almost always with the aid of native assistants who tended to change aspects of the work to “fit” Chinese taste. Later, such works as Washington Irving’s “Rip Van Winkle,” Jonathan Swift’s “A Voyage to Lilliput,” the novels of Jules Verne, and French detective stories were translated into Chinese. These interventions and their effects are explored here for virtually the first time. Contents: (1) The Narrator’s Voice Before the “Fiction Revolution”; (2) Illusion of Romance and the Courtesan Novel; (3) The Missionary Novels of the Nineteenth Century; (4) The First Novel Translated Into Chinese; (5) The Translated Fiction in the Early Shen Bao; (6) The New Novel Before the New Novel—John Fryer’s Fiction Contest; (7) The Second Stage of Vernacular Translation; (8) Wu Jianren and the Narrator; (9) Specific Literary Relations of Sea of Regret; (10) The Autobiographical Romance of Chen Diexian; (11) The Technique of Lu Xun’s Fiction]

Harbsmeier, Christopher. “May Fourth Linguistic Orthodoxy and Rhetoric: Some Informal Comparative Notes.” In Lackner et al. eds., New Terms for New Ideas: Western Knowledge and Lexical China in Late Imperial China. Boston, Koln: Leiden, 2001, 373-410.

Hay, Stephen N. Asian Ideas of East and West: Tagore and His Critics in Japan, China and India. Cambridge: Harvard UP, 1970.

Hockx, Michel. “Mad Women and Mad Men: Intraliterary Contact in Early Republican Literature.” In Findeison and Gassmann, eds., Autumn Floods: Essays in Honour of Marian Galik. Bern: Peter Lang, 1997.

—–. Questions of Style: Literary Societies and Literary Journals in Modern China, 1911-1937. Leiden: E. J. Brill, 2003. [MCLC Resource Center review by Edward M. Gunn]

—–. “Theory as Practice: Modern Chinese Literature and Bourdieu.” In Michel Hockx and Ivo Smits, eds., Reading East Asian Writing: The Limits of Literary Theory. New York and London: RoutledgeCurzon, 2003, 220-39.

—–. “Playing the Field: Aspects of Chinese Literary Life in the 1920s.” In Michel Hockx, ed., The Literary Field of Twentieth Century China. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1999, 61-78.

—–. “Is There a May Fourth Literature? A Reply to Wang Xiaoming.” Modern Chinese Literature and Culture 11, 2 (Fall 1999): 40-52.

—–. “The Chinese Literary Association (Wenxue yanjiu hui).” In Kirk A. Denton and Michel Hockx, eds., Literary Societies in Republican China. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 2008, 79-102.

Hon, Tze-ki. “National Essence, National Learning, and Culture: Historical Writings in Guocui xuebao, Xueheng, and Guoxue jikan.” Historiography East and West 1, 2 (2003): 241-86.

—–. “Cultural Identity and Local Self-Government: A Study of Liu Yizheng’s History of Chinese Culture.” Modern China 30, 4 (Oct. 2004): 506-542.

[Abstract: Until recently, the study of Chinese historical writings of the 1920s and 1930s has centered on the May Fourth approach to history, especially the Doubting Antiquity Movement (yigu yundong) led by Gu Jiegang. By privileging their historical writings as modern or progressive and labeling their opponents’ as traditional or regressive, we fail to see the full scope of the modern Chinese historical debate and overlook its social and political underpinnings. In this article, based on a close reading of History of Chinese Culture (Zhongguo wenhua shi) of Liu Yizheng (1880-1956), the author seeks to contextualize the historical debate in terms of the political and social change in post-1911 China. Written in the early 1920s when intellectuals still could express different views of the nation without the fear of state censorship, Liu’s History of Chinese Culture gave renewed emphasis to local self-government, thereby challenging the expansion of the state.]

Hu, Ying. Tales of Translation: Composing the New Woman in China, 1898-1918. Stanford: Stanford UP, 2000.

—–. “Naming the First New Woman.” NAN NÜ: Men, Women and Gender in Early and Imperial China 3, 2 2001).

Huang, Nicole. “War, Revolution, and Urban Transformation: Chinese Literature of the Republican Era, 1920s-1940s.” In Yingjin Zhang, ed. A Companion to Modern Chinese Literature. Chichester, UK: Wiley Blackwell, 2016, 54-66.

Huang, Sung-k’ang. “The May Fourth Legacy and the Process of Chinese Democracy (1915-1989).” Revue des Pays de l’Est 1/2 (1992).

Hummel, Arthur W. “The New Cultue Movement in China.” Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 152 (Nov., 1930): 55-62

Hung, Chang-tai. Going to the People: Chinese Intellectuals and Folk Literature, 1918-1937. Cambridge: Council on East Asian Studies, Harvard University, 1985.

Hunt, Michael H. “The May Fourth Era: China’s Place in the World.” In K. Lieberthal et al., eds., Perspectives on Modern China: Four Anniversaries. Armonk: M.E. Sharpe, 1991, 178-200.

Huters, Theodore. “Critcal Ground: The Transformation of the May Fourth Era.” In Bonnie McDougall, ed., Popular Chinese Literature and Performing Arts in the People’s Republic of China. Berkeley: UCP, 1984, 54-80.

—–. “The Paradox of Chinese Iconoclasm,” in Nancy Kobrin, ed., The Paradigm Exchange II, Minneapolis: University of Minnesota College of Liberal Arts, 1987, 13- 18.

—–. “Between Praxis and Essence: The Search for Cultural Expression in the Chinese Revolution.” In Arif Dirlik and Maurice Meisner eds., Marxism and the Chinese Experience. Armonk, NY: M. E. Sharpe, 1989, 316-37.

—–. Bringing the World Home: Appropriating the West in Late Qing and Early Republican China. Honolulu: University of Hawai’i Press, 2005. [MCLC Resource Center review by Bonnie S. McDougall]

Ip, Hung-Yok, Tze-ki Hon, and Chiu-Chun Lee. “The Plurality of Chinese Modernity: A Review of Recent Scholarship on the May Fourth Movement.” Modern China 29, 4 (Oct. 2003): 490-509.

Jenco, Leigh. “Culture as History: Envisioning Change Across and Beyond ‘Eastern’ and ‘Western’ Civilizations in the May Fourth Era.” Twentieth-Century China 38, 1 (Jan. 2013): 34-52.

[Abstract: This essay examines an influential debate that took place during China’s May Fourth era (circa 1915-1927) concerning the character of “Eastern” and “Western” civilizations. In this debate, both moderates and radicals wrestle with a growing awareness that cultures have not only a spatial existence but also a historical career, which has encouraged the development of certain institutions and attitudes and discouraged others. Spatial terms mark not only the places where knowledge circulates, but also the particular pasts-and thus futures-toward which Chinese thinkers align themselves. This way of figuring “East” and “West” enables May Fourth thinkers to do more than sort civilizational characteristics into categories of the inevitably universal and the irredeemably particular, as many commentators have assumed. It also facilitates the travel of cultural products and practices across the spatial as well as temporal boundaries originally seen to contain them.]

Jensen, Lionel. “Particular is Universal: Hu Shi, Ru, and the Chinese Transcendence of Nationalism.” In Manufacturing Confucianism: Chinese Traditions and Universal Civilization. Durham: Duke UP, 1998, 217-64.

Jin, Li. “Theater of Pathos: Sentimental Melodramas in the New Drama Legacy.” Modern Chinese Literature and Culture 24, 2 (Fall 2012): 94-128.

Jin, Yuan. “The Influence of Translated Fiction on Chinese Romantic Ficiton.” In David Pollard, ed., Translation and Creation: Readings of Western Literature in Early Modern China. Amsterdan, Philadelphia: J. Benjamins, 1998, 283-302.

Jones, Andrew F. Developmental Fairy Tales: Evolutionary Thinking and Modern Chinese Culture. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2011.

[Abstract: In 1992 Deng Xiaoping famously declared, “Development is the only hard imperative.” What ensued was the transformation of China from a socialist state to a capitalist market economy. The spirit of development has since become the prevailing creed of the People’s Republic, helping to bring about unprecedented modern prosperity, but also creating new forms of poverty, staggering social upheaval, physical dislocation, and environmental destruction. In Developmental Fairy Tales, Andrew F. Jones asserts that the groundwork for this recent transformation was laid in the late nineteenth century, with the translation of the evolutionary works of Lamarck, Darwin, and Spencer into Chinese letters. He traces the ways that the evolutionary narrative itself evolved into a form of vernacular knowledge which dissolved the boundaries between beast and man and reframed childhood development as a recapitulation of civilizational ascent, through which a beleaguered China might struggle for existence and claim a place in the modern world-system. This narrative left an indelible imprint on China’s literature and popular media, from children’s primers to print culture, from fairy tales to filmmaking. Jones’s analysis offers an innovative and interdisciplinary angle of vision on China’s cultural evolution. He focuses especially on China’s foremost modern writer and public intellectual, Lu Xun, in whose work the fierce contradictions of his generation’s developmentalist aspirations became the stuff of pedagogical parable. Developmental Fairy Tales revises our understanding of literature’s role in the making of modern China by revising our understanding of developmentalism’s role in modern Chinese literature.]

Judge, Joan. “Blended Wish Images: Chinese and Western Exemplary Women at the Turn of the Twentieth Century.” Nan Nu: Men, Women, and Gender in China 6, 1 (2004).

Kaske, Elisabeth. “Mandarin, Vernacular and National Language–China’s Emerging Concept of a National Language in the Early Twentieth Century.” In Lackner, Michael and Natascha Vittinghoff, eds. Mapping Meanings: The Field of New Learning in Late Qing China. Leiden: Brill, 2004, 265-304.

—–. The Politics of Language in Chinese Education, 1895-1919. Leiden: Brill, 2008.

[Abstract: The study examines the origins of the “literary revolution” proclaimed in 1917 which laid the foundation for the replacement of the classical language by the vernacular as China’s national language and medium of national literature. A unique, multifaceted approach is used to explain the political significance of the classical/vernacular divide against the backdrop of social change that followed the Sino-Japanese War of 1894-5. Seeing education as the central battleground for all debates on language, the study in six thoroughly documented chapters investigates the language policy of the Qing and Republican governments, vernacular journalism of the revolutionaries, the activities of urban script reformers, the linguistic thought of the national essence advocates, and the emergence of a scholarly interest in the vernacular in academic circles.]

Keaveney, Christopher T. The Subversive Self in Modern Chinese Literature: The Creation Society’s Reinvention of the Japanese Shishosetsu. NY: Palgrave Mcmillan, 2004.

Kenley, David L. New Culture in a New World: The May Fourth Movement and the Chinese Diaspora in Singapore, 1919-1932. London: Routledge, 2003.

Kiyama, Hideo. “The ‘Literary Renaissance’ and the ‘Literary Revolution.'” Acta Asiatica 72 (1997): 27-60.

Knight, D. Sabina. “Agency Beyond Subjectivity: The Unredeemed Project of May Fourth Fiction.” Journal of Modern Literature in Chinese 1, 2 (Jan. 1998): 1-36.

—–. “The Prison of Self-Consciousness in May Fourth Fiction.” In The Heart of Time: Moral Agency in Twentieth-Century Chinese Fiction. Cambridge: Harvard University Asia Center, 2006, 73-103.

Kowallis, Jon. “Melancholy in Late Qing and Early Republican Verse.” In Wolfgang Kubin, ed., Symbols of Anguish: In Search of Melancholy in China. Bern: Peter Lang, 2001, 289-314.

Kung, Robert Lion. “Metaphysics and East-West Philosophy: Applying the Chinese T’i-yung Paradigm.” Philosophy East and West 29, 1 (Jan. 1979): 551-71.

Kuo, Ya-pei. Debating Culture in Interwar China. NY: Routledge, 2010.

Kwok, D.W.Y. Scientism in Chinese Thought, 1900-1950. New Haven: Yale UP, 1965.

Lanza, Fabio. “The Beijing University Students in the May Fourth in Era: A Collective Biography.” In Kenneth J. Hammond and Kristen Stapleton, eds., The Human Tradition in Modern China. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield, 2008, 117-34.

—–. Behind the Gate: Inventing Students in Beijing. NY: Columbia University Press, 2010.

[Abstract: Through an investigation of twentieth-century Chinese student protest, Fabio Lanza considers the marriage of the cultural and the political, the intellectual and the quotidian, that occurred during the May Fourth movement, along with its rearticulation in subsequent protest. Lanza returns to the May Fourth period (1917-1923) and the rise of student activism in and around Beijing University. He revisits reform in pedagogical and learning routines, changes in daily campus life, the fluid relationship between the city and its residents, and the actions of allegedly cultural student organizations. Through a careful analysis of everyday life and urban space, Lanza radically reconceptualizes the emergence of political subjectivities (categories such as “worker,” “activist,” and “student”) and how they anchor and inform political action. His research underscores how, during a time of crisis, the lived realities of university and student became unsettled in Beijing, and how political militancy in China arose only when the boundaries of identification were challenged.]

—–. “Of Chronology, Failure, and Fidelity: When Did the May Fourth Movement End?” Twentieth-Century China 38, 1 (Jan. 2013): 53-70.

[Abstract: The essay posits the question of the end of May Fourth as a properly political sequence. If we consider May Fourth as a political movement, asking how it ends implies asking what kind of political subjects and political organizations were active then and ceased to be active at a certain point in time. Asking when and how the May Fourth movement ended implies, therefore, asking what ended. The essay analyzes a series of statements and actions signaling the “end” or the “defeat” of May Fourth in order to question whether there were collective practices, locations, and categories proper to the May Fourth period and how they got exhausted. Two elements appear to be crucial: the organizational structure of the xuehui and the category of “student.”]

Larson, Wendy. “Women and Revolution in May Fourth Culture.” In Findeison and Gassmann, eds., Autumn Floods: Essays in Honour of Marian Galik. Bern: Peter Lang, 1997.

—–. “Psychology and Freudian Sexual Theory in Early 20th Century China.” In Larson, From Ah Q to Lei Feng: Freud and Revolutionary Spirit in 20th Century China. Stanford: Stanford UP, 2009, 31-76.

Lao, Chao-Chih. “Humor versus Huaji.” The Journal of Language and Linguistics 2, 1 (2003): 25-46.

Laughlin, Charles. The Literature of Leisure and Chinese Modernity. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 2008. [MCLC Resource Center review by John A. Crespi]

[Abstract: The Chinese essay is arguably China’s most distinctive contribution to modern world literature, and the period of its greatest influence and popularity–the mid-1930s–is the central concern of this book. What Charles Laughlin terms “the literature of leisure” is a modern literary response to the cultural past that manifests itself most conspicuously in the form of short, informal essay writing (xiaopin wen). Laughlin examines the essay both as a widely practiced and influential genre of literary expression and as an important counter-discourse to the revolutionary tradition of New Literature (especially realistic fiction), often viewed as the dominant mode of literature at the time. After articulating the relationship between the premodern traditions of leisure literature and the modern essay, Laughlin treats the various essay styles representing different groups of writers. Each is characterized according to a single defining activity: “wandering” in the case of the Yu si (Threads of Conversation) group surrounding Lu Xun and Zhou Zuoren; “learning” with the White Horse Lake group of Zhejiang schoolteachers like Feng Zikai and Xia Mianzun; “enjoying” in the case of Lin Yutang’s Analects group; “dreaming” with the Beijing school. The concluding chapter outlines the impact of leisure literature on Chinese culture up to the present day. The Literature of Leisure and Chinese Modernity dramatizes the vast importance and unique nature of creative nonfiction prose writing in modern China. It will be eagerly read by those with an interest in twentieth-century Chinese literature, modern China, and East Asian or world literatures.]

Lee, Haiyan. “All the Feelings That Are Fit to Print: The Community of Sentiment and the Literary Public Sphere in China, 1900-1918.” Modern China 27, 3 (July 2001): 291-327.

—–. “Sympathy, Hypocrisy, and the Trauma of Chineseness.” Modern Chinese Literature and Culture 16, 2 (Fall 2004): 76-122.

—–. “Tears That Crumbled the Great Wall: The Archaeology of Feeling in the May Fourth Folklore Movement.” The Journal of Asian Studies 64, 1 (Feb. 2005): 35-65. [Deals chiefly with Gu Jiegang’s study of the Meng Jiang Nu legend and briefly with Guo Moruo’s translation of ancient poetry] [download from AAS website]

—–. “Governmentality and the Aesthetic State: A Chinese Fantasia.” positions: east asia cultures critique 14, no.1 (2006): 99-130 [deals with Zhang Jingsheng’s Mei de rensheng guan (Philosophy of a beautiful life), Meide shehui zuzhi fa (How to organize a beautiful society), and, to a lesser extent, Xingshi (Sex histories)].

—–. Revolution of the Heart: A Genealogy of Love in China, 1900-1950. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2006. [MCLC Resource Center review by Charles Laughlin]

—–. “The Other Chinese: Romancing the Folk in May Fourth Native Soil Fiction.” Concentric: Literary and Cultural Studies 33, 2 (Sept. 2007).

[Abstract: Etienne Balibar has argued that no nation possesses a natural ethnic basis. And yet the “people” tends to be the most taken-for-granted entity in nationalist thought and literature. I argue in this paper that the “people” is a fictive category invented in the contested field of literary production in the early 20th century. In particular, I examine the concept of the “folk” in the works of such native soil writers as Yang Zhensheng, Fei Ming, and Shen Congwen. By contrasting the image of the folk in native soil fiction with the more familiar image of the peasants in realist fiction, I call attention to the paradoxical status of the people in the nationalist imagination. If the peasants were ignorant, unfeeling, and parochial under the pen of Lu Xun, the folk were revealed to have preserved a deep reservoir of emotions and humanity beneath the stultifying trappings of Confucianism in native soil fiction. I aim to show that representations of the folk and the native soil were intimately bound up with the production of the modern individual as an affective moral agent and of the nation as a community of sympathy.]

Lee, Leo Ou-fan. The Romantic Generation of Modern Chinese Writers. Cambridge: Harvard UP, 1973. [download pdf copy of the entire book from Ohio State University Libraries Knowledge Bank]

—–. “The Romantic Temper in May Fourth Writers.” In Benjamin I. Schwartz, ed., Reflections on the May Fourth Movement: A Symposium. Cambridge: Harvard UP, 1973, 69-84.

—–. “Modernity and Its Discontents: The Cultural Agenda of the May Fourth Movement.” In Kenneth Lieberthal et al., eds., Perspectives on Modern China: Four Anniversaries. Armonk: M.E. Sharpe, 1991, 158-177.

—–. “The Cultural Construction of Modernity in Urban Shanghai: Some Preliminary Investigations.” In Wen-hsin Yeh, ed., Becoming Chinese: Passages to Modernity and Beyond. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2000, 31-61.

—–. “Incomplete Modernity: Rethinking the May Fourth Intellectual Project.” In Milena Dolezelova-Velingerova and Oldrich Kral, eds., The Appropriation of Cultural Capital: China’s May Fourth Project. Cambridge: Harvard University Asia Center, 2001, 31-65.

—–. “May Fourth: Some Fin de Siecle Reflections.” Harvard Asia Quarterly (Summer 1999).

Lee, Mabel. “May Fourth: Symbol of the Spirit of Bring-It-Here-ism for Chinese Intellectuals.” Papers on Far Eastern History 41 (March 1990): 77-96.

Li, Hsiao-t’i. Opera, Society, and Politics: Chinese Intellectuals and Popular Culture, 1901-1937. Ph. D. diss. Cambridge: Harvard University, 1996.

Lin, Shaoyang. “Making National History with Literary History: Hegel’s Influence via Taine on Meiji Japan and the Late Qing and Early Republican China.” Frontiers of Literary Studies in China 9, 2 (2015): 160-89.

[Abstract: The essay sheds lights on the process of the making of national history with literary history in modern Japan and its influences on modern China. It argues that the simultaneous establishment of modern Japanese historiography and the writing of literary history in Japan had a direct impact on the establishment of Chinese historiography in the late Qing, and the writing of Chinese literary history in twentieth-century China. It will focus more on the philosophical ideas of Taine and Hegel and their influence in Japanese literary historiography and, due to the limited length of this paper, only by extension, that of China as well. The primary focus of this paper is the interaction of the modern Japanese and Chinese pursuit of new historical narratives in the construction of new national and cultural identities in the context of global modernity. It also stresses that, an invisible “origin,” the writing of Chinese (literary) history in the early twentieth-century, ironically, directly and indirectly, has been internalized by the writing of Japanese national history in an exclusive framework of nation-building.]

Lin, Yu-sheng. “Radical Iconoclasm in the May Fourth Period and the Future of Liberalism.” In Benjamin I. Schwartz, ed., Reflections on the May Fourth Movement: A Symposium. Cambridge: Harvard UP, 1973, 23-58.

—–. The Crisis of Chinese Consciousness: Radical Anti-traditionalism in the May Fourth Era. Madison: U. of Wisconsin Press, 1979.

Liu, Jiacheng. “Writing on Actresses and the Modern Transformation of Opera Fandom in 1910s Beijing.” Modern China 44, 6 (2018).

[Abstract: This article explores the modern transformation of opera fandom in early twentieth-century China through the hitherto unexamined fan literature about actresses by men of letters. Ostensibly conservative in both its style, based on earlier huapu (flower registers) writing, and its invocation of Confucian values, fan literature was caught up in the political and literary ferment of the times, proving to be startlingly innovative in developing new genres and appropriating reformist discourses. In promoting their preferred actresses, opera fans, writing in a sentimental style, dominated the public sphere of theater commentary and fought over the ethical position of women performers and their admirers. In some regard, the writings of opera fans in early Republican Beijing paralleled Butterfly fiction and the fans themselves constituted a sentiment-based, morally conflicted, and politically conservative urban public. The article argues that opera fandom was simultaneously a conservative response to modernity and the very embodiment of the creation of the Chinese modern.]

Liu, Jianhui. “The Role of Japan in the Formation of Modern Chinese Culture.” Nichibunken Newsletter 56 (Nov. 2004).

Liu, Lydia. Translingual Practice: Literature, National Culture and Translated Modernity, 1900-1937. Stanford: SUP, 1995.

—–. “A Folksong Immortal and Official Popular Culture in Twentieth-Century China.” In Judith T. Zeitlin and Lydia Liu, with Ellen Widmer, eds., Writing and Materiality in China: Essays in Honor of Patrick Hanan. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Asia Center, 2003, 553-609. [deals in part with May Fourth folklore movement]

Liu, Lydia, ed. Tokens of Exchange: The Problem of Translation in Global Circulations. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1999.

Liu, Siyuan. Performing Hybridity in Colonial-Modern China. NY: Palgrave Macmillan, 2013.

[Abstract: n Shanghai during the early portion of the twentieth century, a hybrid theatrical form emerged that was based on Western spoken theatre, classical Chinese theatre, and a Japanese hybrid form ofkabuki and Western-style spoken theatre called shinpa (new school drama). Known as wenmingxi (civilized drama), this form has, until recently, largely been ignored by scholars in China and the West as it does not fit into the current binary “traditional/modern” model in non-Western theatre and performance studies. This book places wenmingxi in the context of its hybridized literary and performance elements, giving it a definitive place in modern Chinese theatre.]

Liu, Tao Tao. “Perceptions of City and Country in Modern Chinese Fiction in the Early Republican Era.” In Liu and David Faure, eds., Town and Country in China: Identity and Perception. London: Palgrave, 2002, 203-32.

Lu, Ping. “Beyond Mr. Democracy and Mr. Science: The Introduction of Miss Moral and the Trend of Moral Retribution in the New Culture Movement.” Frontiers of History in China 2, 2 (2007): 254-86.

Ma, Yuxin. “Women Journalists in the Chinese Enlightenment, 1915-1923.” Gender Issues 22, 1 (Dec. 2005): 56-84.

—–. “Male Feminism and Women’s Subjectivities: Zhang Xichen, Chen Xuezhao, and the New Woman.” Twentieth-Century China 29, no.1 (Nov 2003) 1-37.

Manfredi, Paul. “Great Expectations: Self, Form, and the First Modern Chinese Poem.” Modern Chinese Literature and Culture 13, 2 (Fall 2001): 1-29.

Mao, Chen. Between Tradition and Change: The Hermeneutics of May Fourth Literature. Lanham, MD: University Press of America, 1997.

Masini, Federico. The Formation of Modern Chinese Lexicon and Its Evolution Toward a National Language: The Period from 1840-1898. The Journal of Chinese Linguistics Monograph Series no. 6. Berkeley, 1993.

McDougall, Bonnie. “The Impact of Western Literary Trends.” In Merle Goldman, ed., Modern Chinese Literature in the May Fourth Era. Cambridge: Harvard UP, 1977, 37-62.

—–. “Disappearing Women and Disappearing Men in May Fourth Narrative: A Post-Feminist Survey of Short Stories by Mao Dun, Bing Xin, Ling Shuhua and Shen Congwen.” In McDougall, Fictional Authors, Imaginary Audiences: Modern Chinese Literature in the Twentieth Century. HK: Chinese University Press, 2003, 133-70.

Mei Sheng, ed. Zhongguo funu wenti taolun ji (Collection of discussion on the Chinese women’s question). 6 vols. Shanghai: Xin wenhua, 1934 (originally published in 1923).

Meisner, Maurice. “Cultural Iconoclasm, Nationalism, and Internationalism in the May Fourth Movement.” In Benjamin I. Schwartz, ed., Reflections on the May Fourth Movement: A Symposium. Cambridge: Harvard UP, 1973, 14-22.

Mullaney, Thomas S. “Quote Unquote Language Reform: New-Style Punctuation and the Horizontalization of Chinese.” Modern Chinese Literature and Culture 29, 2  (Fall 2017): 206-250

Murthy, Viren. “The Politics of Fengjian in Late Qing and Early Republican China.” In Kai-wing Chow, Tze-ki Hon and Hung-yok Ip eds., Modernities as Local Practices, Nationalism, and Cultural Production: Deconstructing the May-Fourth Paradigm on Modern China. Lanham: Lexington Books, 2008.

Ng, Janet. The Experience of Modernity: Chinese Autobiography of the Early Twentieth Century. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2003. [with treatment of autobiographies by Chen Hengzhe, Lu Xun, Hu Shi, Xie Bingying, Eileen Chang, Yu Dafu, and Shen Congwen]

Ni, Ruiqin. “Tolstoy and the May Fourth Literature.” In Marian Galik, ed., Interliterary and Intraliterary Aspects of the May Fourth Movement 1919 in China. Bratislava: Veda, 1990, 223-33.

Odgen, Suzanne P. “The Sage in the Inkpot: Bertrand Russell and Chna’s Social Reconstruction in the 1920s.” Modern Asian Studies 16, 4 (1982): 529-600.

Owen, Stephen. “The End of the Past: Rewriting Chinese Literary History in the Early Republic.” In Milena Dolezelova-Velingerova and Oldrich Kral, eds., The Appropriation of Cultural Capital: China’s May Fourth Project. Cambridge: Harvard University Asia Center, 2001, 167-92.

Pusey, James Reeve. China and Charles Darwin. Cambridge: Council on East Asian Studies, Harvard University, 1983.

Rawski, Evelyn S. “The Social Agenda of May Fourth.” In K. Lieberthal et al., eds., Perspectives on Modern China: Four Anniversaries. Armonk: M.E. Sharpe, 1991, 139-57.

Rea, Christopher. The Age of Irreverence: A New History of Laughter in China. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2015. [MCLC Resource Center review by David Moser]

Russell, Bertrand. The Problem of China. London: George Allen and Unwin, 1966 (originally published 1922).

Saari, Hon L. Legacies of Childhood: Growing Up Chinese in a Time of Crisis, 1890-1920. Cambridge, MA: Council on East Asian Studies, Harvard University, 1990.

Sakamoto, Hiroko. “The Cult of ‘Love and Eugenics’ in May Fourth Movement Discourse.” positions: east asia cultures critique 12, 2 (Fall 2004): 329-376.

Schaeffer, Ingo. “Remarks on the Question of Individuality and Subjectivity in the Literature of the May Fourth Period.” In Marian Galik, ed., Interliterary and Intraliterary Aspects of the May Fourth Movement 1919 in China. Bratislava: Veda, 1990, 21-43.

Schwarcz, Vera. “Ibsen’s Nora: The Promise and the Trap.” Bulletin of Concerned Asian Scholars (Jan-Mar. 1975).

—–. “Remapping May Fourth: Between Nationalism and Enlightenment.” Republican China 12, 1 (Nov. 1986): 20-35.

—–. The Chinese Enlightenment: Intellectuals and the Legacy of the May Fourth Movement of 1919. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1986.

Schwartz, Benjamin, ed. Reflections on the May Fourth Movement: A Symposium. Cambridge: East Asian Research Center, Harvard University, 1973. [essays by C. Furth, M. Goldman, Grieder, L. Lee, Yu-sheng Lin, and Meisner]

—–. “Themes in Intellectual History: May Fourth and After.” In Merle Goldman an Leo Ou-fan Lee, eds., An Intellectual History of Modern China. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 2002, 97-141.

Shen, Samson C. “Tagore and China.” In the Footsteps of Xuanzang: Tan Yun-shan and India. Indira Gandhi National Centre for the Arts, 1999.

Song, Mingwei. “The Bildungsroman of New Youth: May Fourth and the Modern Novel.” In Song, Young China: National Rejuvenation and the Bildungsroman, 1900–1959. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Asia Center, 2015, 113-149.

Sun, Lung-kee. “The Presence of the Fin-de-siecle in the May Fourth Era.” In Gail Hershatter, et.al., eds., Remapping China: Fissures in Historical Terrain. Stanford: SUP, 1996, 194-209.

Takeuchi, Yoshimi. What Is Modernity? Writings of Takeuchi Yoshimi. Tr. Richard Calichman. New York: Columbia University Press, 2005. [among others, has essays on Lu Xun and Hu Shi]

Tam, Kwok-kan. “Iconoclasm as Ibsenism: Ibsen in the May Fourth Era.” In Marian Galik, ed., Interliterary and Intraliterary Aspects of the May Fourth Movement 1919 in China. Bratislava: Veda, 1990, 119-28.

—–. “Ibsenism and Ideological Constructions of the ‘New Woman’ in Modern Chinese Fiction.” In Peng-hisang Chen and Whitney Crothers Dilley, eds., Feminism/Femininity in Chinese Literature. Amsterdam,: Rodopi, 2002, 179-86.

—–. “Ibsenism and the Modern Chinese Self.” Monumenta Serica 54 (2006): 287-98.

Tan, Chung. “Tagore’s Inspiration in China’s New Poetry.” In Tan Chung, ed., Across the Himalayan Gap: An Indian Quest for Understanding China. New Delhi: Indira Gandhi National Centre for the Arts, 1998.

Tang, Xiaobing, with Michel Hockx. “The Creation Society (1921-1930).” In Kirk A. Denton and Michel Hockx, eds., Literary Societies in Republican China. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 2008, 103-36.

Teow, See Heng. Japanese Cultural Policy toward China, 1918-1931: A Comparative Perspective. Cambridge: Harvard University Asia Center, 1999.

Teruo, Tarumoto. “A Statistical Survey of Translated Fiction, 1840-1920.” In David Pollard, ed., Translation and Creation: Readings of Western Literature in Early Modern China. Amsterdan, Philadelphia: J. Benjamins, 1998, 37-42.

Tschanz, Dietrich. “The New Drama before the New Drama: Drama Journals and Drama Reform in Shanghai before the May Fourth Movement.” Theatre InSight 10, 1 (1999): 49-59.

Tsu, Jing. Failure, Nationalism, and Literature: The Making of a Modern Chinese Identity, 1895-1937. Palo Alto, CA: Stanford UP, 2005.

[Abstract: How often do we think of cultural humiliation and failure as strengths? Against prevailing views on what it means to enjoy power as individuals, cultures, or nations, this provocative book looks at the making of cultural and national identities in modern China as building success on failure. It reveals the exercise of sovereign power where we least expect it and shows how this is crucial to our understanding of a modern world of conflict, violence, passionate suffering, and cultural difference. ]

Tu, Wei-ming. “Iconoclasm, Holistic Vision, and Patient Watchfulness: a Personal Reflection on the Modern Chinese Intellectual Quest.” Daedalus 116, 2 (1987): 75-94.

Veg, Sebastian. Fictions du pouvoir chinois: Littérature, modernisme et démocratie au début du XXe siècle. Paris: Editions EHESS, 2009.

—–. “Democratic Modernism: Rethinking the Politics of Early Twentieth-Century Fiction in China and Europe.” boundary 2 38, 3 (2011): 27-65.

Vogel, Ezra. “The Unlikely Heroes: The Social Role of the May Fourth Writers.” In Merle Goldman, ed., Modern Chinese Literature in the May Fourth Era. Cambridge: Harvard UP, 1977, 145-60.

Wagner, Rudolf. “The Canonization of May Fourth.” In Milena Dolezelova-Velingerova and Oldrich Kral, eds., The Appropriation of Cultural Capital: China’s May Fourth Project. Cambridge: Harvard University Asia Center, 2001, 66-121.

Wang, Bo. Inventing a Discourse of Resistance: Rhetorical Women in Early Twentieth-Century China. Phd diss. Tempe: University of Arizona, 1995.

Wang, C.T. The Youth Movement in China. New York: New Republic, 1927.

Wang, Edward Q. Inventing China Through History: The May Fourth Approach to Historiography. Albany: SUNY Press, 2001.

Wang, Fan-sen. Fu Ssu-nien: A Life in Chinese History and Politics. NY: Cambridge UP, 2000.

Wang, Hui 汪晖. “The Fate of ‘Mr. Science’ in China: The Concept of Science and Its Application in Modern Chinese Thought.” positions 3, 1 (1995): 1-68.

—–. Wu di panghuang: Wusi ji qi huisheng 无地彷徨: 五四及其回声  (No room for wandering: May Fourth and its echoes). Hangzhou: Zhejiang wenyi, 1994.

—–. “The Liberation of the Object and the Interrogation of Modernity: Rethinking The Rise of Modern Chinese Thought.” Modern China 34, 1 (2008).

—–. “How to Explain ‘China” and Its ‘Modernity’: Rethinking The Rise of Modern Chinese Thought.” Tr. Wang Yang. In Wang Hui, The Politics of Imagining Asia. Ed. Theodore Huters. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2011, 63-94. Previously published as “The Liberation of the Object and the Interrogation of Modernity: Rethinking the Rise of Modern China.” Modern China 4, 1 (Jan. 2008): 114-40.

—–. “The Transformation of Culture and Politics: War, Revolution, and the ‘Thought Warfare’ of the 1910s.” Twentieth-Century China 38, 1 (Jan. 2013): 5-33.

[Abstract: During the May Fourth Culture Movement, Chen Duxiu from New Youth and Du Yaquan of Eastern Miscellany engaged in a series of heated exchanges in their common search for a solution to the Republican crisis and an understanding of World War I. Du argued that nation-states are founded on the cultural and civilizational orientation of its people, therefore the essence of war and the source of political conflict are functions of the thoughts of the people. This insight shifted the debate from the political to the cultural arena, and allowed the May Fourth intellectuals to examine the attributes of Eastern and Western civilizations as a way to counter the threats of Hongxian monarchism, China’s political and social fragmentation, as well as the inadequacies of Western nation-statehood. Du predicted that the future master of the twentieth century would be a scientific laborer with a cultural outlook derived from the mediation of the traditional Chinese and twentieth-century European civilizations.]

“Weber and the Question of Chinese Modernity.” Tr. Theodore Huters. In Wang Hui, The Politics of Imagining Asia. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2011, 264-305.

Wang, Jing M. When “I” Was Born: Women’s Autobiography in Modern China. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 2008.

[Abstract: In the period between the 1920s and 1940s, a genre emerged in Chinese literature that would reveal crucial contradictions in Chinese culture that still exist today. At a time of intense political conflict, Chinese women began to write autobiography, a genre that focused on personal identity and self-exploration rather than the national, collective identity that the country was championing. The author seeks to reclaim the voices of these particular writers, voices that have been misinterpreted and overlooked for decades. Tracing women writers as they move from autobiographical fiction, often self-revelatory and personal, to explicit autobiographies that focused on women’s roles in public life, Jing M. Wang reveals the factors that propelled this literary movement, the roles that liberal translators and their renditions of Western life stories played, and the way in which these women writers redefined writing and gender in the stories they told. But Wang reveals another story as well: the evolving history and identity of women in modern Chinese society. When “I” Was Born adds to a growing body of important work in Chinese history and culture, women’s studies, and autobiography in a global context. Writers discussed include Xie Bingying, Zhang Ailing, Yu Yinzi, Fei Pu, Lu Meiyen, Feng Heyi, Ye Qian, Bai Wei, Shi Wen, Fan Xiulin, Su Xuelin, and LuYin.]

Wang, Xiaoming. “A Journal and a ‘Society’: On the ‘May Fourth’ Literary Tradition.” Modern Chinese Literature and Culture 11, 2 (Fall 1999): 1-39.

Wang, Xiaoping. “The Problematic of ‘High (-Brow) Literature’ and ‘Low (-Brow) Literature’: Some Thoughts on the Origins of Modern Chinese Literature.” Frontiers of Literary Studies in China 7, 1 (2013): 117-41.

[Abstract: This paper discusses the criteria according to which literature is categorized as “high (-brow) literature” or “low (-brow) literature” in modern China. It suggests that these standards change over time and are intimately tied to the problematics of canonization, legitimization, and cultural hegemony. In modern China, the criteria are also closely related to class differentiation. Furthermore, it contends that, in the Chinese academic world, there is often a tendency to interpret certain forms of middle-brow literature as belletristic literature that breaks though the boundary between “high (-brow) literature” and “low (-brow) literature.” In discussing “middle-brow” literature in modern China, this paper takes “Mandarin Ducks and Butterfly” literature as the object of its analysis and proposes that middle-brow literature is essentially the moralization of political and social issues, which serves to displace social-economic and political concerns. This is usually accomplished through the glorification of conservative ethical-moral viewpoints.]

Wang, Young-tsu. “The Intricate Mentality of May Fourth.” Modern Asian Studies 10, 2 (April 1976).

Weng, Jeffrey. “What Is Mandarin? The Social Project of Language Standardization in Early Republican China.” Journal of Asian Studies 77, 3 (2018): 611-33.

[Abstract: Scholars who study language often see standard or official languages as oppressive, helping the socially advantaged to entrench themselves as elites. This article questions this view by examining the Chinese case, in which early twentieth-century language reformers attempted to remake their society’s language situation to further national integration. Classical Chinese, accessible only to a privileged few, was sidelined in favor of Mandarin, a national standard newly created for the many. This article argues that Mandarin’s creation reflected an entirely new vision of society. It draws on archival sources on the design and promulgation of Mandarin from the 1910s to the 1930s to discuss how the way the language was standardized reflected the nature of the imagined future society it was meant to serve. Language reform thus represented a radical rethinking of how society should be organized: linguistic modernity was to be a national modernity, in which all the nation’s people would have access to the new official language, and thus increased opportunities for advancement.]

Weston, Timothy. “The Formation and Positioning of the New Culture Community, 1913-1917.” Modern China 24, 3 (1998): 255-84.

Widmer, Ellen. “The Rhetoric of Retrospection: May Fourth Literary History and the Ming-Qing Woman Writer.” In Milena Dolezelova-Velingerova and Oldrich Kral, eds., The Appropriation of Cultural Capital: China’s May Fourth Project. Cambridge: Harvard University Asia Center, 2001, 193-227.

—–. “Inflecting Gender: Zhan Kai/Siqi Zhai’s “New Novels” and Courtesan Sketches.” Nan Nu: Men, Women, and Gender in China 6, 1 (2004).

Witke, Roxanne. Transformation of Attitudes towards Women during the May Fourth Era of Modern China. Ph.D. diss. Berkeley: University of California, 1970.

Wong, Linda Pui-ling. “The Initial Reception of Oscar Wilde in Modern China: With Special Reference to Salome.” Comparative Literature and Culture 3 (Sept. 1998): 52-73.

Wong, Wang-chi. “An Act of Violence: Translation of Western Fiction in the late Qing and early Republican Period.” In Michel Hockx, ed., The Literary Field of Twentieth Century China. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1999, 21-39.

Wu, Shengqing. “Contested Fengya: Classical-Style Poetry Clubs in Early Republican China.” In Kirk A. Denton and Michel Hockx, eds., Literary Societies of Republican China. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 2008, 15-46.

—–. Modern Archaics: Continuity and Innovation in the Chinese Lyric Tradition, 1900-1937. Cambridge: Harvard University Asia Center, 2013. [MCLC Resource Center review by Jon Eugene von Kowallis]

[Abstract: After the collapse of the Qing dynasty in 1911 and the rise of a vernacular language movement, most scholars and writers declared the classical Chinese poetic tradition to be dead. But how could a longstanding high poetic form simply grind to a halt, even in the face of tumultuous social change? In this groundbreaking book, Wu explores the transformation of Chinese classical-style poetry in the early twentieth century. Drawing on extensive archival research into the poetry collections and literary journals of two generations of poets and critics, Wu discusses the continuing significance of the classical form with its densely allusive and intricately wrought style. She combines close readings of poems with a depiction of the cultural practices their authors participated in, including poetry gatherings, the use of mass media, international travel, and translation, to show how the lyrical tradition was a dynamic force fully capable of engaging with modernity. By examining the works and activities of previously neglected poets who maintained their commitment to traditional aesthetic ideals, Modern Archaics illuminates the splendor of Chinese lyricism and highlights the mutually transformative power of the modern and the archaic.]

Wusi yundong huiyilu 五四运动回忆录 (Memoirs of the May Fourth movement). Beijing: Zhonghua shuju, 1959.

Xu, Jilin . “Historical Memories of May Fourth: Patriotism, But of What Kind?” Tr. Duncan Campgell. China Heritage Quarterly 17 (March 2009).

—–. “May Fourth: A Patriotic Movement of Cosmopolitanism.” Sungkyun Journal of East Asian Studies 9, 1 (April 2009): 29-61.

Xu, Xiaoqun. Cosmopolitanism, Nationalism, and Individualism in Modern China: The Chenbao Fukan and the New Culture Era, 1918-1928. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 2014.

[Abstract: analyzes important aspects of Chinese intellectual life and cultural practices that formed and informed the historical phenomenon known as the New Culture era. Through examining an influential newspaper supplement published in Beijing during 1918–1928, along with other contemporary sources, the book explores the full dimensions and rich textures of the intellectual-literary discourses of the time period and contributes to a re-consideration and re-appreciation of the New Culture phenomenon in modern China. It highlights a key intellectual-moral paradox in Chinese discourses between cosmopolitanism as an idealistic aspiration and nationalism as a practical imperative, both in complex relationship to individualism, a paradox that ultimately speaks to the constant negotiations between Chinese tradition and Western culture in the making of Chinese modernity. These issues have remained vitally relevant to China and the world nearly a century later.]

Xu, Xueqing. “The Mandarin Duck and Butterfly School.” In Kirk A. Denton and Michel Hockx, eds., Literary Societies in Republican China. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 2008, 47-78.

Yan, Jiayan. “The Origin, Features, and Evaluation of the May Fourth New Vernacular.” Frontiers of Literary Studies in China 2, 4 (Dec. 2008): 599-616.

Ye, Ziming. “Humanism and the May Fourth New Literature.” In Marian Galik, ed., Interliterary and Intraliterary Aspects of the May Fourth Movement 1919 in China. Bratislava: Veda, 1990, 201-11.

Yeh, Catherine Vance. “Root Literature of the 1980s as a Double Burden.” In Milena Dolezelova-Velingerova and Oldrich Kral, eds., The Appropriation of Cultural Capital: China’s May Fourth Project. Cambridge: Harvard University Asia Center, 2001, 229-56.

Yeh, Michelle. “A New Orientation to Poetry: the Transition from Traditional to Modern Chinese Poetry in the May Fourth Era.” In Marian Galik, ed., Interliterary and Intraliterary Aspects of the May Fourth Movement 1919 in China. Bratislava: Veda, 1990, 93-100.

Yeh, Wen-hsin. “Middle County Radicals: The May Fourth Movement in Zhejiang.” The China Quarterly 140 (Dec. 1994): 903-925.

Yin, Zhiguang. Politics of Art: The Creation Society and the Practice of Theoretical Struggle in Revolutionary China. Leiden: Brill, 2014. [MCLC Resource Center review by Liang Luo]

[Abstract: In Politics of Art Zhiguang Yin investigates members of the Creation Society and their social network while in Japan. The study contextualises the Chinese left-wing intellectual movements and their political engagements in relation with the early 20th century international political events and trends in both East Asia and Europe. The Creation Society was largely viewed as a subject of literary studies. This research, however, evaluates these intellectuals in the context of Chinese revolution and elaborates their theoretical contribution to the Chinese Communist Party’s practice of “theoretical struggle” as a main driving force of ideological construction. As this study tries to demonstrate, theoretical struggle drives the ideological politics forward while maintaining its political vigour.]

Yu, Ying-shih. “Neither Renaissance nor Engligtenment: A Historian’s Reflections on the May Fourth Movement.” In Milena Dolezelova-Velingerova and Oldrich Kral, eds., The Appropriation of Cultural Capital: China’s May Fourth Project. Cambridge: Harvard University Asia Center, 2001, 299-324.

Yue, Ming-bao. “Am I That Name?: Women’s Writing as Cultural Translation in Early 1920’s China.” Comparative Criticism 22 (Fall 2000): 63-89.

Zhang, Jingyuan. Psychoanalysis in China: Literary Transformations, 1919-1949. Ithaca: Cornell East Asia Series, 1992.

Zhou, Gang. Placing the Modern Chinese Vernacular in Transnational Literature. NY: Palgrave Macmillan, 2011. [MCLC Resource Center review by Jon Eugene von Kowallis]

[Abstract: This is the first book to concentrate not only on the triumph of the vernacular in modern China but also on the critical role of the rise of the vernacular in world literature, invoking parallel cases from countries throughout Europe and Asia. Contents: Introduction; The Language of Utopia; The Chinese Renaissance; The Shaky House; ‘The Vernacular Only’ Writing Mode; Epilogue]

Zhu, Ping. Gender and Subjectivities in Early Twentieth Century Chinese Literature and Culture. NY: Palgrave Macmillan, 2015. [MCLC Resource Center review by Yi Zheng]

[Abstract: offers an in-depth study on how late Qing and modern Chinese intellectuals used gender as a discursive battlefield to demand power vis-à-vis colonial discourses. Through a combination of cultural analysis and literary analysis, including discussions of modern Chinese writers such as Lu Xun, Yu Dafu, Zhang Ziping, Guo Moruo, Mu Shiying, Liu Na’ou, Bai Wei, and Ding Ling, Ping Zhu shows the resilience and malleability of Chinese modernity via a femininity imagined an empowered and empowering. By focusing on ‘the feminine at large,’ this book draws a contrasting image of the docile, contained feminine in colonial gender ideology to provide one salient example of China’s politics of resistance.]

Zou, John. “Travel and Translation: An Aspect of China’s Cultural Modernity, 1862-1926.” In Yingjin Zhang, ed., China in a Polycentric World: Essays in Chinese Comparative Literature. Stanford: Stanford UP, 1998, 133-51.


Post-May Fourth (1920s-1930s)

Ai, Xiaoming. “Polemics on Literature and Art in Soviet Russia During the 1920s and Debate on Revolutionary Literature in China.” Tr. Deng Shiwu. Social Sciences in China 10, 1 (Mar 1989):141-157.

Anderson, Marsten. The Limits of Realism: Chinese Fiction in the Revolutionary Period. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1990.

Biasco, Margherita. “The Crisis of the Family System and the Search for a New Identity of Chinese Youth.” In Marian Galik, ed., Interliterary and Intraliterary Aspects of the May Fourth Movement 1919 in China. Bratislava: Veda, 1990, 189-200.

Button, Peter. Configurations of the Real in Chinese Literary and Aesthetic Modernity. Leiden: Brill, 2009. [MCLC Resource Center Publications review by Thomas Moran]

[Abstract: The emergence of the Chinese socialist realist novel can best be understoodin light of the half-century long formation of the modern concept ofliterature in China. Globalized in the wake of modern capitalism, literary modernity configures the literary text in a relationship to both modern philosophy and literary theory. This book traces China’s unique, complex, and creative articulation of literary modernity beginning with Lu Xun’s “The True Story of Ah Q.” Cai Yi’s aesthetic theory of the type (dianxing) and the image (xingxiang) is then explored in relation to global currents in literary thought and philosophy, making possible a fundamental rethinking of Chinese socialist realist novels like Yang Mo’s Song of Youth and Luo Guangbin and Yan Yiyan’s Red Crag.]

Chan, Adrian. “Towards a Marxist Theory and Sociology of Literature in China, to 1933.” In Gungwu Wang, ed., Society and the Writer: Essays on Literature in Modern Asia. Canberra: Research School of Pacific Studies, The Australian National University, 1981, 155-72.

Chan, Sylvia. “Realism or Socialist Realism?: The ‘Proletarian’ Episode in Modern Chinese Literature.” Australian Journal of Chinese Affairs 9 (Jan. 1983): 55-74.

Chang, Shuei-May, ed. Casting Off the Shackles of Family: Ibsen’s Nora Figure in Modern Chinese Literature, 1918-1942. Peter Lang, 2002.

Chen, Jianhua. “Canon Formation and Linguistic Turn: Literary Debates in Republican China, 1919-1949.” In Kai-Wing Chow, Tze-ki Hon, Hung-yok Ip, and Don C. Price, eds., Beyond the May Fourth Paradigm: In Search for Chinese Modernity. Lanham: Lexington Books, 2008, 51-67.

—–. “The Northern Expedition and Revolution Plus Love Fiction.” In Tao Dongfeng, Yang Xiaobin, Rosemary Roberts, and Yang Ling, eds. Chinese Revolution and Chinese Literature. Cambridge: University of Cambridge Press, 2009, 163-78.

—–. “Revolution: From Literary Revolution to Revolutionary Literature.” In Ban Wang, ed., Words and Their Stories: Essays on the Language of the Chinese Revolution. Leiden: Brill, 2010, 15-32.

Chen, Xiaomei. “Tian Han and the Southern Society Phenomenon: Networking the Personal, Communal, and Cultural.” In Kirk A. Denton and Michel Hockx, eds., Literary Societies in Republican China. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 2008, 241-79.

Chu, Samuel. “The New Life Movement, 1934-37.” In John Lane, ed., Researches in the Social Sciences on China. NY: 1957, 1-17.

Chun, Tarryn. “Revolutionary Illumination: Stage Lighting, Politics, and Play in 1930s Shanghai Theater.” Modern Chinese Literature and Culture 30, 2  (Fall 2018): 87-140.

The Common People and the Artist in the 1930s: An Essay in the Cultural and Social Metahistory of China through Visual Sources.

[The present project proposes a new form of “intellectual journey. This would be a journey in which historical knowledge is produced and conveyed by visual materials integrated into an architecture of relational data.2 Our exploration of this approach in the fields of history and China studies has a major purpose: opening the way to comparable applications in all the social sciences. This project will take up the challenge of elaborating a new form of historical writing. The objective is not simply to combine texts and documents but to make these different elements “speak” separately, in parallel and/or together. To achieve these goals, the participants in this project will follow a parallel route on the basis of three distinct corpuses of still pictures (photographs) and moving pictures (films) centered on three groups of individuals (“common people”, “peasant-boatmen”, “actors, actresses and new women” in three different spaces at the same period (the 1920s and the 1930s)]

Daruvala, Susan. Zhou Zuoren and an alternative Chinese Response to Modernity. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Asia Center, 2000.

—–. “Yuefeng: A Literary Journal of the 1930s.” In Kirk A. Denton and Michel Hockx, eds., Literary Societies in Republican China. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 2008, 339-78. Originally published in a different version as “Yuefeng: A Literary Journal of the 1930s.” Modern Chinese Literature and Culture 18, 2 (Fall 2006): 39-97.

Denton, Kirk A. “Introduction.” In Denton, Modern Chinese Literary Thought: Writings on Literature, 1893-1945. Stanford: Stanford UP, 1996, 1-61.

Dirlik, Arif. “The Ideological Foundations of the New Life Movement: A Study in Counterrevolution.” Journal of Asian Studies 34, 4 (Aug. 1975): 945-80.

Dooling, Amy D. Feminism and Narrative Strategies in Early Twentieth-Century Chinese Women’s Writing. Ph.D. Diss. NY: Columbia University, 1998.

—–. Women’s Literary Feminism in Twentieth-Century China. NY: Palgrave MacMillan, 2005. [contains the following chapters: (1) National imaginaries : feminist fantasies at the turn of the century; (2) The new woman’s women; (3) Love and/or revolution? : fictions of the feminine self in the 1930s cultural left; (4) Outwitting patriarchy : comic narrative strategies in the works of Yang Jiang, Su Qing, and Zhang Ailing; (5) A world still to win]

Farquhar, Mary. “Revolutionary Children’s Literature.” Australian Journal of Chinese Affairs 4 (July 1980): 61-84.

Ferry, Megan. Chinese Women Writers of the 1930s and Their Critical Reception. Ph.d diss. St. Louis: Washington University, 1998.

Findeisen, Raoul David. “From Literature to Love: Glory and Decline of the Love-Letter Genre.” In Michel Hockx, ed., The Literary Field of Twentieth Century China. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1999, 79-112.

Fogel, Joshua A. “Japanese Literary Travelers in Prewar China.” Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies 49, 2 (1989): 575-602.

Fried, Daniel. “A Bloody Absence: Communist Narratology and the Literature of May Thirtieth.”Chinese Literature: Essays, Articles, and Reviews 26 (2004): 23-53.

Furth, Charlotte. “Cultural Politics in Modern Chinese Conservatism.” In Furth, ed., The Limits of Change: Essays on Conservative Alternatives in Republican China. Cambridge: Harvard UP, 1976, 22-53.

Furth, Charlotte, ed. The Limits of Change: Essays on Conservative Alternatives in Republican China. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1976.

Galik, Marian. “Goethe in China (1932).” Asian and African Studies (Bratislava) 14 (1978): 11-25.

—–. “Between the Garden of Gethsemane and Golgotha: The Last Night and Day of Jesus in Modern Chinese Literaturre (1921-1942).” Tamkang Review 31, 4-32,1 (Summer-Autumn 2001): 99-116.

Gao, Hua. How the Red Sun Rose: The Origin and Development of the Yan’an Rectification Movement, 1930–1945. Translated by Stacey Mosher and Guo Jian. Hong Kong: The Chinese University Press, 2017.

[Abstract: This work offers the most comprehensive account of the origin and consequences of the Yan’an Rectification Movement from 1942 to 1945. The author argues that this campaign emancipated the Chinese Communist Party from Soviet-influenced dogmatism and unified the Party, preparing it for the final victory against the Nationalist Party in 1949. More importantly, this monograph shows in great detail how Mao Zedong established his leadership through this party-wide political movement by means of aggressive intra-party purges, thought control, coercive cadre examinations, and total reorganizations of the Party’s upper structure. The result of this movement not only set up the foundation for Mao’s new China, but also deeply influenced the Chinese political structure today. The Chinese version of How the Red Sun Rose was published in 2000, and has had nineteen printings since then.]

Ge, Baoquan. “The Influence of Russian Classical Literature on Modern Chinese Literature Before and After the May Fourth Movement.” In Marian Galik, ed., Interliterary and Intraliterary Aspects of the May Fourth Movement 1919 in China. Bratislava: Veda, 1990, 213-22.

Goldman, Merle. “Left-Wing Criticism of the Pai-Hua Movement.” In Benjamin I. Schwartz, ed., Reflections on the May Fourth Movement: A Symposium. Cambridge, MA: East Asian Research Center, Harvard University, 1973, 85-94.

Gruner, Fritz. “Some Remarks on the Cultural-political Significance of the Chinese League of Left-wing Writers at the Beginning of the 1930’s.” In A.R. Davis, ed., Search for Identity: Modern Literature and the Creative Arts in Asia: papers presented to the 28 International Congress of Orientalists. Sydney: Angus and Robertson, 1975, 255-259.

Ho, Dahpon. “Night Thoughts of a Hungry Ghost Writer: Chen Bulei and the Life of Service in Republican China.” Modern Chinese Literature and Culture 19, 1 (Spring 2007): 1-59.

Hockx, Michel. “In Defense of the Censor: Literary Autonomy and State Authority in Shanghai, 1930-1936.” Journal of Modern Literature in Chinese 2, 1 (July 1998): 1-30.

—–. Questions of Style: Literary Societies and Literary Journals in Modern China, 1911-1937. Leiden: E. J. Brill, 2003. [MCLC Resource Center review by Edward M. Gunn]

—–. “Gentility in a Shanghai Literary Salon in the 1930s.” In Berg, Daria and Starr, Chloe, eds., The Quest for Gentility in China: Negotiations Beyond Gender and Class. Routledge, 2007, 58-72.

—–. “Perverse Poems and Suspicious Salons: The Friday School in Modern Chinese Literature.” In Carlos Rojas and Eileen Cheng-yin Chow, eds., Rethinking Chinese Popular Culture: Cannibalizations of the Canon. NY: Routledge, 2009, 15-39.

Hsia, T. A. The Gate of Darkness: Studies on the Leftist Literary Movement in China. Seattle: U. of Washingtion P, 1968.

—–. “Ch’u Ch’iu-po: The Making and Destruction of a Tenderhearted Communist.” In Hsia, The Gate of Darkness: Studies on the Leftist Literary Movement. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1968, 3-54.

—–. “Lu Hsun and the Dissolution of the League of Leftist Writers.” In Hsia, The Gate of Darkness: Studies on the Leftist Literary Movement. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1968, 101-63.

—–. “Enigma of the Five Martyrs.” In Hsia, The Gate of Darkness: Studies on the Leftist Literary Movement. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1968, 163-233.

—–. “Twenty Years after the Yenan Forum.” In Hsia, The Gate of Darkness: Studies on the Leftist Literary Movement. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1968, 234-60.

Hsueh, Daphne.”Why Nora? Ibsen’s A Doll’s House in China and Its Early Imitation.” Journal of the Chinese Language Teachers Association 16, 3 (1981): 1-18

Huang, Nicole. “War, Revolution, and Urban Transformation: Chinese Literature of the Republican Era, 1920s-1940s.” In Yingjin Zhang, ed. A Companion to Modern Chinese Literature. Chichester, UK: Wiley Blackwell, 2016, 54-66.

Hunter, Neale. The League of Left-Wing Writers, Shanghai, 1930-1936. Ph.d. diss. Canberra: Australian National University, 1973.

—–. “Another look at the League of Left-Wing Writers.” In A.R. Davis, ed., Search for identity: modern literature and the creative arts in Asia: papers presented to the 28 International Congress of Orientalists. Sydney: Angus and Robertson, 1975, 260-270.

Huters, Theodore. “Between Praxis and Essence: The Search for Cultural Expression in the Chinese Revolution.” In Arif Dirlik and Maurice Meisner eds., Marxism and the Chinese Experience. Armonk, NY: M. E. Sharpe, 1989, 316-37.

Imbach, Jessica. “Ghost Talk in 1936: ‘Living Ghosts’ and ‘Real Ghosts’ in Republican-Era Literary Discourse and the Two Analects Fortnightly Ghost-Story Special Issues.” Journal of Modern Literature in Chinese 12, 1 (2014): 14-45.

Ip, Hung-yok. Intellectuals in Revolutionary China, 1921-1949: Leaders, Heroes and Sophisticates. NY: RoutledgeCurzon, 2005.

[Abstract: This book originally examines how prominent communist intellectuals in China during the revolutionary period (1921 to 1940) constructed and presented identities for themselves and how they narrated their place in the revolution. Table of Contents. Part 1: Introduction 1. Perspectives;l Part 2: Leaders: Self-Construction from the Functional Perspective 2. Radical Intellectuals as the Guiding Force of Change: The Beginning of the Political Odyssey 3. Manufacturing Political Leadership I: The Yaqian Intellectuals and Peng Pai 4. Manufacturing Political Leadership II: Mao Zedong Part 3: Heroes: Self-Construction from the Emotional Perspective 5. Narrating Politicized Subjectivity 6. The Nobility of Ambivalence and Devotion Part 4: Sophisticates: Self-Construction from the Aesthetic Perspective 7. Clinging to Refinement in the Revolution Part 5: Epilogue 8. Self-Construction, Politics and Culture: Some General Reflections 9. Conclusion.]

Jin, Siyan. La metamorphose des image poetiques des symbolistes francais aux symbolistes chinois, 1915-1937. Dortmund: Projekt Verlag, 1996.

Jones, Andrew F. Developmental Fairy Tales: Evolutionary Thinking and Modern Chinese Culture. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2011.

[Abstract: In 1992 Deng Xiaoping famously declared, “Development is the only hard imperative.” What ensued was the transformation of China from a socialist state to a capitalist market economy. The spirit of development has since become the prevailing creed of the People’s Republic, helping to bring about unprecedented modern prosperity, but also creating new forms of poverty, staggering social upheaval, physical dislocation, and environmental destruction. In Developmental Fairy Tales, Andrew F. Jones asserts that the groundwork for this recent transformation was laid in the late nineteenth century, with the translation of the evolutionary works of Lamarck, Darwin, and Spencer into Chinese letters. He traces the ways that the evolutionary narrative itself evolved into a form of vernacular knowledge which dissolved the boundaries between beast and man and reframed childhood development as a recapitulation of civilizational ascent, through which a beleaguered China might struggle for existence and claim a place in the modern world-system. This narrative left an indelible imprint on China’s literature and popular media, from children’s primers to print culture, from fairy tales to filmmaking. Jones’s analysis offers an innovative and interdisciplinary angle of vision on China’s cultural evolution. He focuses especially on China’s foremost modern writer and public intellectual, Lu Xun, in whose work the fierce contradictions of his generation’s developmentalist aspirations became the stuff of pedagogical parable. Developmental Fairy Tales revises our understanding of literature’s role in the making of modern China by revising our understanding of developmentalism’s role in modern Chinese literature.]

Kane, Anthony J. The League of Left Wing Writers and Chinese Literary Policy. Ph.D. diss. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan, 1982.

Keaveney, Christopher T. “Uchiyama Kanzô’s Shanghai Bookstore and Its Impact on May Fourth Writers.” E-ASPAC 1 (2001).

—–. “Literary Interventions: Yamamoto Sanehiko’s Contributions to Sino-Japanese Literary Exchange in the Interwar Period.” Modern Chinese Literature and Culture 22, 2 (Fall 2010): 196-230.

Knight, Sabina. “Social Fiction: Must Context Entail Determinism?” In The Heart of Time: Moral Agency in Twentieth-Century Chinese Fiction. Cambridge: Harvard University Asia Center, 2006, 104-30.

Kuo, Ya-pei. Debating Culture in Interwar China. NY: Routledge, 2010.

[Abstract: The May Fourth era (1915-1927) is considered a pivotal point in the history of modern China. This period is usually portrayed as a “Chinese Enlightenment,” a period during which total change from the past was sought through the appropriation of Western science and democracy. Conventional narratives concentrate on the dominant intellectual current of the period, the New Culture Movement, as the inspiration for social reform and political revolution. This book challenges that revolution-centered narrative of May Fourth history by showing how the propositions of New Culture were questioned and revised after the initial radical phase. Through a focus on the post-1919 debates on culture, identity, and history, this book argues that Chinese intellectuals reformulated their visions of modernity through critiques of both Occidentalism and totalistic iconoclasm. Importantly, it also argues that the global post-WWI ambivalence towards the idea of Progress in Western civilization impacted significantly on the development of the May Fourth era in its latter stage.]

Laing, Ellen Johnston. “Shanghai Manhua, the Neo-Sensationist School of Literature, and Scenes of Urban Life.” MCLC Resource Center (Sept. 2010).

Lao, Chao-Chih. “Humor versus Huaji.” The Journal of Language and Linguistics 2, 1 (2003): 25-46.

Larson, Wendy. “The End of ‘Funu wenxue’: Women’s Literature from 1925 to 1935.” Modern Chinese Literature 4, 1/2 (1988): 39-54. Also in Tani Barlow, ed., Gender Politics in Modern China. Durham: Duke University Press, 1993, 58-73.

—–. “Psychology and Freudian Sexual Theory in Early 20th Century China.” In Larson, From Ah Q to Lei Feng: Freud and Revolutionary Spirit in 20th Century China. Stanford: Stanford UP, 2009, 31-76.

Laughlin, Charles A. Chinese Reportage: The Aesthetics of Historical Experience. Durham: Duke University Press, 2002.

—–. “The Debate on Revolutionary Literature.” In Joshua Mostow, ed, and Kirk A. Denton, China section, ed., Columbia Companion to Modern East Asian Literatures. NY: Columbia UP, 2003, 401-404. Rpt. in Denton, ed, Columbia Companion to Modern Chinese Literature. NY: Columbia University Press, 2016, 159-62.

—–. “The Analects Group and the Genre of Xiaopin.” In Kirk A. Denton and Michel Hockx, eds., Literary Societies in Republican China. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 2008, 207-40.

—–. The Literature of Leisure and Chinese Modernity. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 2008. [MCLC Resource Center review by John A. Crespi]

[Abstract: The Chinese essay is arguably China’s most distinctive contribution to modern world literature, and the period of its greatest influence and popularity–the mid-1930s–is the central concern of this book. What Charles Laughlin terms “the literature of leisure” is a modern literary response to the cultural past that manifests itself most conspicuously in the form of short, informal essay writing (xiaopin wen). Laughlin examines the essay both as a widely practiced and influential genre of literary expression and as an important counter-discourse to the revolutionary tradition of New Literature (especially realistic fiction), often viewed as the dominant mode of literature at the time. After articulating the relationship between the premodern traditions of leisure literature and the modern essay, Laughlin treats the various essay styles representing different groups of writers. Each is characterized according to a single defining activity: “wandering” in the case of the Yu si (Threads of Conversation) group surrounding Lu Xun and Zhou Zuoren; “learning” with the White Horse Lake group of Zhejiang schoolteachers like Feng Zikai and Xia Mianzun; “enjoying” in the case of Lin Yutang’s Analects group; “dreaming” with the Beijing school. The concluding chapter outlines the impact of leisure literature on Chinese culture up to the present day. The Literature of Leisure and Chinese Modernity dramatizes the vast importance and unique nature of creative nonfiction prose writing in modern China. It will be eagerly read by those with an interest in twentieth-century Chinese literature, modern China, and East Asian or world literatures.]

Laurence, Patricia. Lily Briscoe’s Chinese Eyes: Bloomsbury, Modernism and China. Columbia: U of South Carolina Press, 2003.

—–. “Lily Briscoe’s Chinese Eyes.” The Kingsman. [King’s College Cambridge University] (Fall 2003).

Lean, Eugenia. “The Making of a Public: Emotions and Media Sensation in 1930s China.” Twentieth-Century China 29, 2 (April 2004): 39-62.

Lee, Haiyan. “Governmentality and the Aesthetic State: A Chinese Fantasia.” positions: eastasia cultures critique 14, no.1 (2006): 99-130 [deals with Zhang Jingsheng’s Mei de rensheng guan (The Philosophy of a Beautiful Life), Meide shehui zuzhi fa (How to Organize a Beautiful Society), and, to a lesser extent, Xingshi (Sex histories)].

—–. “From Abroad, with Love: Transnational Texts, Local Critiques.” Tamkang Review 36, 4 (Summer 2006): 189-225. [deals with the Chinese translations and reception of Love and Duty by S. Horose, The Education of Love by Edmondo de Amicis, and “Three Generations” by Alexandra Kollontai]

—–. Revolution of the Heart: A Genealogy of Love in China, 1900-1950. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2006. [MCLC Resource Center review by Charles Laughlin]

Lee, Leo Ou-fan. The Romantic Generation of Modern Chinese Writers. Cambridge: Harvard UP, 1973. [download pdf copy of the entire book from Ohio State University Libraries Knowledge Bank]

—–. “Shanghai Modern: Reflections on Urban Culture in China in the 1930s.” Public Culture 11, 1 (1999).

—–. Shanghai Modern: The Flowering of a New Urban Culture in China, 1930-1945. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1999.

—–. “The Cultural Construction of Modernity in Urban Shanghai: Some Preliminary Explorations.” In Wen-hsin Yeh, ed., Becoming Chinese: Passages to Modernity and Beyond. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2000, 31-61.

Li, Li. “Female Bodies as Imaginary Signifiers in Chinese Revolutionary Literature.” In Tao Dongfeng, Yang Xiaobin, Rosemary Roberts, and Yang Ling, eds. Chinese Revolution and Chinese Literature. Cambridge: University of Cambridge Press, 2009, 93-118.

Liu, Jianmei. “Shanghai Variations on ‘Revolution Plus Love.'” Modern Chinese Literature and Culture 14, 1 (Spring 2002): 51-92. [deals with texts by Shi Zhecun, Liu Na’ou, Mu Shiying, Zhang Ziping, and Ye Lingfeng]

—–. Revolution Plus Love: Literary History, Women’s Bodies, and Thematic Repetition in Twentieth-Century Chinese Fiction. Honolulu: University of Hawai’i Press, 2003.

Liu, Ping. “The Left-Wing Drama Movement and Its Relationship to Japan.” Tr. Krista van Fleit. positions: east asia cultures critique 14, 2 (2006): 449-66. [Project Muse link]

Macdonald, Sean. “‘Modernism’ in Modern Chinese Literature: The ‘Third Type of Person’ as a Figure of Autonomy.” Canadian Review of Comparative Literature (June-Sept. 2002).

McDougall, Bonnie. “Dominance and Disappearance in Modern Chinese Narrative, 1928-1935.” In Findeison and Gassmann, eds., Autumn Floods: Essays in Honour of Marian Galik. Bern: Peter Lang, 1997.

Miller, Mark. “The Yusi Society.” In Kirk A. Denton and Michel Hockx, eds., Literary Societies in Republican China. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 2008, 171-206.

Mullaney, Thomas S. “Quote Unquote Language Reform: New-Style Punctuation and the Horizontalization of Chinese.” Modern Chinese Literature and Culture 29, 2  (Fall 2017): 206-250

Neder, Christina. “Censorship in Republican China.” In Derek Jones, ed., Censorship: A World Encyclopedia. London: Fitzroy Dearborn, 1999.

Peng, Hsiao-yen. Dandyism and Transcultural Modernity: The Dandy, the Flaneur, and the Translator in 1930s Shanghai, Tokyo, and Paris. NY: Routledge, 2010.

[Abstract: This book views the Neo-Sensation mode of writing as a traveling genre, or style, that originated in France, moved on to Japan, and then to China. The author contends that modernity is possible only on “the transcultural site”—transcultural in the sense of breaking the divide between past and present, elite and popular, national and regional, male and female, literary and non-literary, inside and outside. To illustrate the concept of transcultural modernity, three icons are highlighted on the transcultural site: the dandy, the flaneur, and the translator. Mere flaneurs and flaneurses simply float with the tide of heterogeneous information on the transcultural site, whereas the dandy/flaneur and the cultural translator, propellers of modernity, manage to bring about transformative creation. Their performance marks the essence of transcultural modernity: the self-consciousness of working on the threshold, always testing the limits of boundaries and tempted to go beyond them. To develop the concept of dandyism—the quintessence of transcultural modernity—the Neo-Sensation gender triad formed by the dandy, the modern girl, and the modern boy is laid out. Writers discussed include Liu Na’ou, a Shanghai dandy par excellence from Taiwan, Paul Morand, who looked upon Coco Chanel the female dandy as his perfect other self, and Yokomitsu Riichi, who developed the theory of Neo-Sensation from Kant’s the-thing-in-itself.]

—–. “A Traveling Text: Souvenirs entomologiques, Japanese Anarchism, and Shanghai Neo-Sensationism.” In Peng Hsiao-yen and Isabelle Rabut, eds., Modern China and the West: Translation and Cultural Mediation. Leiden: Brill, 2014, 268-302.

Pino, Angel. “Haipai et Jingpai: une querelle litteraire dans les annees trente.” In Isabelle Rabut and Angel Pino, eds. Pekin — Shanghai: Tradition et modernite dans la litterature chinoise des annees trente. Paris: Editions Bleu de Chine, 2000, 61-90.

Rabut, Isabelle. “Ecole de Pekin, ecole de Shanghai: un parcours critique.” In Isabelle Rabut and Angel Pino, eds. Pekin — Shanghai: Tradition et modernite dans la litterature chinoise des annees trente. Paris: Editions Bleu de Chine, 2000, 13-60.

—–. “L’esthetique du jingpai.” In Isabelle Rabut and Angel Pino, eds. Pekin — Shanghai: Tradition et modernite dans la litterature chinoise des annees trente. Paris: Editions Bleu de Chine, 2000, 93-122.

Rabut, Isabelle and Angel Pino, eds. Pekin — Shanghai: Tradition et modernite dans la litterature chinoise des annees trente. Paris: Editions Bleu de Chine, 2000.

Rea, Christopher G. “Comedy and Cultural Entrepreneurship in Xu Zhuodai’s Huaji Shanghai.” Modern Chinese Literature and Culture 20, 2 (Fall 2008): 40-91.

—–. The Age of Irreverence: A New History of Laughter in China. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2015. [MCLC Resource Center review by David Moser]

Riep, Steven L. “Chinese Modernism: The New Sensationists.” In Joshua Mostow, ed, and Kirk A. Denton, China section, ed., Columbia Companion to Modern East Asian Literatures. NY: Columbia UP, 2003, 418-24. Rpt. in Denton, ed, Columbia Companion to Modern Chinese Literature. NY: Columbia University Press, 2016, 176-82.

Rosenmeier, Christopher John. Shanghai Avant-garde: The Fiction of Shi Zhecun, Mu Shiying, Xu Xu, and Wumingshi. Ph. D. diss. London: University of London, 2006.

Smith, Norman. “‘I Am an Ordinary Woman’: Yang Xu and the Articulation of Chinese Ideals of Womanhood in Japanese Occupied Manchuria.” Asian Journal of Women’s Studies 8, 3 (2002): 35-54.

[Yang Xu’s (1918- ) second volume of collected works, My Diary (Wo de riji; 1944), articulates the key themes that prevailed in Chinese women’s literature in the Japanese colonial state of Manzhouguo. In Manzhouguo, literature was a vital domain for the negotiation of Chinese cultural identities in a Japanese colonial context. This paper seeks to reveal how Yang Xu, like other contemporary Chinese women writers in Manzhouguo, was driven by the May Fourth ideals of women’s emancipation that dominated social discourse in the Republic of China during the 1920s to defy the conservative cultural aspirations of the Japanese colonial regime.]

Sohigian, Diran John . “Contagion of Laughter: The Rise of the Humor Phenomenon in Shanghai in the 1930s.” positions: east asia cultures critique 15, 1 (Spring 2007): 137-63. [Project Muse link]

—–. “Confucius and the Lady in Question: Power Politics, Cultural Production and the Performance of Confucius Saw Nanzi in China in 1929.” Twentieth-Century China 36, 1 (Jan. 2011): 23-43.

Song, Mingwei. Young China: National Rejuvenation and the Bildungsroman, 1900–1959. Cambridge: Harvard University Asia Center, 2015.

[Abstract: The rise of youth is among the most dramatic stories of modern China. Since the last years of the Qing dynasty, youth has been made a new agent of history in Chinese intellectuals’ visions of national rejuvenation through such tremendously popular notions as “young China” and “new youth.” The characterization of a young protagonist with a developmental story has also shaped the modern Chinese novel. Young China takes youth as a central literary motif that was profoundly related to the ideas of nationhood and modernity in twentieth-century China. A synthesis of narrative theory and cultural history, it combines historical investigations of the origin and development of the modern Chinese youth discourse with close analyses of the novelistic construction of the Chinese Bildungsroman, which depicts the psychological growth of youth with a symbolic allusion to national rejuvenation. Negotiating between self and society, ideal and action, and form and reality, such a narrative manifests as well as complicates the various political and cultural symbolisms invested in youth through different periods of modern Chinese history. In this story of young China, the restless, elusive, and protean image of youth both perpetuates and problematizes the ideals of national rejuvenation.]

Spakowski, Nicola. “Dreaming a Future for China: Visions of Socialism among Chinese Intellectuals in the Early 1930s.” Modern China 45, 1 (Jan. 2019).

[Abstract: The article examines Chinese leftist intellectuals’ visions of China’s future as they were published in a special issue of Dongfang zazhi (Eastern Miscellany) in 1933. It places their texts in the international tradition of socialism and in particular the tensions between Marxism and “utopian socialism.” Two variants of socialism can be identified in the Chinese texts: “Datong socialism,” the moral vision of a society of freedom and equality, and Soviet socialism, the vision of an industrialized society with features and institutions as in the Soviet Union. Supporters of both variants identified with the “masses,” but remained elitist in that they spoke on behalf of these masses and claimed an intellectual niche in the proletarian society of the future.]

Tam, Kwok-kan. “Ibsenism and Ideological Constructions of the ‘New Woman’ in Modern Chinese Fiction.” In Peng-hisang Chen and Whitney Crothers Dilley, eds., Feminism/Femininity in Chinese Literature. Amsterdam,: Rodopi, 2002, 179-86.

Tsu, Jing. Failure, Nationalism, and Literature: The Making of a Modern Chinese Identity, 1895-1937. Palo Alto, CA: Stanford University Press, 2005.

Wang, Jing M. When “I” Was Born: Women’s Autobiography in Modern China. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 2008.

[Abstract: In the period between the 1920s and 1940s, a genre emerged in Chinese literature that would reveal crucial contradictions in Chinese culture that still exist today. At a time of intense political conflict, Chinese women began to write autobiography, a genre that focused on personal identity and self-exploration rather than the national, collective identity that the country was championing. The author seeks to reclaim the voices of these particular writers, voices that have been misinterpreted and overlooked for decades. Tracing women writers as they move from autobiographical fiction, often self-revelatory and personal, to explicit autobiographies that focused on women’s roles in public life, Jing M. Wang reveals the factors that propelled this literary movement, the roles that liberal translators and their renditions of Western life stories played, and the way in which these women writers redefined writing and gender in the stories they told. But Wang reveals another story as well: the evolving history and identity of women in modern Chinese society. When “I” Was Born adds to a growing body of important work in Chinese history and culture, women’s studies, and autobiography in a global context. Writers discussed include Xie Bingying, Zhang Ailing, Yu Yinzi, Fei Pu, Lu Meiyen, Feng Heyi, Ye Qian, Bai Wei, Shi Wen, Fan Xiulin, Su Xuelin, and LuYin.]

Wang, Ye. “Narrative Genre and Logical Form of the Revolutionary Novels of the 1920s.” In Tao Dongfeng, Yang Xiaobin, Rosemary Roberts, and Yang Ling, eds. Chinese Revolution and Chinese Literature. Cambridge: University of Cambridge Press, 2009, 179- 97.

Wong, Wang-chi. Politics and Literature in Shanghai: The Chinese League of Left-Wing Writers, 1930-1936. Manchester: Manchester UP, 1991.

—–. Modern Archaics: Continuity and Innovation in the Chinese Lyric Tradition, 1900-1937. Cambridge: Harvard University Asia Center, 2013. [MCLC Resource Center review by Jon Eugene von Kowallis]

[Abstract: After the collapse of the Qing dynasty in 1911 and the rise of a vernacular language movement, most scholars and writers declared the classical Chinese poetic tradition to be dead. But how could a longstanding high poetic form simply grind to a halt, even in the face of tumultuous social change? In this groundbreaking book, Wu explores the transformation of Chinese classical-style poetry in the early twentieth century. Drawing on extensive archival research into the poetry collections and literary journals of two generations of poets and critics, Wu discusses the continuing significance of the classical form with its densely allusive and intricately wrought style. She combines close readings of poems with a depiction of the cultural practices their authors participated in, including poetry gatherings, the use of mass media, international travel, and translation, to show how the lyrical tradition was a dynamic force fully capable of engaging with modernity. By examining the works and activities of previously neglected poets who maintained their commitment to traditional aesthetic ideals, Modern Archaics illuminates the splendor of Chinese lyricism and highlights the mutually transformative power of the modern and the archaic.]

Y.P.S. “Five Years of Chinese Magazine Literature.” China Today 1, 6 (March 1935): 113-15.

Yang, Lianfen. “Women and Revolution in the Context of the 1927 Nationalist Revolution and Literature.” In Tao Dongfeng, Yang Xiaobin, Rosemary Roberts, and Yang Ling, eds. Chinese Revolution and Chinese Literature. Cambridge: University of Cambridge Press, 2009, 119-39.

Yin, Zhiguang. Politics of Art: The Creation Society and the Practice of Theoretical Struggle in Revolutionary China. Leiden: Brill, 2014. [MCLC Resource Center review by Liang Luo]

[Abstract: In Politics of Art Zhiguang Yin investigates members of the Creation Society and their social network while in Japan. The study contextualises the Chinese left-wing intellectual movements and their political engagements in relation with the early 20th century international political events and trends in both East Asia and Europe. The Creation Society was largely viewed as a subject of literary studies. This research, however, evaluates these intellectuals in the context of Chinese revolution and elaborates their theoretical contribution to the Chinese Communist Party’s practice of “theoretical struggle” as a main driving force of ideological construction. As this study tries to demonstrate, theoretical struggle drives the ideological politics forward while maintaining its political vigour.]

Zanella, William Mark. China’s Quest for a Modern Culture: The 1935 Debate on Cultural Construction. Ph.d. diss. Honolulu: University of Hawaii, 1985.

Zhang, Hong. “Eros and Politics in Revolutionary Literature.” In Tao Dongfeng, Yang Xiaobin, Rosemary Roberts, and Yang Ling, eds. Chinese Revolution and Chinese Literature. Cambridge: University of Cambridge Press, 2009, 3-26.

Zhang, Jingyuan. Psychoanalysis in China: Literary Transformations, 1919-1949. Ithaca: Cornell East Asia Series, 1992.

Zhang, Yinde. “The Shanghai School: Westernised Urbanity and Scriptural Mimesis.” In Peng Hsiao-yen and Isabelle Rabut, eds., Modern China and the West: Translation and Cultural Mediation. Leiden: Brill, 2014, 247-67.

Zhang, Yingjin. The City in Modern Chinese Literature and Film: Configurations of Space, Time, and Gender. Stanford: Stanford UP, 1996.

—–. “The Texture of the Metropolis: Modernist Inscriptions of Shanghai in the 1930s.” In Yingjin Zhang, ed., China in a Polycentric World: Essays in Chinese Comparative Literature. Stanford: Stanford UP, 1999, 173-88. First published in Modern Chinese Literature 9, 1 (Spring 1995): 11-30.

Zhang, Yu. “Visual and Theatrical Constructs of a Modern Life in the Countryside: James Yen, Xiong Foxi, and the Rural Reconstruction Movement in Ding County (1920s-1930s).” Modern Chinese Literature and Culture 25, 1 (Spring 2013): 47-95.

Zhou, Xiaoyi. “Beardsley, the Chinese Decadents and Commodity Culture in Shanghai During the 1930s.” Journal of the Oriental Society of Australia 32/33 (2000/2001): 117-34.

Zhu, Ping. Gender and Subjectivities in Early Twentieth Century Chinese Literature and Culture. NY: Palgrave Macmillan, 2015. [MCLC Resource Center review by Yi Zheng]

[Abstract: offers an in-depth study on how late Qing and modern Chinese intellectuals used gender as a discursive battlefield to demand power vis-à-vis colonial discourses. Through a combination of cultural analysis and literary analysis, including discussions of modern Chinese writers such as Lu Xun, Yu Dafu, Zhang Ziping, Guo Moruo, Mu Shiying, Liu Na’ou, Bai Wei, and Ding Ling, Ping Zhu shows the resilience and malleability of Chinese modernity via a femininity imagined an empowered and empowering. By focusing on ‘the feminine at large,’ this book draws a contrasting image of the docile, contained feminine in colonial gender ideology to provide one salient example of China’s politics of resistance.].


Literature of the Sino-Japanese War (1937-45)

Apter, David, and Tony Saich. Revolutionary Discourse in Mao’s Republic. Cambridge: HUP, 1994.

Benton, Gregor. “The Yenan Opposition.” New Left Review 92 (Aug. 1975): 93-106.

Bong, InYoung. “A ‘White Race’ without Supremacy: Russians, Racial Hybridity, and Liminality in the Chinese Literature of Manchukuo.” Modern Chinese Literature and Culture 26, 1 (Spring 2014): 141-92

Cheek, Timothy. “The Fading of Wild Lilies: Wang Shiwei and Mao Zedong’s Yan’an Talks in the First CCP Rectification Movement.” Australian Journal of Chinese Affairs 11 (1984): 25-58.

Chen, Jianhua. “Canon Formation and Linguistic Turn: Literary Debates in Republican China, 1919-1949.” In Kai-Wing Chow, Tze-ki Hon, Hung-yok Ip, and Don C. Price, eds., Beyond the May Fourth Paradigm: In Search for Chinese Modernity. Lanham: Lexington Books, 2008, 51-67.

Chen, Xiaomei. “Worker-Peasant-Soldier Literature.” In Ban Wang, ed., Words and Their Stories: Essays on the Language of the Chinese Revolution. Leiden: Brill, 2010, 65-83.

Chung, Hilary and Tommy McClellan. “The ‘Command Enjoyment’ of Literature in China: Conferences, Controls and Excesses.” In Chung, ed. In the Party Spirit: Socialist Realism and Literary Practice in the Soviet Union, East Germany and China. Critical Studies no. 6. Amsterdam: Rodopi, 1996, 1-23. [deals with the Yan’an Forum and the 1979 Fourth Congress of Chinese Writers and Artist and compares them to similar conferences in the Soviet Union]

Chung, Wen. “National Defense Literature and Its Representative Works.” Chinese Literature 10 (Oct. 1971): 91-99.

DeMare, Brian James. Mao’s Cultural Army: Drama Troupes in China’s Rural Revolution. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2015.

[Abstract: Charting their training, travels, and performances, this innovative study explores the role of the artists that roamed the Chinese countryside in support of Mao’s communist revolution. DeMare traces the development of Mao’s ‘cultural army’ from its genesis in Red Army propaganda teams to its full development as a largely civilian force composed of amateur and professional drama troupes in the early years of the PRC. Drawing from memoirs, artistic handbooks, and rare archival sources, Mao’s Cultural Army uncovers the arduous and complex process of creating revolutionary dramas that would appeal to China’s all-important rural audiences. The Communists strived for a disciplined cultural army to promote party policies, but audiences often shunned modern and didactic shows, and instead clamoured for traditional works. DeMare illustrates how drama troupes, caught between the party and their audiences, did their best to resist the ever growing reach of the PRC state.]

Denton, Kirk A. “Introduction.” In Denton, Modern Chinese Literary Thought: Writings on Literature, 1893-1945. Stanford: Stanford UP, 1996, 1-61.

—–. “Literature and Politics: Mao Zedong’s ‘Talks at the Yan’an Forum on Art and Literature.'” In Joshua Mostow, ed, and Kirk A. Denton, China section, ed., Columbia Companion to Modern East Asian Literatures. NY: Columbia UP, 2003, 463-69. Rpt. in Denton, ed, Columbia Companion to Modern Chinese Literature. NY: Columbia University Press, 2016, 224-30.

—–. “Rectification: Party Discipline, Intellectual Remolding, and the Formation of a Political Community.” In Ban Wang, ed., Words and Their Stories: Essays on the Language of the Chinese Revolution. Leiden: Brill, 2010, 51-63.

Dooling, Amy. Women’s Literary Feminism in Twentieth-Century China. NY: Palgrave MacMillan, 2005. [contains the following chapters: (1) National imaginaries : feminist fantasies at the turn of the century; (2) The new woman’s women; (3) Love and/or revolution? : fictions of the feminine self in the 1930s cultural left; (4) Outwitting patriarchy : comic narrative strategies in the works of Yang Jiang, Su Qing, and Zhang Ailing; (5) A world still to win]

Feng, Jin. The New Woman in Early Twentieth-Century Chinese Fiction. Lafayette, IN: Purdue UP, 2003.

FitzGerald, Carolyn. Fragmenting Modernisms: Chinese Wartime Literature, Art, and Film, 1937-49. Leiden: Brill, 2013.

[Abstract: FitzGerald traces the evolution of Chinese modernism during the War of Resistance against Japan (1937-45) and Chinese Civil War (1945-49) through a series of close readings of works of fiction, poetry, film, and visual art, produced in various locations throughout wartime China. Showing that the culture of this period was characterized by a high degree of formal looseness, she argues that such aesthetic fluidity was created in response to historical conditions of violence and widespread displacement. Moreover, she illustrates how the innovative formal experiments of uprooted writers and artists expanded the geographic and aesthetic boundaries of Chinese modernism far beyond the coastal cities of Shanghai and Beijing. TOC: Introduction Out of the Ashes: Towards a Wartime Aesthetics of Dissolution; Chapter 1: A Sonnet in an Air-Raid Shelter: Mu Dan and the New Lyricism; Chapter 2: Intersections between Cartoon and National Art: Ye Qianyu’s Search for the Sinicized Cartoon; Chapter 3: Wang Zenqi’s Collection of Chance Encounters: The Shifting Essence of the Wartime Short Story; Chapter 4: Between Forgetting and the Repetitions of Memory: Fei Mu’s Aesthetics of Desolation in Spring in a Small Town; Chapter 5: Fei Ming’s After Mr. Neverwas Rides a Plane: Wartime Autobiography as History; Epilogue: Searching for Roots: Modernist Echoes in the Post-Mao Era]

Fu, Po-shek. Passivity, Resistance, and Collaboration: Intellectual Choices in Occupied Shanghai, 1937-1945. Stanford: SUP, 1993.

Galik, Marian. “Between the Garden of Gethsemane and Golgotha: The Last Night and Day of Jesus in Modern Chinese Literaturre (1921-1942).” Tamkang Review 31, 4-32,1 (Summer-Autumn 2001): 99-116.

Gao, Hua. How the Red Sun Rose: The Origin and Development of the Yan’an Rectification Movement, 1930–1945. Translated by Stacey Mosher and Guo Jian. Hong Kong: The Chinese University Press, 2017.

[Abstract: This work offers the most comprehensive account of the origin and consequences of the Yan’an Rectification Movement from 1942 to 1945. The author argues that this campaign emancipated the Chinese Communist Party from Soviet-influenced dogmatism and unified the Party, preparing it for the final victory against the Nationalist Party in 1949. More importantly, this monograph shows in great detail how Mao Zedong established his leadership through this party-wide political movement by means of aggressive intra-party purges, thought control, coercive cadre examinations, and total reorganizations of the Party’s upper structure. The result of this movement not only set up the foundation for Mao’s new China, but also deeply influenced the Chinese political structure today. The Chinese version of How the Red Sun Rose was published in 2000, and has had nineteen printings since then.]

Gunn, Edward. The Unwelcome Muse: Chinese Literature in Shanghai and Peking, 1937-1945. NY: Columbia UP, 1980.

—–. “Shanghai’s ‘Orphan Island’ and the Development of Modern Drama.” In Bonnie McDougall, ed. Popular Chinese Literature and Performing Arts in the PRC, 1949-1979. Berkeley: UCP, 1984, 36-53.

—–. “Literature and Art of the War Period.” In James Hsiung et. al., eds., China’s Bitter Victory: The War with Japan, 1937-1945. Armonk: ME Sharpe, 1993, 235-74.

Guo, Li. “Women’s Wartime Life Writing in Early Twentieth-century China.” CLCWeb: Comparative Literature and Culture 17, 3 (2015).

Holm, David. “The Literary Rectification in Yan’an.” In W. Kubin and R. Wagner, eds., Essays in Modern Chinese Literature and Literary Criticism. Bochum: Brockmeyer, 1982, 272-308.

—–. “Folk Art as Propaganda: The Yangge Movement in Yan’an.” In Bonnie McDougall, ed. Popular Chinese Literature and Performing Arts in the PRC, 1949-1979. Berkeley: UCP, 1984, 3-35.

—–. Art and Ideology in Revolutionary China. Oxford: Clarendon, 1991. [focuses on Yan’an]

Hsia, T. A. “Twenty Years after the Yenan Forum.” In Hsia, The Gate of Darkness: Studies on the Leftist Literary Movement. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1968, 234-60.

Huang, Nicole. Written in the Ruins: War and Domesticity in Shanghai Literature of the 1940s. Ph.d. diss. Los Angeles: UCLA, 1998.

—–. “Fashioning Public Intellectuals: Women’s Print Culture in Occupied Shanghai (1941-1945).” In Christian Henriot and Wen-hsin Yeh, eds., In the Shadow of the Rising Sun: Shanghai under Japanese Occupation. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 2004, 325-45.

—–. Women, War, Domesticity: Shanghai Literature and Popular Culture of the 1940s. Leiden: Brill, 2005.

[Abstract: In December 1941, the fifth year in an all-scale cataclysmic Sino-Japanese war that devoured much of Eastern China, the city of Shanghai entered into an era of full occupation. This was the moment when a group of young women authors began writing and soon took over the cultural scene of the besieged metropolis.Women, War, Domesticity reconstructs cultures of reading, writing, and publishing in the city of Shanghai during the three years and eight months of Japanese occupation. It specifically depicts the formation of a new cultural arena initiated by a group of women who not only wrote, edited, and published, but also took part in defining and transforming the structure of modern knowledge, discussing it in various public forums surrounding the print media, and, consequently, promoting themselves as authoritative cultural commentators of the era.]

—–. “War, Revolution, and Urban Transformation: Chinese Literature of the Republican Era, 1920s-1940s.” In Yingjin Zhang, ed. A Companion to Modern Chinese Literature. Chichester, UK: Wiley Blackwell, 2016, 54-66.

Hung, Chang-tai. “Female Symbols of Resistance in Chinese Wartime Spoken Drama.” Modern China 15 (April 1989): 149-177.

—–. War and Popular Culture: Resistance in Modern China, 1937-1945. Berkeley: UCP, 1994.

Huters, Ted . “Between Praxis and Essence: The Search for Cultural Expression in the Chinese Revolution.” In Arif Dirlik and Maurice Meisner eds., Marxism and the Chinese Experience. Armonk, NY: M. E. Sharpe, 1989, 316-37.

Ip, Hung-yok. Intellectuals in Revolutionary China, 1921-1949: Leaders, Heroes and Sophoisticates. NY: RoutledgeCurzon, 2005.

[Abstract: This book originally examines how prominent communist intellectuals in China during the revolutionary period (1921 to 1940) constructed and presented identities for themselves and how they narrated their place in the revolution. Table of Contents. Part 1: Introduction 1. Perspectives;l Part 2: Leaders: Self-Construction from the Functional Perspective 2. Radical Intellectuals as the Guiding Force of Change: The Beginning of the Political Odyssey 3. Manufacturing Political Leadership I: The Yaqian Intellectuals and Peng Pai 4. Manufacturing Political Leadership II: Mao Zedong Part 3: Heroes: Self-Construction from the Emotional Perspective 5. Narrating Politicized Subjectivity 6. The Nobility of Ambivalence and Devotion Part 4: Sophisticates: Self-Construction from the Aesthetic Perspective 7. Clinging to Refinement in the Revolution Part 5: Epilogue 8. Self-Construction, Politics and Culture: Some General Reflections 9. Conclusion.]

Irving, Robert J. “Implementation of Mao Zedong’s Yan’an “Talks” in the Subei Base Area–The Chen Dengke 陈登科 ‘Phenomenon.'” Asian Studies Review 40, 3 (2016): 360-376.

[Abstract: Mao Zedong’s 1942 “Talks at the Yan’an Forum on Literature and Art” were officially established as the foundation of national policy on culture after the founding of the People’s Republic, but from the very outset they had direct implications for writers and artists in the Communist base areas of the time. As a case study of the implementation of the spirit of Mao’s “Talks” prior to 1949, this paper will discuss how illiterate peasant soldier Chen Dengke (1919–98) was educated by Party cultural cadres in the North Jiangsu (Subei) Base Area, enabling him within the space of just four years to produce a novella and a novel. In order to critically examine the auto/biographical and “slice of life” writings on which this paper relies, brief discussion will be provided of temporal considerations and genre boundaries of this class of writing in the context of the ever-changing political orthodoxy with which writers were required to comply during the Maoist period. The creation of what has been called the Chen Dengke “phenomenon” is not only a fascinating story, but also illustrates the operation of Communist Party cultural policy during the Sino-Japanese and Civil Wars.]

Judd, Ellen. “Prelude to the ‘Yan’an Talks’: Problems in Transforming a Literary Intelligentsia.” Modern China 11, 4 (1985): 377-408.

—–. “Cultural Articulation in the Chinese Countryside, 1937-1947.” Modern China 16, 3 (July 1990): 269-304.

Kondo, Tatsuya. “The Transmission of the Yenan Talks to Chungking and Hu Feng: Caught Between the Struggle for Democracy in the Great Rear Area and Maoism.” Acta Asiatica 72 (1997): 81-105.

La litterature chinoise au temps de la Geurre de resistance contre le Japon. Paris: Editions de la Fondation Singer-Polignac, 1982. [collection of essay on literature of the war period]

Laughlin, Charles A. Chinese Reportage: The Aesthetics of Historical Experience. Durham: Duke University Press, 2002. [MCLC Resource Center Publication review by Susan Daruvala]

—–. “The Battlefield fo Cultural Production: Chinese Literary Mobilization during the War Years.” Journal of Modern Literature in Chinese 2, 1 (July 1998): 83-103.

—–. “The All-China Resistance Association of Writers and Artists.” In Kirk A. Denton and Michel Hockx, eds., Literary Societies in Republican China. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 2008, 379-412.

Lee, Haiyan. Revolution of the Heart: A Genealogy of Love in China, 1900-1950. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2006. [MCLC Resource Center review by Charles Laughlin]

Liu, Jianmei. “Gender Politics: Social Space and Volatile Bodies, 1937-1945.” Journal of Modern Literature in Chinese 2, 1 (July 1998): 53-82.

Liu, Yu. “Maoist Discourse and the Mobilization of Emotions in Revolutionary China.” Modern China 36, 3 (2010): 329-362.

[Abstract: This article focuses on how Maoist discourse engineered revolutionary emotions as a method of political mobilization. Based on personal memoirs and eyewitness accounts, it argues that the Maoist discourse can be disaggregated into three themes, each aimed at provoking one type of emotion: the theme of victimization, which mobilized indignation in struggle campaigns; the theme of redemption, which generated guilt in thought reform campaigns; and the theme of emancipation, which raised euphoria in social transformation campaigns. It also argues that Maoist discourse propagation employed three techniques—personalization, magnification, and moralization—and emphasizes that these techniques of propagation are as important as the content of the three themes in the production of passions.]

Liu, Zhuo. “Wengongtuan and the Rural Literary Popularization Movement in Yan’an.” Frontiers of Literary Studies in China 6, 1 (2012): 39-55.

[Abstract: This paper takes the folk song collection movement in Yan’an as an example to examine the role of the wengongtuan (The League of Literary and Artistic Workers) in organizing the rural literary popularization movement in the 1940s. Dispatched by the Communist Party of China (CPC), wengongtuan members took on the task of mobilizing peasants into cultural production, and realized a self-reconstruction in the process of integrating themselves into the lives of revolutionary peasants. The idea of the wengongtuan derived from the CPC’s theory of the mass line–“from the masses and to the masses”–which laid the foundation of New Democratic culture in the 1940s.]

Neder, Christina. “Censorship in Republican China.” In Derek Jones, ed., Censorship: A World Encyclopedia. London: Fitzroy Dearborn, 1999.

Okada, Hideki. “The Realities of Racial Harmony: The Case of the Translator Ouchi Takao.” Acta Asiatica 72 (1997): 61-80.

Qian, Kun. “Gendering National Imagination: Heroines and the Return of the Foundational Family in Shanghai during the War of Resistance to Japan.” Frontiers of Literary Studies in China 8, 1 (March 2014): 78-100.

[Abstract: During the War of Resistance to Japan (1937¡V45), the cultural scene in Japanese-occupied Shanghai took on a “feminine” quality, as female leads dominated stage performance and film screens. This essay seeks to engage this gendered phenomenon through examples of Ouyang Yuqian’s wartime play Peach Blossom Fan (Taohua shan) and the film Mulan Joins the Army (Mulan congjun). Borrowing affect theory in conjunction with the gendered perception of modernity, the author argues that these representations of female characters, on the one hand, highlight the subjective projection of male intellectuals motivated by intense feelings of shame and anger, which constitutes a feminized national imagination encountering the colonial Other. On the other hand, such representations continue the May Fourth project of enlightening and liberating woman from the conventional family while reintroducing the concept of the nation in the family setting and proposing the foundational family as the basic unit of the new nation.]

Rosenmeier, Christopher John. Shanghai Avant-garde: The Fiction of Shi Zhecun, Mu Shiying, Xu Xu, and Wumingshi. Ph. D. diss. London: University of London, 2006.

—–. On the Margins of Modernism: Xu Xu, Wumingshi and Popular Chinese Literature in the 1940s. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2017. [MCLC Resource Center review by Angie Chau]

[Abstract: Xu Xu and Wumingshi were among the most widely read authors in China during and after the Second Sino-Japanese War (1937-1945), but although they were an integral part of the Chinese literary scene their bestselling fiction has been given scant attention in histories of Chinese writing. This groundbreaking book, the first book-length study of Xu Xu and Wumingshi in English or any other western language, re-establishes their importance within the popular Chinese literature of the 1940s. With in-depth analyses of their innovative short stories and novels, Christopher Rosenmeier demonstrates how these important writers incorporated and adapted narrative techniques from Shanghai modernist writers like Shi Zhecun and Mu Shiying, contesting the view that modernism had little lasting impact in China and firmly positioning these two figures within the literature of their times.]

Rubin, Kyna. “Writers’ Discontent and Party Repsonse in Yan’an Before ‘Wild Lily’: The Manchurian Writers and Zhou Yang.” Modern Chinese Literature 1, 1 (1984): 79-102.

Sakaguchi, Naoki. Shi wu nian zhanzheng qi de Zhongguo wenxue (Chinese literature during the fifteen years of the war period). Tr. Song Yijing. Banqiao: Daoxiang, 2001.

Smith, Norman. “‘I Am an Ordinary Woman’: Yang Xu and the Articulation of Chinese Ideals of Womanhood in Japanese Occupied Manchuria.” Asian Journal of Women’s Studies 8, 3 (2002): 35-54.

[Yang Xu’s (1918- ) second volume of collected works, My Diary (Wo de riji; 1944), articulates the key themes that prevailed in Chinese women’s literature in the Japanese colonial state of Manzhouguo. In Manzhouguo, literature was a vital domain for the negotiation of Chinese cultural identities in a Japanese colonial context. This paper seeks to reveal how Yang Xu, like other contemporary Chinese women writers in Manzhouguo, was driven by the May Fourth ideals of women’s emancipation that dominated social discourse in the Republic of China during the 1920s to defy the conservative cultural aspirations of the Japanese colonial regime.]

—–. “Disrupting Narratives: Chinese Women Writers and the Japanese Cultural Agenda in Manchuria, 1936-1945.” Modern China 30, 3 (2004): 295-325.

[This article assesses the lives, careers, and literary legacies of the most prominent Chinese women writers during the latter stage of the Japanese occupation of Manchuria. The article reveals how they articulated dissatisfaction with the Japanese cultural agenda while working within Japanese colonial institutions. Empowered by ineffectual state policies and misogynous official neglect, the women embarked on a decade-long quest to describe and expose the reality of Chinese women’s lives under Japanese occupation. May Fourth ideals of women’s emancipation inspired them to forge careers as critics of Japan’s cultural agenda, and they undermined Japanese efforts to sever ties between Manchuria and the rest of China. This study adds to a growing body of recent critical scholarship incorporating Chinese-language sources into received interpretations of Japan’s colonial state of Manchukuo.]

—–. “Regulating Chinese Women’s Sexuality During the Japanese Occupation of Manchuria: Between the Lines of Wu Ying’s “Yu” (Lust) and Yang Xu’s Wo de Riji (My Diary).” Journal of the History of Sexuality 13, 1 (Jan. 2004): 49-70.

—–. “The Difficulties of Despair: Dan Di and Chinese Literary Production in Manchukuo.” Journal of Women’s Studies 18, 1 (2006): 77-100.

—–. Resisting Manchukuo: Chinese Women Writers and the Japanese Occupation. Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press, 2007. [MCLC Resource Center review by Heng hsing Liu]

[Abstract: This volume reveals the literary world of Japanese-occupied Manchuria (Manchukuo, 1932-45) and examines the lives, careers, and literary legacies of seven prolific Chinese women writers during the period: Dan Di, Lan Ling, Mei Niang, Wu Ying, Yang Xu, Zhu Ti, and Zuo Di. Smith shows how a complex blend of fear and freedom produced an environment in which Chinese women writers could articulate dissatisfaction with the overtly patriarchal and imperialist nature of the Japanese cultural agenda while working in close association with colonial institutions.]

Song, Mingwei. Young China: National Rejuvenation and the Bildungsroman, 1900–1959. Cambridge: Harvard University Asia Center, 2015.

[Abstract: The rise of youth is among the most dramatic stories of modern China. Since the last years of the Qing dynasty, youth has been made a new agent of history in Chinese intellectuals’ visions of national rejuvenation through such tremendously popular notions as “young China” and “new youth.” The characterization of a young protagonist with a developmental story has also shaped the modern Chinese novel. Young China takes youth as a central literary motif that was profoundly related to the ideas of nationhood and modernity in twentieth-century China. A synthesis of narrative theory and cultural history, it combines historical investigations of the origin and development of the modern Chinese youth discourse with close analyses of the novelistic construction of the Chinese Bildungsroman, which depicts the psychological growth of youth with a symbolic allusion to national rejuvenation. Negotiating between self and society, ideal and action, and form and reality, such a narrative manifests as well as complicates the various political and cultural symbolisms invested in youth through different periods of modern Chinese history. In this story of young China, the restless, elusive, and protean image of youth both perpetuates and problematizes the ideals of national rejuvenation.]

Sorokin, V. F. “Chinese Literature at the End of the 1940’s (On the Problem of the Development of Realism).” In Understanding Modern China: Problems and Methods. European Association of Chinese Studies, 26th Conference of Chinese Studies. Rome: Ismeo, 1979, 133-42.

Tang, Xiaobing. “Street Theater and Subject Formation in Wartime China: Toward a New Form of Public Art.” Cross-Currents no. 18 (2016).

[Abstract: Based on archival research, this article presents a succinct history of the street theater movement in China through the 1930s. It examines how complex discourses and competing visions, as well as historical events and practices—in particular the War of Resistance against Japan—both shaped and propelled the movement. The author focuses on theoretical and practical issues that promoters and practitioners of street theater dealt with and reflected on in three succeeding stages. Observing that the street theater movement hastened the formation of a modern national imagination, the author argues that the movement presented a paradigmatic development as it foregrounded the imperative to engage rural China as well as the need for participants to acquire new subject positions.]

Thornber, Karen Laura. Empire of Texts in Motion: Chinese, Korean, and Taiwanese Transculturations of Japanese Literature. Cambridge: Harvard University Asia Center, 2009.

[Abstract: By the turn of the twentieth century, Japan’s military and economic successes made it the dominant power in East Asia, drawing hundreds of thousands of Chinese, Korean, and Taiwanese students to the metropole and sending thousands of Japanese to other parts of East Asia. The constant movement of peoples, ideas, and texts in the Japanese empire created numerous literary contact nebulae, fluid spaces of diminished hierarchies where writers grapple with and transculturate one another’s creative output. Drawing extensively on vernacular sources in Japanese, Chinese, and Korean, this book analyzes the most active of these contact nebulae: semicolonial Chinese, occupied Manchurian, and colonial Korean and Taiwanese transculturations of Japanese literature. It explores how colonial and semicolonial writers discussed, adapted, translated, and recast thousands of Japanese creative works, both affirming and challenging Japan’s cultural authority. Such efforts not only blurred distinctions among resistance, acquiescence, and collaboration but also shattered cultural and national barriers central to the discourse of empire. In this context, twentieth-century East Asian literatures can no longer be understood in isolation from one another, linked only by their encounters with the West, but instead must be seen in constant interaction throughout the Japanese empire and beyond.]

Wang, Ban, ed. Words and Their Stories: Essays on the Language of the Chinese Revolution. Leiden: Brill, 2010.

[Abstract: As China joins the capitalist world economy, the problems of social disintegration that gave rise to the earlier revolutionary social movements are becoming pressing. Instead of viewing the Chinese Revolution as an academic study, these essays suggest that the motifs of the Revolution are still alive and relevant. The slogan “Farewell to Revolution” that obscures the revolutionary language is premature. In spite of dislocations and ruptures in the revolutionary language, to rethink this discourse is to revisit a history in terms of sedimented layers of linguistic meanings and political aspirations. Earlier meanings of revolutionary words may persist or coexist with non-revolutionary rivals. Recovery of the vital uses of key revolutionary words proffers critical alternatives in which contemporary capitalist myths can be contested.]

Wang, Hui. “Local Forms, Vernacular Dialects, and the War of Resistance against Japan: The National Forms Debate.” Tr. Chris Berry. In Wang, The Politics of Imagining Asia. Ed. Theodore Huters. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2011, 95-135.

Wang, Minmin. “Mao Zedong’s Talks at the Yenan Forum on Literature and Art.” In Ray Heisey, ed., Chinese Perspectives in Rhetoric and Communication. Stamford, CT: Ablex Publishing, 2000, 179-96.

Wang, Xiaoping. “From ‘Use of Old Forms’ to “Establishment of a National Form: A Reevaluation of Mao’s Agenda of Forging a Cultural-Political Nation.” International Critical Thought 2, 2 (2013): 183-96.

[Abstract; This paper aims to re-examine the important debates about ‘use of old forms’ and ‘establishment of a national form’ in Chinese intellectual circles of the 1940s. It discusses the contemporary referents of the ‘form’ and ‘content’ in the term ‘(national) form’ and explores the intricate relationship among literary language use, class consciousness, and a national culture. As a conclusion, it suggests that Mao’s agenda of creating a ‘national form’ was not merely a means of achieving popularization but an end aimed at creating a revolutionary culture to facilitate the establishment of a homogenized and egalitarian society, or to forge a powerful cultural–political nation. This effort merits reappraisal in contemporary China, when differing interests and newly divided classes make the national consensus highly vulnerable.]

Willmott, Mary Katharine and Yu Teh-chi. “The War in Chinese Poetry.” Asia (New York) 43, 7 (July 1943).

Xie, Miya Qiong. “The Unspeakability of War Rape: Literary Representations of War Rape during the Sino-Japanese War.” Harvard Asia Quarterly (Fall 2014): 42-9.

Xie, Zhixi. “The Historical Tragedy and the Human Tragedy–The Depiction and the Discussion of the Historical Plays During the War of Resistance Against Japan.” Frontiers of Literary Studies in China 3, 1 (March 2009): 64-96.

Xiong, Ying. Representing Empire: Japanese Colonial Literature in Taiwan and Manchuria. Leiden: Brill, 2014.

[Abstract: In Representing Empire Ying Xiong examines Japanese-language colonial literature written by Japanese expatriate writers in Taiwan and Manchuria. Drawing on a wide range of Japanese and Chinese sources, Representing Empire reveals not only a nuanced picture of Japanese literary terrain but also the interplay between imperialism, nationalism, and Pan-Asianism in the colonies. While the existing literature on Japanese nationalism has largely remained within the confines of national history, by using colonial literature as an example, Ying Xiong demonstrates that transnational forces shaped Japanese nationalism in the twentieth century. With its multidisciplinary and comparative approach, Representing Empire adds to a growing body of literature that challenges traditional interpretations of Japanese nationalism and national literary canon.]

Xu, Zhenglin. “Modern Chinese Writers’ Thoughts on Religion During the Sino-Japanese War.” Monumenta Serica 54 (2006): 355-62.

Yan, Haiping. “War, Death, and the Art of Existence: Mobile Women in the 1940s.” In Yan, Chinese Women Writers and the Feminist Imagination, 1905-1948. London: Routledge, 2006, 135-67.

Yeh, Wen-hsin, ed. Wartime Shanghai. NY: Routledge, 1998.

Zhou, Xiaoyi and Q. S. Tong. “The Problem of the Subject and Literary Modernity: Mao Zedong’s Theory of Art Revisited.” Journal of the Oriental Society of Australia 32/33 (2000/2001): 135-56

Zhu, Pingchao. Wartime Culture in Guilin: 1938-1944: A City at War. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 2015.

[Abstract: This study challenges existing historiography on China’s wartime culture at three levels. First, the Guangxi warlord group played a crucial role in maintaining regional security, providing a liberalized political environment for wartime cultural activities and facilitating wartime nationalist–communist relations at both local and national levels. Second, wartime culture was more literary than political and it reflected a powerful intellectual vigor that was an indispensable component of China’s war efforts. Intellectuals of different social and political backgrounds were their own “organic” selves feeling no pressure to come to intellectual consensus in literary production. Third, wartime culture was characterized by the active participation of many international groups, political organizations, and foreign individuals. The literary works produced in Guilin between 1938 and 1944 clearly reflected a combination of Chinese national and international anti-fascist and anti-military sentiment. Chinese literary masterpieces were translated into different foreign languages and noted foreign literature and political works were introduced to Chinese audiences through various cultural and political exchange programs in the city.].


1950s-1960s

Admussen, Nick. Recite and Refuse: Contemporary Chinese Prose Poetry. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 2016.

[Abstract: Chinese prose poetry today is engaged with a series of questions that are fundamental to the modern Chinese language: What is prose? What is it good for? How should it look and sound? Millions of Chinese readers encounter prose poetry every year, both in the most official of state-sponsored magazines and in the unorthodox, experimental work of the avant-garde. Recite and Refuse makes their answers to our questions about prose legible by translating, surveying, and interpreting prose poems, studying the people, politics, and contexts that surround the writing of prose poetry. Admussen argues that unlike most genres, Chinese prose poems lack a distinct size or shape. Their similarity to other prose is the result of a distinct process in which a prose form is recited with some kind of meaningful difference—an imitation that refuses to fully resemble its source. This makes prose poetry a protean, ever-changing group of works, channeling the language of science, journalism, Communist Party politics, advertisements, and much more. The poems look vastly different as products, but are made with a similar process. Focusing on the composition process allows Admussen to rewrite the standard history of prose poetry, finding its origins not in 1918 but in the obedient socialist prose poetry of the 1950s. Recite and Refuse places the work of state-sponsored writers in mutual relationship to prose poems by unorthodox and avant-garde poets, from cadre writers like Ke Lan and Guo Feng to the border-crossing intellectual and poet Liu Zaifu to experimental artists such as Ouyang Jianghe and Xi Chuan. The volume features never-before seen English translations that range from the representative to the exceptional, culminating with Ouyang Jianghe’s masterpiece “Hanging Coffin.” Reading across the spectrum enables us to see the way that artists interact with each other, how they compete and cooperate, and how their interactions, as well as their creations, continuously reinvent both poetry and prose.]

Arkush, David. “Introduction.” In Hua-ling Nieh, ed., Literature of the Hundred Flowers, Volume II: Poetry and Fiction. NY: Columbia UP, 1981, xiii-xxxviii.

Birch, Cyril. “The Dragon and the Pen.” Soviet Survey 14 (April/June 1958): 22-26.

—–, ed. Chinese Communist Literature. NY: Praeger, 1963.

—–. “Chinese Communist Literature: The Persistence of Traditional Forms.” China Quarterly 13 (Jan/March 1963): 74-91.

—–. “The Particle of Art.” China Quarterly 13 (Jan/March 1963): 3-14.

—–. “Literature Under Communism.” In Roderick MacFarquhar and John King Fairbank, ed., Cambrigdge History of China. Vol. 15, The People’s Republic of China, Pt.2. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1986, 743-812.

Boorman, Howard. Literature and Politics in Contemporary China. Jamaica, NY: St John’s UP, 1960.

—–. “The Literary World of Mao Tse-tung.” China Quarterly 13 (1963): 15-38. Rpt in Cyril Birch, ed., Chinese Communist Literature. NY: Praeger, 1963, 15-38.

Borowitz, Albert. Fiction in Communist China. Cambridge, MA: Center for International Studies, MIT, 1954.

Braester, Yomi. “The Political Campaign as Genre: Ideology and Iconography during the Seventeen Years Period.” Modern Language Quarterly 69, 1 (March 2008): 119-40.

[Abstract: The essay examines films produced during the Seventeen Years period (1949-66) and suggests that political campaigns may be akin to film genres. Insofar as generic distinctions of theme and style are produced according to the shifting interests of critics and producers, campaigns have produced a politically motivated typology. The examination of campaigns as genrelike offers an opportunity to rethink the connection not only between Maoism and its cultural manifestations but also between ideology and form in general.]

Button, Peter. Aesthetic Formation and the Image of Modern China: The Philosophical Aesthetics of Cai Yi. Ph.d. diss. Ithaca: Cornell Univerity, 2000.

—–. Configurations of the Real in Chinese Literary and Aesthetic Modernity. Leiden: Brill, 2009.

[Abstract: The emergence of the Chinese socialist realist novel can best be understoodin light of the half-century long formation of the modern concept ofliterature in China. Globalized in the wake of modern capitalism, literary modernity configures the literary text in a relationship to both modern philosophy and literary theory. This book traces China’s unique, complex, and creative articulation of literary modernity beginning with Lu Xun’s “The True Story of Ah Q.” Cai Yi’s aesthetic theory of the type (dianxing) and the image (xingxiang) is then explored in relation to global currents in literary thought and philosophy, making possible a fundamental rethinking of Chinese socialist realist novels like Yang Mo’s Song of Youth and Luo Guangbin and Yan Yiyan’s Red Crag.]

Cai, Xiang. Revolution and Its Narratives: China’s Socialist Literary and Cultural Imaginaries, 1949-1966. Eds/trs. Rebecca E. Karl and Xueping Zhong. Durham: Duke University Press, 2016. [MCLC Resource Center review by Nicolai Volland]

[Abstract: Published in China in 2010, Revolution and Its Narratives is a historical, literary, and critical account of the cultural production of the narratives of China’s socialist revolution. Through theoretical, empirical, and textual analysis of major and minor novels, dramas, short stories, and cinema, Cai Xiang offers a complex study that exceeds the narrow confines of existing views of socialist aesthetics. By engaging with the relationship among culture, history, and politics in the context of the revolutionary transformation of Chinese society and arts, Cai illuminates the utopian promise as well as the ultimate impossibility of socialist cultural production. Translated, annotated, and edited by Rebecca E. Karl and Xueping Zhong, this translation presents Cai’s influential work to English-language readers for the first time.]

Chan, Shau-wing. “Literature in Communist China.” Problems of Communism 7, 1 (Jan/Feb 1958): 44-51.

Chan, Sylvia. “The Image of a ‘Capitalist Roader’: Some Dissident Short Stories in the Hundred Flowers Period.” Australian Journal of Chinese Affairs 2 (July 1979): 72-102.

—–. “The Blooming of the ‘Hundred Flowers’ and the Literature of the ‘Wounded Generation.'” In Bill Brugger, ed., China Since the ‘Gang of Four’. London: Croom Helm, 1980, 174-201.

Chan, Roy Bing. “Sleepless Nights in Fast Socialism: Dream Rhetoric and Fiction in the Mao Era.” In Chan, The Edge of Knowing: Dreams, History, and Realism in Modern Chinese Literature. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 108-46.

Chao, Ts’ung. The Communist Program for Literature and Art in China. HK: Union Research Institute, 1955.

—–. “Literature and Art.” In Communist China: 1956. HK: Union Research Institute, 1957, 149-59.

Cheek, Timothy. Propaganda and Culture in Mao’s China: Deng Tuo and the Intelligentsia. NY: Oxford UP, 1997.

Chen, A. S. “The Ideal Local Party Secretary and the ‘Model’ Man.” The China Quarterly 17 (Jan-Mar. 1964): 229-40.

Chen, Helen H. “Irony, Satire and (Un)reliability: Parodying the Genre of the Rightist Fiction.” American Journal of Chinese Studies 6, 1 (April 1999): 1-20.

Chen, S. H. (Shih-hsiang). “Metaphor and the Conscious in Chinese Poetry under Communism.” In Cyril Birch, ed. Chinese Communist Literature. NY: Praeger, 1963, 39-59.

—–. “Multiplicity in Uniformity: Poetry and the Great Leap Forward.” In R. MacFarquhar, ed., China Under Mao: Politics Takes Command. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1966, 392-406.

—–. “Language and Literature Under Communism.” In Yuan-li Wu, ed., China: A Handbook. NY: Praeger, 1973, 705-36.

Chen, Sihe. “On ‘Invisible Writing’ in the History of Contemporary Chinese Literature 1949-1976.” Tr. Hongbing Zhang. MCLC Resource Center Publication.

Chen, Xiaomei. “Worker-Peasant-Soldier Literature.” In Ban Wang, ed., Words and Their Stories: Essays on the Language of the Chinese Revolution. Leiden: Brill, 2010, 65-83.

Chen, Xiaoming. “The Disappearance of Truth: From Realism to Modernism in China.” In Chung, ed. In the Party Spirit: Socialist Realism and Literary Practice in the Soviet Union, East Germany and China. Critical Studies no. 6. Amsterdam: Rodopi, 1996, 158-65.

—–. “Personal Recollections and the Historicization of Literature: Keep the Red Flag Flying as a Case Study of the Complexity of Revolutionary Literature.” In Tao Dongfeng, Yang Xiaobin, Rosemary Roberts, and Yang Ling, eds. Chinese Revolution and Chinese Literature. Cambridge: University of Cambridge Press, 2009, 225-47.

—–. “Socialist Literature Driven by Radical Modernity, 1950-1980.” In Yingjin Zhang, ed. A Companion to Modern Chinese Literature. Chichester, UK: Wiley Blackwell, 2016, 81-97.

Chin, Luke Kai-hsin. The Politics of Drama Reform in China after 1949: Elite Strategies of Resocialization. Ph. D. diss. NY: New York University, 1980.

Chung, Hiliary and Tommy McClellan, “The Command Enjoyment of Literature in China: Conferences, Controls and Excesses.’ In Hilary Chung ed., In the Party Spirit: Socialist Realism and Literary Practice in the Soviet Union, East Germany and China. Amsterdam and Atlanta: Rodopi, 1996, 1-22.

Cohen, Jerome. “The Party and the Courts: 1940-1959.” The China Quarterly 38 (April-June 1969): 120-57.

Crespi, John. “Calculated Passions: The Lyric and the Theatric in Mao-era Poetry Recitation.” Modern Chinese Literature and Culture 13, 2 (Fall 2001): 72-110.

Crozier, Ralph, ed. China’s Cultural Legacy and Communism. NY: Praeger, 1970.

Cultural Press. The People’s New Literature: Four Reports at the First All-China Conference of Writers and Artists. Beijing: Cultural Press, 1950. [with essays by Zhou Enlai, Guo Moruo, Mao Dun, and Zhou Yang].

DeMare, Brian. “Local Actors and National Politics: Rural Amateur Drama Troupes and Mass Campaigns in Hubei Province, 1949-1953.” Modern Chinese Literature and Culture 24, 2 (Fall 2012): 129-178.

—–. “The Romance and Tragedy of Rural Revolution: Narratives and Novels of Land Reform in Mao’s China.” Clio: A Journal of Literature, History, and the Philosophy of History 43, 4 (Summer 2014): 341-365.

—–. Mao’s Cultural Army: Drama Troupes in China’s Rural Revolution. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2015.

[Abstract: Charting their training, travels, and performances, this innovative study explores the role of the artists that roamed the Chinese countryside in support of Mao’s communist revolution. DeMare traces the development of Mao’s ‘cultural army’ from its genesis in Red Army propaganda teams to its full development as a largely civilian force composed of amateur and professional drama troupes in the early years of the PRC. Drawing from memoirs, artistic handbooks, and rare archival sources, Mao’s Cultural Army uncovers the arduous and complex process of creating revolutionary dramas that would appeal to China’s all-important rural audiences. The Communists strived for a disciplined cultural army to promote party policies, but audiences often shunned modern and didactic shows, and instead clamoured for traditional works. DeMare illustrates how drama troupes, caught between the party and their audiences, did their best to resist the ever growing reach of the PRC state.]

Denton, Kirk A. “Rectification: Party Discipline, Intellectual Remolding, and the Formation of a Political Community.” In Ban Wang, ed., Words and Their Stories: Essays on the Language of the Chinese Revolution. Leiden: Brill, 2010, 51-63.

Eber, Irene. “Social Harmony, Family and Women in Chinese Novels, 1948-58.” The China Quarterly 117 (Mar., 1989): 71-96.

Farquhar, Mary. “Revolutionary Children’s Literature.” Australian Journal of Chinese Affairs 4 (July 1980): 61-84.

Fokkema, D.W. Literary Doctrine in China and Soviet Influence, 1956-60. Hague: Mouton, 1965.

Giafferri-Huang, Xiaomin. Le roman chinois depuis 1949. Paris: Press Universitaire de France, 1991.

Goldman, Merle. Literary Dissent in Communist China. NY: Antheneum, 1971.

Greene, Maggie. “A Ghostly Bodhisattva and the Price of Vengeance: Meng Chao, Li Huiniang, and the Politics of Drama, 1959-1979.” Modern Chinese Literature and Culture 24, 1 (Spring 2012): 149-99.

Guo, Bingru. “Revolutionary Narrative in the Seventeen Years Period.” Tr. Michael Gibbs Hill. In Ban Wang, ed., Words and Their Stories: Essays on the Language of the Chinese Revolution. Leiden: Brill, 2010, 305-18.

He, Qiliang. “Between Business and Bureaucrats: Pingtan Storytelling in Maoist and Post-Maoist China.” Modern China 36, 3(2010): 243-268.

[Abstract: This article examines the complex relationship of the state, market, and artists in pingtan storytelling in post-1949 China. By focusing on Su Yuyin, a pingtan storyteller, and his performing career, this article explores the persistence of cultural markets after the Communist victory in 1949 and argues that the market continued to play a significant role in shaping China’s popular culture, which the government was keen on patronizing and politicizing. By comparing the regime’s management of pingtan storytelling before and after the Cultural Revolution (1966—1976), this article further argues that the regime’s censorship of popular culture in the 1950s and 1960s was handicapped by its lack of financial resources and the continued existence of cultural markets. The result was that censorship was not as strictly and efficiently enforced as has been assumed.]

Hegel, Robert. “Making the Past Serve the Present in Fiction and Drama: From the Yan’an Forum to the Cultural Revolution.” In Bonnie McDougall, ed., Popular Chinese Literature and Performing Arts in the PRC, 1949-1979. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1984, 197-223.

Hendrischke, Hans J. Populare Lesestoffe: Propaganda und Agitation im Buchwesen der Volksrepublik China (Popular Reading Material: Propaganda and Agitation in Book Publishing in the People’s Republic of China). Bochum: Herausgeber Chinathemen, 1988.

Henningsen, Lena. “Tastes of Revolution, Change and Love: Codes of Consumption in Fiction from New China.” Frontiers of Literary Studies in China 8, 4 (2014): 575-97.

[Abstract: This paper analyses Socialist Realist novels from the early years of the People’s Republic of China (PRC), focusing on scenes of food and drink consumption. While these scenes may appear marginal at first glance, the analysis demonstrates how food and its consumption function as codes to normative values. I am therefore proposing a reading of these texts based on the model of intertextuality (Julia Kristeva) and on an anthropological model on (food) consumption (Mary Douglas), advocating that acts of consumption reveal social hierarchies and the position of the individual therein. These fictional scenes of everyday activities construct fictional characters as heroes or villains. Given the normative value of this officially endorsed literature, these scenes at the same time prescribe (and, likewise, proscribe) certain behavior to their readers. On another level, however, these codes also convey information that could not be openly spelled out at the time, as when the sharing of food is the only way in which two fictional characters can express their love. Simple food can thus be the source of entertainment, enjoyment, suspense, and even nostalgia for contemporary readers, which, in turn, may be one of the reasons for the lasting popularity of the codes described and of a number of the texts presented in the analysis.]

Hong, Zicheng. A History of Contemporary Chinese Literature. Tr. Michael M. Day. Leiden: Brill, 2007. [MCLC Resource Center review by Edward Gunn]

Hsia, Tsi-An. “Twenty Years after the Yenan Forum.” In Cyril Birch, ed., Chinese Communist Literature. NY: Praeger, 1963, 226-253. Rpt. in Hsia, The Gate of Darkness: Studies on the Leftist Literary Movement. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1968, 234-60.

—–. Heroes and Hero-Worship in Chinese Communist Fiction. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1968.

Hsu, Kai-yu. “Contemporary Chinese Poetry and Its Search for an Ideal Form.” In Bonnie McDougall, ed. Popular Chinese Literature and Performing Arts in the PRC, 1949-1979. Berkeley: UCP, 1984, 224-65.

Huang, Joe. Heroes and Villains in Communist China: The Contemporary Chinese Novel as a Reflection of Life. HK: Heinemann, 1973.

Huangfu, Jenny. “Roads to Salvation: Shen Congwen, Xiao Qian, and the Problem of Non-Communist Celebrity Writers, 1948-1957.” Modern Chinese Literature and Culture 22, 2 (Fall 2010): 39-87.

Hung, Chang-tai. “The Dance of Revolution: Yangge in Beijing in the Early 1950s.” The China Quarterly 181 (March 2005): 82-99.

Hutt, Michael. “Reading Nepali Maoist Memoirs.” Studies in Nepali History and Society 17, no. 1 (June 2012): 107–142.

Ji, Fengyuan. Linguistic Engineering: Language and Politics in Mao’s China. Honolulu: University of Hawai’i Press, 2003.

King, Richard. “The Hundred Flowers.” In Joshua Mostow, ed, and Kirk A. Denton, China section, ed., Columbia Companion to Modern East Asian Literatures. NY: Columbia UP, 2003, 476-80.

—–. “The Hundred Flowers: Qin Zhaoyang, Wang Meng, and Lin Binyan.” In Kirk A. Denton, ed, Columbia Companion to Modern Chinese Literature. NY: Columbia University Press, 2016, 245-49.

—–. Milestones on a Golden Road: Writing for Chinese Socialism, 1945-80. Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press, 2013. [MCLC Resource Center Review by Roy Bing Chan]

[Abstract: Literature created under and by a repressive regime is rarely accorded the same respect as works that go against the party line. Yet, as Richard King’s Milestones on a Golden Road argues, these works deserve serious attention as part of an attempt, however misguided, to create a Chinese socialist culture. King presents eight pivotal works of fiction produced in four key periods of Chinese revolutionary history: the civil war (1945-49), the Great Leap Forward (1958-60), the Cultural Revolution (1966-76), and the post-Mao catharsis (1979-80). Taking its cues from the Soviet Union’s optimistic depictions of a society liberated by Communism, the official Chinese literature of this era is characterized by grand narratives of progress. Addressing questions of literary production, King looks at how writers dealt with shifting ideological demands, what indigenous and imported traditions inspired them, and how they were able to depict a utopian Communist future to their readers, even as the present took a very different turn. Early “red classics” were followed by works featuring increasingly lurid images of joyful socialism, and later by fiction exposing the Mao era as an age of irrationality, arbitrary rule, and suffering — a Golden Road that had led to nowhere.]

Knight, Sabina. “Moral Decision in Mao-Era Fiction.” In The Heart of Time: Moral Agency in Twentieth-Century Chinese Fiction. Cambridge: Harvard University Asia Center, 2006, 133-61.

Kraus, Richard. “Let a Hundred Flowers Blossom, Let a Hundred Schools of Thought Contend.” In Ban Wang, ed., Words and Their Stories: Essays on the Language of the Chinese Revolution. Leiden: Brill, 2010, 249-62.

Laughlin, Charles. “Incongruous Lyricism: Liu Baiyu, Yang Shuo and sanwen in Chinese Socialist Culture.” In Martin Woesler, ed., The Modern Chinese Literary Essay: Defining the Chinese Self in the 20th Century. Bochum: Bochum UP, 2000, 115-29.

Lekner, Dayton. “A Chill in Spring: Literary Exchange and Political Struggle in the Hundred Flowers and Anti-Rightist Campaigns of 1956–1958.” Modern China 44, 5 (2018).

[Abstract: Who had the power to innovate in the linguistic and literary realms in the high Mao era? To date, scholars have emphasized a top-down enforcement of formulaic language through a mixture of Communist Party organization and Maoist charisma. This article challenges the exhaustiveness of that model by articulating the circulation, appropriation, and modulation of literary tropes during the political campaigns of 1956–1958. To this end, it traces the widespread uptake of the titular metaphor of the Hundred Flowers Campaign and its proliferation throughout public debate. Troubling the top-down model is the challenge to this propagation posed by sociologist Fei Xiaotong 费孝通 (1910–2005) with his essay “The Early Spring Weather of Intellectuals” and the impact that essay, and its central metaphor, had on public discourse. In exploring this battle over the metaphorical season, this article reimagines the Hundred Flowers, Rectification, and Anti-Rightist campaigns through the lens of literary exchange. It argues that in distinct cases it was control of public discourse through literary virtuosity that constituted a key battleground during the campaigns.]

Li, Chi. The Use of Figurative Language in Communist China. Studies in Chinese Communist Terminology, no. 5. Berkeley: Center for Chinese Studies, University of California, 1958.

Li, Peter. “War and Modernity in Chinese Military Fiction.” Society 34, 5 (July 1997): 77-89. [deals in part with Du Pengcheng’s Defend Yan’an and Wu Qiang’s Red Sun]

Li, Ting-sheng. The CCP’s Persecutions of Intellectuals in 1949-1969. Taipei: Asian People’s Anti-Communist League, 1969.

Link, Perry. The Uses of Literature: Life in the Socialist Chinese Literary System. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2000.

Liu, Kang. “Rethinking the Aesthetic Debate in the 1950s and 1960s.” Literature Review (2000): 34-59.

Liu, Lydia. “A Folksong Immortal and Official Popular Culture in Twentieth-Century China.” In Judith T. Zeitlin and Lydia Liu, with Ellen Widmer, eds., Writing and Materiality in China: Essays in Honor of Patrick Hanan. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Asia Center, 2003, 553-609. [deals in part with film “Liu Sanjie” and its folk roots]

Liu, Xiaobo. “Mutual Destruction and Mutual Purges in Academic Circles.” Chinese Law and Government 38, 5 (Sept-Oct. 2005): 58-77. [link is to a reprint on the Chinese Pen website]

Liu, Yu. “Maoist Discourse and the Mobilization of Emotions in Revolutionary China.” Modern China 36, 3 (2010): 329-362.

[Abstract: This article focuses on how Maoist discourse engineered revolutionary emotions as a method of political mobilization. Based on personal memoirs and eyewitness accounts, it argues that the Maoist discourse can be disaggregated into three themes, each aimed at provoking one type of emotion: the theme of victimization, which mobilized indignation in struggle campaigns; the theme of redemption, which generated guilt in thought reform campaigns; and the theme of emancipation, which raised euphoria in social transformation campaigns. It also argues that Maoist discourse propagation employed three techniques—personalization, magnification, and moralization—and emphasizes that these techniques of propagation are as important as the content of the three themes in the production of passions.]

Leung, K. C. “Literature in the Service of Politics: The Chinese Literary Scene Since 1949.” World Literature Today 55, 1 (1981): 18-20.

MacFarquhar, Roderick. The Hundred Flowers Campaign and the Chinese Intellectual. NY: Praeger, 1960.

Mu, Aili. Mao Zedong’s Aesthetic Ideology and Its Function. Ph.d. diss. SUNY, Stonybrook, 1996.

Pickowicz, Paul. Marxist Literary Thought and China: A Conceptual Framework. Berkeley: Center for Chinese Studies, Institute of East Asian Studies, University of California, 1980.

Qian, Ying. “The Shopfloor as Stage: Production Competition, Democracy, and the Unfulfilled Promise of Red Flag Song.” China Perspectives 2 (2015): 7-14.

Roberts, Rosemary and Li Li, eds. The Making and Remaking of China’s “Red Classics” Politics, Aesthetics, and Mass Culture. HK: Hong Kong University Press, 2017. [MCLC Resource Center review by Yizhong Gu]

[Abstract: the first full-length work to bring together research on the “red classics” across the entire Maoist period through to the reform era. It covers a representative range of genres including novels, short stories, films, TV series, picture books, animation, and traditional-style paintings. Collectively the chapters offer a panoramic view of the production and reception of the original “red classics” and the adaptations and remakes of such works after the Cultural Revolution. The contributors present fascinating stories of how a work came to be regarded as, or failed to become, a “red classic.” There has never been a single answer to the question of what counts as a “red classic”; artists had to negotiate the changing political circumstances and adopt the “correct” artistic technique to bring out the “authentic” image of the people, while appealing to the taste of the mass audience at the same time. A critical examination of these works reveals their sociopolitical and ideological import, aesthetic significance, and function as mass cultural phenomenon at particular historical moments. This volume marks a step forward in the growing field of the study of Maoist cultural products.]

Schwartz, Benjamin. “The Intelligentsia in Communist China: A Tentative Comparison.” In Richard Pipes, ed., The Russian Intelligentsia. NY: Columbia UP, 1961.

Song, Mingwei. “The Taming of the Youth: Discourse, Politics, and Fictional Representation in the Early PRC.” Journal of Modern Literature in Chinese 9, 2 (July 2009): 108-38.

—–. “The Taming of the Young: The Socialist Bildungsroman.” In Song, Young China: National Rejuvenation and the Bildungsroman, 1900-1959. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Asia Center, 2015, 286-333.

Song, Mingwei and Shengqing Wu, editors. The Obscure Decade: Literary Imagination and Political Culture in Hong Kong, Taiwan, and the PRC, 1949-1959. Special issue of Journal of Modern Literature in Chinese 9, 2 (July 2009).

Song, Yongyi, chief editor. The Chinese Anti-Rightist Campaign Database (1957-). HK: Chinese University Press, 2010.

Stuckey, Andrew. “Interlude: The Maoist (Anti)Tradition and the Nationalist (Neo)Tradition.” In Stuckey, Old Stories Retold: Narrative and Vanishing Pasts in Modern China. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 2010, 59-79.

Su, Wei. “The School and the Hospital: On the Logics of Socialist Realism.” In Pang-yuan Chi and David Wang, eds., Chinese Literature in the Second Half of the Twentieth Century: A Critical Survey. Bloomington: Indiana UP, 2000, 165-75.

Taylor, Jeremy. “The Sinification of Soviet Agitational Theatre: ‘Living Newspapers’ in Mao’s China.” Journal of the British Association for Chinese Studies vol. 2 (July 2013).

[Abstract: The adoption and development of zhivaya gazeta (lit. ‘living newspapers’) in China follows a trajectory common to many forms of artistic expression that were introduced into that country by the Soviets in the early decades of the twentieth century. While the Soviet heritage of this theatre was at first celebrated, the Chinese Communist Party sought to tailor it to particular needs and to present it as a specifically Chinese innovation, rechristening it ‘huobaoju’.Despite dying out in the Soviet Union by the late 1920s, ‘living newspapers’ continued to be produced in China from the 1930s through until the Cultural Revolution (1966-76), with the form being employed in tandem with specific campaigns or attempts at mass mobilisation. Indeed, the very nature of Chinese communism under Mao provided the perfect environment in which this form of theatre could thrive]

U, Eddy. “Third Sister Liu and the Making of the Intellectual in Socialist China.” Journal of Asian Studies 69, 1 (Feb. 2010): 57-83.

[Abstract: Through an analysis of Third Sister Liu, a popular musical of the early 1960s, this article illustrates how the Chinese Communist Party mobilized state and society to express disparaging ideas about the intellectual during the Great Leap Forward. The Chinese intellectual was not any specific social type, group, or individual, but a substrate upon which the party organized and promoted its vision and division of society. Official representations, organization, and the threat of punishment underpinned the party’s efforts and produced local resistance toward the party’s understanding of the intellectual. The author’s analytical approach stresses the social work of construction that reproduced the intellectual as a major political subject, an official classification, and an embodied identity in socialist China. The analysis illuminates heretofore obscured dimensions of Communist Party rule and experiences of those affected by the classification.]

Van Fleit Hang, Krista. “People’s Literature and the Construction of a New Chinese Literary Tradition.” Journal of Modern Literature in Chinese 9, 2 (July 2009): 87-107.

—–. Literature the People Love: Reading Chinese Texts from the Early Maoist Period (1949-1966). NY: Palgrave Macmillan, 2013. [MCLC Resource Center review by Richard King]

[Abstract: In the Maoist period, authors and the communist literary establishment shared the belief that art could reshape reality, and was thus just as crucial to the political establishment as building new infrastructure or developing advanced weaponry. Literature the People Love investigates the production of a literary system designed to meet the needs of a newly revolutionary society in China, decentering the Cold War understanding of communist culture. Krista Van Fleit Hang shows readers how to understand the intersection of gender, tradition, and communist ideology in essential texts. Rather than arguing for or against the literary merits of the works of the early Maoist period, the book presents a sympathetic understanding of culture from a period in China’s history in which people’s lives were greatly affected by political events.]

—–. “Introduction: Reading People’s Literature.” In Van Fleit Hang, Literature the People Love: Reading Chinese Texts from the Early Maoist Period (1949-1966). NY: Palgrave Macmillan, 2013, 1-22.

—–. “People’s Literature and the Construction of a New Chinese Literary Tradition.” In Van Fleit Hang, Literature the People Love: Reading Chinese Texts from the Early Maoist Period (1949-1966). NY: Palgrave Macmillan, 2013, 23-56.

Volland, Nicolai. “A Linguistic Enclave: Translation and Language Policies in the Early People’s Republic of China.” Modern China 35 (2009): 467-494.

—–. Socialist Cosmopolitanism: The Chinese Literary Universe, 1945-1960. New York: Columbia University Press, 2017. [MCLC Resource Center review by Tie Xiao]

[AbstractSocialist Cosmopolitanism offers an innovative interpretation of literary works from the Mao era that reads Chinese socialist literature as world literature. As Nicolai Volland demonstrates, after 1949 China engaged with the world beyond its borders in a variety of ways and on many levels—politically, economically, and culturally. Far from rejecting the worldliness of earlier eras, the young People’s Republic developed its own cosmopolitanism. Rather than a radical break with the past, Chinese socialist literature should be seen as an integral and important chapter in China’s long search to find a place within world literature. Socialist Cosmopolitanism revisits a range of genres, from poetry and land reform novels to science fiction and children’s literature, and shows how Chinese writers and readers alike saw their own literary production as part of a much larger literary universe. This literary space, reaching from Beijing to Berlin, from Prague to Pyongyang, from Warsaw to Moscow to Hanoi, allowed authors and texts to travel, reinventing the meaning of world literature. Chinese socialist literature was not driven solely by politics but by an ambitious—but ultimately doomed—attempt to redraw the literary world map.]

Wagner, Rudolf. “The Cog and the Scout: Functional Concepts of Literature in Socialist Political Culture: The Chinese Debate in the Mid-Fifties.” In W. Kubin and R. Wagner, eds., Essays in Modern Chinese Literature and Literary Criticism. Bochum, 1982.

—–. “Life as a Quote from a Foreign Book. Love, Pavel, and Rita.” In H.Schmidt-Glintzer (ed.), Das andere China. Festschrift für Wolfgang Bauer zum 65. Geburtstag, Wolfenbütteler Forschungen; vol. 62. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, 1995, 463-476. [deals with the problems of handling love themes in PRC literature, and Soviet background of its treatment (especially Ostrovski, How the Steel was Tempered)]

—–. “Culture and Code. Historical Fiction in a Socialist Environment: The GDR and China.” In H. Chung (ed.)(with M. Falchikov, B. S. McDougall, K. McPherson), In the Party Spirit. Socialist Realism and Literary Practice in the Soviet Union, East Germany and China. Editions Rodopi: Amsterdam/Atlanta 1996, 129-140.

Wang, Ban. “Revolutionary Realism and Revolutonary Romanticism: Song of Youth.” In Joshua Mostow, ed, and Kirk A. Denton, China section, ed., Columbia Companion to Modern East Asian Literatures. NY: Columbia UP, 2003, 470-75. Rpt. in Denton, ed, Columbia Companion to Modern Chinese Literature. NY: Columbia University Press, 2016, 237-44.

—–. “Socialist Realism.” In Ban Wang, ed., Words and Their Stories: Essays on the Language of the Chinese Revolution. Leiden: Brill, 2010, 101-118.

Wang, Ban, ed. Words and Their Stories: Essays on the Language of the Chinese Revolution. Leiden: Brill, 2010.

[Abstract: As China joins the capitalist world economy, the problems of social disintegration that gave rise to the earlier revolutionary social movements are becoming pressing. Instead of viewing the Chinese Revolution as an academic study, these essays suggest that the motifs of the Revolution are still alive and relevant. The slogan “Farewell to Revolution” that obscures the revolutionary language is premature. In spite of dislocations and ruptures in the revolutionary language, to rethink this discourse is to revisit a history in terms of sedimented layers of linguistic meanings and political aspirations. Earlier meanings of revolutionary words may persist or coexist with non-revolutionary rivals. Recovery of the vital uses of key revolutionary words proffers critical alternatives in which contemporary capitalist myths can be contested.]

Wang, David Der-wei. “Reinventing National History: Communist and Anti-Communist Fiction of the Mid-Twentieth Century.” In Pang-yuan Chi and David Wang, eds., Chinese Literature in the Second Half of the Twentieth Century: A Critical Survey. Bloomington: Indiana UP, 2000, 139-64.

Wang, Xiaojue. Modernity with a Cold War Face: Reimagining the Nation in Chinese Literature Across the 1949 Divide. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Asia Center, 2013. [MCLC Resource Center review by Jeffrey C. Kinkley]

[Abstract: The year 1949 witnessed China divided into multiple political and cultural entities. How did this momentous shift affect Chinese literary topography? Modernity with a Cold War Face examines the competing, converging, and conflicting modes of envisioning a modern nation in mid-twentieth century Chinese literature. Bridging the 1949 divide in both literary historical periodization and political demarcation, Xiaojue Wang proposes a new framework to consider Chinese literature beyond national boundaries, as something arising out of the larger global geopolitical and cultural conflict of the Cold War. Examining a body of heretofore understudied literary and cultural production in mainland China, Taiwan, Hong Kong, and overseas during a crucial period after World War II, Wang traces how Chinese writers collected artistic fragments, blended feminist and socialist agendas, constructed ambivalent stances toward colonial modernity and an imaginary homeland, translated foreign literature to shape a new Chinese subjectivity, and revisited the classics for a new time. Reflecting historical reality in fictional terms, their work forged a path toward multiple modernities as they created alternative ways of connection, communication, and articulation to uncover and undermine Cold War dichotomous antagonism.

Wu, Guo. “The Social Construction and Deconstruction of Evil Landlords in Contemporary Chinese Fiction, Art, and Collective Memory.” Modern Chinese Literature and Culture 25, 1 (Spring 2013): 131-64.

Yang, Lan. “‘Socialist Realism’ versus ‘Revolutionary Realism plus Revolutionary Romanticism.'” In Chung, ed. In the Party Spirit: Socialist Realism and Literary Practice in the Soviet Union, East Germany and China. Critical Studies no. 6. Amsterdam: Rodopi, 1996, 88-105.

You, Ziying. “Tradition and Ideology: Creating and Performing new Gushi in China, 1962-1966.” Asian Ethnology 71, 2 (2012): 259-80.

Zhao, Zhong. The Communist Program for Literature and Art in China. Kowloon: Union Research Institute, 1955.

Zhongguo wenxue yishu gongzuozhe di’erci daibiao dahui ziliao 中国文学艺术工作者第二次代表大会资料 (Materials from the second representatives meeting of China Literary and Art Workers). Beijing: Zhongguo wenxue yishu jielian hehui, 1953.


Cultural Revolution (1966-76)

Aijmer, Goran. “Political Ritual: Aspects of the Mao Cult During the Cultural ‘Revolution.'” China Information 11, 2/3 (Aut/Win 1996/97): 215-31.

Bai, Di. A Feminist Brave New World: The Cultural Revolution Model Theater Revisited. Ph.D. diss. The Ohio State University, Columbus, 1997.

—–. “The Cultural Revolution Model Theater.” In Joshua Mostow, ed, and Kirk A. Denton, China section, ed., Columbia Companion to Modern East Asian Literatures. NY: Columbia UP, 2003, 496-501. Rpt. in Denton, ed, Columbia Companion to Modern Chinese Literature. NY: Columbia University Press, 2016, 267-73.

—–. “Feminism in the Revolutionary Model Ballets The White-Haired Girl and The Red Detachment of Women.” In Richard King, Ralph C. Croizier, Scott Watson, and Sheng Tian Zheng, eds. Art in Turmoil: The Chinese Cultural Revolution, 1966-76. Vancouver: UBC Press, 2010.

Bergman, Par. Paragons of Virtue in Chinese Short Stories during the Cultural Revolution. Gotebord, Graphic Systems, 1984.

Bibliography on Chinese Cultural Revolution (Indiana University Library)

Borden, Caroline. “Characterization in Revolutionary Chinese and Reactionary American Short Stories.” Literature and Ideology 12 (1972): 9-16.

Braester, Yomi. “The Purloined Lantern: Maoist Semiotics and Public Discourse in Early PRC Film and Drama.” In Braester, Witness Against History: Literature, Film, and Public Discourse in Twentieth-Century China. Stanford: Stanford UP, 2003, 106-27.

Brown, Kevin. “Language Politics in Inner Mongolia during the Cultural Revolution.” Online resource.

Bryant, Lei Ouyang. New Songs of the Battlefield: Songs and Memories of the Chinese Cultural Revolution. Ph. D. diss. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh, 2004.

Cao, Zuoya. Out of the Crucible: Literary Works about the Rusticated Youth. Lanham: Lexington Books, 2003.

Ch’en, Shih-hsiang. “Language and Literature Under Communism.” In Yuan-li Wu, ed., China: A Handbook. NY: Praeger, 1973, 705-36.

Chen, Sihe. “On ‘Invisible Writing’ in the History of Contemporary Chinese Literature 1949-1976.” Tr. Hongbing Zhang. MCLC Resource Center Publication.

Chen, Xiaomei. “The Marginality of the Study of Cultural Revolution: The Neglected and the Privileged in the Making of Imagined Communities.” Historical Society of Twentieth Century China Annual Conference (Coeur d’Alene, Idaho, Sept/Oct. 1997).

—–. “The Making of a Revolutionary Stage: Chinese Model Theater and Western Influences.” In Claire Sponsler and Xiaomei Chen, eds., East of West: Cross-cultural Performance and the Staging of Difference.NY: St. Martin’s Press, 2000, 125-40.

—– Acting the Right Part: Political Theater and Popular Drama in Contemporary China, 1966-1996. Honolulu: University of Hawaii, 2002. [MCLC Resource Center review by Ruru Li]

—–. “Operatic Revolutions: Tradition, Memory, and Women in Model Theater.” In Chen, Acting the Right Part: Political Theater and Popular Drama in Contemporary China, 1966-1996. Honolulu: University of Hawaii, 2002, 73-158.

—–. “Family, Village, Nation/State, and the Third World: The Imagined Communities in Model Theater.” In Chen, Acting the Right Part: Political Theater and Popular Drama in Contemporary China, 1966-1996. Honolulu: University of Hawaii, 2002, 159-194.

—–. “Remembering War and Revolution on the Maoist Stage.” In Andrew Hammond, ed., Cold War Literature: Writing the Global Conflict. New York: Routledge, 2006, 131-145.

Chen, Xiaoming. “Socialist Literature Driven by Radical Modernity, 1950-1980.” In Yingjin Zhang, ed. A Companion to Modern Chinese Literature. Chichester, UK: Wiley Blackwell, 2016, 81-97.

Cheng Shi, et al., eds. Wenge xiaoliao ji (A collection of Cultural Revolution jokes). Chengdu: Xinan caijing daxue, 1988.

Chin, Ai-li. “Short Stories in China: Theory and Practice, 1973-1975.” In Godwin Chu, ed., Popular Media in China: Shaping New Cultural Patterns. Honolulu: University Press of Hawaii, 1978, 124-83..

Chin, Luke Kai-hsin. The Politics of Drama Reform in China after 1949: Elite Strategies of Resocialization. Ph. D. diss. NY: New York University, 1980.

Clark, Paul. The Chinese Cultural Revolution: A History. Cambridge: University of Cambridge Press, 2008.

[Abstract: A groundbreaking study of cultural life during a turbulent and formative decade in contemporary China, this book seeks to explode several myths about the Cultural Revolution (officially 1966–1976). Through national and local examination of the full range of cultural forms (film, operas, dance, other stage arts, music, fine arts, literature, and even architecture), Clark argues against characterizing this decade as one of chaos and destruction. Rather, he finds that innovation and creativity, promotion of participation in cultural production, and a vigorous promotion of the modern were all typical of the Cultural Revolution. Using a range of previously little-used materials, Clark forces us to fundamentally reassess our understanding of the Cultural Revolution, a period which he sees as the product of innovation in conflict with the effort by political leaders to enforce a top-down modernity. Contents: Introduction; 1. Modelling a new culture; 2. Spreading the new models; 3. Fixing culture on film; 4. Elaborating culture: dance, music, stage, and fine arts; 5. Writing wrongs: public and private fictions and resistance; 6. Conclusion: forcing modernity.]

—–. “Model Theatrical Works and the Remodeling of the Cultural Revolution.” In Richard King, Ralph C. Croizier, Scott Watson, and Sheng Tian Zheng, eds. Art in Turmoil: The Chinese Cultural Revolution, 1966-76. Vancouver: UBC Press, 2010.

Clark, Paul, Laikwan Pang, and Tsan-huang Tsai, eds. Listening to China’s Cultural Revolution: Music, Politics, and Cultural Continuities. NY: Palgrave MacMillan, 2016.

[Abstract: Bringing together the most recent research on the Cultural Revolution in China, musicologists, historians, literary scholars, and others discuss the music and its political implications. Combined, these chapters, paint a vibrant picture of the long-lasting impact that the musical revolution had on ordinary citizens, as well as political leaders.]

Coderre, Laurence. “Breaking Bad: Sabotaging the Production of the Hero in the Amateur Performance of Yangbanxi.” In Paul Clark, Laikwan Pang, and Tsan-huang Tsai, eds. Listening to China’s Cultural Revolution: Music, Politics, and Cultural Continuities. NY: Palgrave MacMillan, 2016, 65-84.

Dai Jiafang 戴嘉枋. Yangbanxi de fengfengyuyu: Jiang Qing, yangbanxi ji neimu 样板戏的风风雨雨: 江青, 样板戏及内幕 (The storm around model drama: Jiang Qing, model drama, and behind the scenes). Beijing: Zhonghua gongshang lianhe, 1994.

Denton, Kirk. “Model Drama as Myth: A Semiotic Analysis of Taking Tiger Mountain By Strategy.” In Constantine Tung, ed. Drama in the People’s Republic of China. Albany: SUNY Press, 1987, 119-36.

Ding Wang丁望, ed. Zhongguo wenhua da geming ziliao huibian 中国文化大革命资料汇编 (Documents on the Chinese Cultural Revolution). HK: Minbao yuekan, 1967-72.

Dittmer, Lowell. “Radical Ideology and Chinese Political Culture: An Analysis of the Revolutionary Yangbanxi.” In Richard Wilson, Sidney Greenblatt, Amy Wilson, eds., Moral Behaviour in Chinese Society. NY: Praeger, 1981, 126-51.

Dittmer, Lowell and Chen Ruoxi. Ethics and Rhetoric of the Chinese Cultural Revolution. Berkeley: UC, Center for Chinese Studies, 1981.

Emerson, Andrew G. “The Guizhou Undercurrent.” Modern Chinese Literature and Culture 13, 2 (Fall 2001): 111-33.

Esherick, Joseph, Paul G. Pickowicz, and Andrew G. Walder, eds. The Chinese Cultural Revolution as History. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2006.

Fan, Xing. “The ‘Broken’ and the ‘Breakthroughs’: Acting in Jingju Model Plays of China’s Culture Revolution.” Asian Theatre Journal 30, 2 (Fall 2013): 360-389.

—–. “Revolutionary Femininity in Performance: Female Characters in Beijing Opera Model Plays during China’s Cultural Revolution.” In Ya-chen Chen, ed., New Modern Chinese Women and Gender Politics: The Centennial of the End of the Qing Dynasty. London: Routledge, 51-72.

—–. Staging Revolution: Artistry and Aesthetics in Model Beijing Opera during the Cultural Revolution. HK: Hong Kong University Press, 2018.

[AbstractStaging Revolution refutes the deep-rooted notion that art overtly in the service of politics is by definition devoid of artistic merit. As a prominent component shaping the culture of the CR, model Beijing Opera (jingju) is the epitome of art used for political ends. Arguing against commonly accepted interpretations, Fan demonstrates that in a performance of model jingju, political messages could only be realized through the most rigorously formulated artistic choices and conveyed by performers possessing exceptional techniques. Fan contextualizes model jingju at the intersection of history, artistry, and aesthetics. Integral to jingju’s interactions with politics are the practitioners’ constant artistic experimentation to accommodate the modern stories and characters within the jingju framework and the eventual formation of a new sense of beauty. Therefore, a thorough understanding of model jingju demands close attention to how the artists resolved actual production problems, which is a critical perspective missing in earlier studies. This book provides exactly this much-needed dimension of analysis by scrutinizing the decisions made in the real, practical context of bringing dramatic characters to life on stage and by examining how major artistic elements interacted with one other, sometimes harmoniously, sometimes antagonistically. Such an approach necessarily places jingju artists center stage. Making use of first-person accounts of the creative process, including numerous interviews conducted by the author, Fan presents a new appreciation of a lived experience that, on a harrowing journey of coping with political interference, was also filled with inspiration and excitement.]

Fokkema, D. W. Report from Peking: Observations of a Western Diplomat on the Cultural Revolution. London: C. Hurst, 1971.

—–. “The Forms and Values of Contemporary Chinese Literature.” New Literary History 4, 3 (Spring 1973): 591-603.

—–. “Maoist Ideology and Its Exemplification in the New Peking Opera.” Current Scene 10, 8 (1972): 13-20.

Galik, Marian. “The Concept of ‘Positive Hero’ in Chinese Literature of the 1960s and 1970s.” Asian and African Studies (Bratislava) 17 (1981): 27-53.

Greene, Maggie. “A Ghostly Bodhisattva and the Price of Vengeance: Meng Chao, Li Huiniang, and the Politics of Drama, 1959-1979.” Modern Chinese Literature and Culture 24, 1 (Spring 2012): 149-99.

Gu, Yizhong. “The Three Prominences.” In Ban Wang, ed., Words and Their Stories: Essays on the Language of the Chinese Revolution. Leiden: Brill, 2010, 283-303.

Guo, Jian. “Resisting Modernity in Contemporary China: The Cultural Revolution and Post-Modernism.” Modern China 25, 3 (July 1999): 343-76.

Guo, Jian, Yongyi Song, and Yuan Zhou, eds. Historical Dictionary of the Chinese Cultural Revolution. Lanham, Toronto, and Oxford: The Scarecrow Press, 2006.

Hay, Trevor. China’s Proletarian Myth: The Revolutionary Narrative in Model Theatre of the Cultural Revolution. PhD thesis. Griffith University, 2000.

Henningsen, Lena. “Crime, Love, and Science: Continuity and Change in Hand-copied Entertainment Fiction (shouchaoben) from the Cultural Revolution.” In Daria Berg, Giorgio Strafella, eds., Transforming Book Culture in China, 1600-2016 (Kodex: Yearbook of the International Society for Book Science). Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, 2016, 101-122.

—–. “What Is a Reader? Participation and Intertextuality in Hand-Copied Entertainment Fiction from the Cultural Revolution.” Modern Chinese Literature and Culture 29, 2  (Fall 2017); 109-158.

Hong, Zicheng. A History of Contemporary Chinese Literature. Tr. Michael M. Day. Leiden: Brill, 2007. [MCLC Resource Center review by Edward Gunn]

Honig, Emily. “Socialist Sex: The Cultural Revolution Revisited.” Modern China 29, 2 (April 2003): 143-75.

Howard, Roger. Contemporary Chinese Theater. London: Heinemann Educational Books, 1978.

Hsu, Kai-yu. The Chinese Literary Scene: A Writer’s Visit to the People’s Republic of China. Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1976.

Huang, Yiju. Tapestry of Light: Aesthetic Afterlives of the Cultural Revolution. Leiden: Brill, 2014. [MCLC Resource Center review by Rebecka Eriksson]

[AbstractTapestry of Light offers an account of the psychic, intellectual, and cultural aftermath of the Chinese Cultural Revolution. Drawing on a wide range of works including essay, fiction, memoir, painting and film, the book explores links between history, trauma and haunting. Challenging the leftist currents in Cultural Revolution scholarship, the tone pervading the book is a rhythm of melancholia, indeterminacy but also hope. Huang demonstrates that aesthetic afterlives resist both the conservative nostalgia for China’s revolutionary past as well as China’s elated, false confidence in the market-driven future. Huang engages with prominent Chinese intellectuals, writers, artists and filmmakers, including Ba Jin, Han Shaogong, Hong Ying, Zhang Xiaogang, Jiang Wen and Ann Hui.]

Ji, Fengyuan. Linguistic Engineering: Language and Politics in Mao’s China. Honolulu: University of Hawai’i Press, 2003.

Judd, Ellen. “Prescriptive Dramatic Theory of the Cultural Revolution.” In Constantine Tung, ed. Drama in the People’s Republic of China. Albany: SUNY Press, 1987, 94-118.

—–. “Dramas of Passion: Heroism in the Cultural Revolution Model Operas.” In William Joseph, et al. eds., New Perspectives on the Cultural Revolution. Cambridge: Council on East Asian Studies, Harvard University, 1991,

King, Richard. A Shattered Mirror: the Literature of the Cultural Revolution. Ph.D. thesis. Vancouver: University of British Columbia, 1984.

—–. “Revisionism and Transformation in the Cultural Revolution Novel.” Modern Chinese Literature 7, 1 (1993): 105-130.

—–. “Writings on the Urban Youth Generation.” Renditions 50 (1998): 4-9.

—–. “A Fiction Revealing Collusion: Allegory and Evasion in the Mid-1970s.” Modern Chinese Literature 10, 1/2 (1998): 71-90.

—–. “Fantasies of Battle: Making the Militant Hero Prominent.” In Richard King, Ralph C. Croizier, Scott Watson, and Sheng Tian Zheng, eds. Art in Turmoil: The Chinese Cultural Revolution, 1966-76. Vancouver: UBC Press, 2010.

—–. Milestones on a Golden Road: Writing for Chinese Socialism, 1945-80. Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press, 2013. [MCLC Resource Center Review by Roy Bing Chan]

[Abstract: Literature created under and by a repressive regime is rarely accorded the same respect as works that go against the party line. Yet, as Richard King’s Milestones on a Golden Road argues, these works deserve serious attention as part of an attempt, however misguided, to create a Chinese socialist culture. King presents eight pivotal works of fiction produced in four key periods of Chinese revolutionary history: the civil war (1945-49), the Great Leap Forward (1958-60), the Cultural Revolution (1966-76), and the post-Mao catharsis (1979-80). Taking its cues from the Soviet Union’s optimistic depictions of a society liberated by Communism, the official Chinese literature of this era is characterized by grand narratives of progress. Addressing questions of literary production, King looks at how writers dealt with shifting ideological demands, what indigenous and imported traditions inspired them, and how they were able to depict a utopian Communist future to their readers, even as the present took a very different turn. Early “red classics” were followed by works featuring increasingly lurid images of joyful socialism, and later by fiction exposing the Mao era as an age of irrationality, arbitrary rule, and suffering — a Golden Road that had led to nowhere.]

King, Richard, Ralph C. Croizier, Scott Watson, and Sheng Tian Zheng, eds. Art in Turmoil: The Chinese Cultural Revolution, 1966-76. Vancouver: UBC Press, 2010.

Knight, Sabina. “Moral Decision in Mao-Era Fiction.” In The Heart of Time: Moral Agency in Twentieth-Century Chinese Fiction. Cambridge: Harvard University Asia Center, 2006, 133-61.

Kong, Shuyu. “For Reference Only: Restricted Publication and Distribution of Foreign Literature During the Cultural Revolution.” Yishu: Journal of Contemporary Chinese Art 1, 2 (Fall 2002): 76-85.

Kraus, Richard. “Arts Policies of the Cultural Revolution: The Rise and Fall of Culture Minister Yu Huiyong.” In William Joseph, Christine Wong, and David Zweig, eds., New Perspectives on the Cultural Revolution. Cambridge: Council on East Asian Studies, Harvard University, 1991, 219-41.

Landsberger, Stefan. “Mao as the Kitchen God: Religious Aspects of the Mao Cult During the Cultural Revolution.” China Information 11, 2/3 (Aut/Win 1996/97): 196-214.

Larson, Wendy. “Never This Wild: Sexing the Cultural Revolution.” Modern China 25, 4 (1999): 423-50.

Law, Kam-yee, ed. The Chinese Cultural Revolution Reconsidered: Beyond Purge and Holocaust. Houndmills: Palgrave Macmillan, 2003.

[Table of Contents: Explanations for China’s Revolution at its Peak–L.T. White & K.Y. Law * Historical Reflections on the Cultural Revolution as a Political Movement–H.Y. Lee * The Structural Sources of the Cultural Revolution–S. Wang * Between Destruction and Construction: The First Year of the Cultural Revolution–S. Wang * Cleansing the Class Ranks: The Hidden Face of the Cultural Revolution–A.G. Walder * The Logic of Repressive Collective Action: A Case Study of Violence in the Cultural Revolution–X. Gong * The Cultural Revolution in Zhejiang Revisited: The Paradox of Rebellion and Factionalism and Violence and Social Conflict amidst Economic Growth–K. Forster * The Politics of the Cultural Revolution in Historical Perspective–A. Dirlik * The Cultural Revolution and the Origins of Post-Mao Reform–M. Lupher * Legacies of the Maoist Development Strategy: Rural Industrialization in China–C.P.W. Wong * The Strange Tale of China’s Tea Industry During the Cultural Revolution]

Lee, Leo Ou-fan. “Dissent Literature from the Cultural Revolution.” Chinese Literature: Essays, Articles, Reviews 1 (1979): 59-79.

Leese, Daniel. Performative Politics and Petrified Images: The Mao Cult during China’s Cultural Revolution. Ph. D. diss. Bremen: International University Bremen, 2006.

—–. Mao Cult: Rhetoric and Ritual in China’s Cultural Revolution. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2013.

[Abstract: Although there have been many books that have explored Mao’s posthumous legacy, none has scrutinized the massive worship that was fostered around him at the height of his powers during the Cultural Revolution. This book is the first to do so. By analyzing secret archival documents, Daniel Leese traces the history of the cult within the Communist Party and at the grassroots level. The Party leadership’s original intention was to develop a prominent brand symbol, which would compete with the nationalists’ elevation of Chiang Kai-shek. However, they did not anticipate that Mao would use this symbolic power to mobilize Chinese youth to rebel against party bureaucracy itself. The result was anarchy, and when the army was called in, it relied on mandatory rituals of worship such as daily reading of the Little Red Book, to restore order. Such fascinating detail sheds light not only on the personality cult of Mao, but also on hero-worship in other traditions.]

Leung, K.C. “Literature in the Service of Politics: The Chinese Literary Scene Since 1949.” World Literature Today 55, 1 (1981): 18-20.

Leys, Simon. The Chairman’s New Clothes: Mao and the Cultural Revolution. Trs. Carol Appleyard and Patrick Goode. London: Allison and Bushby, 1977.

List of the Yangbanxi (Barbara Mittler).

Liu, Kang. “Hegemony and Cultural Revolution.” New Literary History 28, 1 (1997): 69-86.

Liu, Xiaobo. “Mutual Destruction and Mutual Purges in Academic Circles.” Chinese Law and Government 38, 5 (Sept-Oct. 2005): 58-77. [link is to a reprint on the Chinese Pen website]

Lu, Guang and Xiaoyu Xiao. “Beijing Opera during the Cultural Revolution: The Rhetoric of Ideological Conflicts.” In Ray Heisey, ed., Chinese Perspectives in Rhetoric and Communication. Stamford, CT: Ablex Publishing, 2000, 223-48.

Lu, Tonglin. “Fantasy and Ideology in a Chinese Film: A Zizekian Reading of the Cultural Revolution.” positions: east asia cultures critique 12, 2 (Fall 2004): 539-64. [mostly about Jiang Wen’s In the Heat of the Sun]

Lu, Xing. Rhetoric of the Chinese Cultural Revolution: The Impact on Chinese Thought, Culture, and Communication. Columbia: University of South Carolina Press, 2004.

Lupher, Mark. “Revolutionary Little Red Devils: The Social Psychology of Rebel Youth.” In Anne Kinney, ed. Chinese Views of Childhood. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1995, 321-44.

Ma, Sheng-Mei. “Contrasting Two Survival Literatures: On the Jewish Holocaust and the Chinese Cultural Revolution.” Holocaust and Genocide Studies 2, 1 (1987): 81-93.

MacKerras, Colin. “Chinese Opera After the Cultural Revolution (1970-1972).” The China Quarterly 55 (1973): 478-510.

McDougall, Bonnie. “Dissent Literature: Official and Nonofficial Literature In and About China in the Seventies.” Contemporary China (1979): 49-79.

Meserve, Walter J. and Ruth I. Meserve. “China’s Persecuted Playwrights: The Theater in Communist China’s Current Cultural Revolution.” Journal of Asian and African Studies 5 (1970): 209- 215.

Mittler, Barbara. “To Be or Not to Be: Making and Unmaking the Yangbanxi.” [manuscript in progress]

—–. “Cultural Revolution Model Works and the Politics of Modernization in China: An Analysis of Taking Tiger Mountain by Strategy.” The World of Music. Special Issue, Traditional Music and Composition 2 (2003): 53-81.

—–. “Popular Propaganda? Art and Culture in Revolutionary China.” Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society 152, 4 (Dec. 2008): 466-89.

—–. A Continuous Revolution: Making Sense of Cultural Revolution Culture. Cambridge: Harvard UP, 2012. [MCLC Resource Center review by Xueping Zhong]

[Abstract: Cultural Revolution Culture, often denigrated as nothing but propaganda, not only was liked in its heyday but continues to be enjoyed today. A Continuous Revolution sets out to explain its legacy. By considering Cultural Revolution propaganda art–music, stage works, prints and posters, comics, and literature–from the point of view of its longue duree, Barbara Mittler suggests that Cultural Revolution propaganda art was able to build on a tradition of earlier art works, and this allowed for its sedimentation in cultural memory and its proliferation in contemporary China. Taking the aesthetic experience of the Cultural Revolution (1966-1976) as her base, Mittler juxtaposes close readings and analyses of cultural products from the period with impressions given in a series of personal interviews conducted in the early 2000s with Chinese from diverse class and generational backgrounds. By including much testimony from these original voices, Mittler illustrates the extremely multifaceted and contradictory nature of the Cultural Revolution, both in terms of artistic production and of its cultural experience.]

—–. A Continuous Revolution [website accompanying publication of Barbara Mittler’s A Continous Revolution: Making Sense of Cultural Revolution Culture (Harvard University Press, 2012)]

Morning Sun: A Film and Website About Cultural Revolution (Longbow Group)

The Morning Sun (2003). Produced and directed by Richard Gordon and Carma Hinton. Longbow Group. [two-hour documentary of the events and cultural context of the Cultural Revolution]

Mowry, Hua-yuan Li. Yang-pan hsi–New Theater in China. Berkeley: Center for Chinese Studies, University of California, 1973.

Mullis, Eric. 2017. “Aesthetics, Ideology, and Ethics of Remembrance in Red Detachment of Women (Hongse Niangzi Jun, 红色娘子军).” Dance Chronicle 40, no. 1: 53-73.

Ni, Hua-ying. The Treatment of Cultural Revolution in Post-Cultural Revolutionary Literature (late 70’s to early 90’s). PhD thesis. Canberra: Australian National University, 1997.

On-line Center of Cultural Revolution Studies

Pan, Yihong. Tempered in the Revolutionary Furnace: China’s Youth in the Rustication Movement. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 2009.

[Abstract: Yihong Pan tells her personal story, and that of her generation of urban middle school graduates sent to the countryside during China’s Rustication Movement. Based on interviews, reminiscences, diaries, letters, and newspaper accounts, the work examines the varied, and often perplexing, experiences of the seventeen million Chinese students sent to work in the countryside between 1953 and 1980. Rich in human drama, Pan’s book illustrates how life in the countryside transformed the children of Mao from innocent, ignorant, yet often passionate, believers in the Communist Party into independent adults. Those same adults would lead the nationwide protests in the winter of 1978-79 that forced the government to abandon its policy of rustication. Richly textured, this work successfully blends biography with a wealth of historical insight to bring to life the trials of a generation, and to offer Chinese studies scholars a fascinating window into Mao Zedong’s China.]

Perry, Elizabeth and Li Xin. “Revolutionary Rudeness: The Language of Red Guards and Rebel Workers in China’s Cultural Revolution.” Indiana East Asian Working Papers (July 1993): 1-17.

Pickowicz, Paul G. Literature and People in the People’s Republic. HK: Centre of Asian Studies, University of Hong Kong, 1971.

Pollard, David E. “The Short Story in the Cultural Revolution.” China Quarterly 73 (March 1978): 99-121.

Remembering the Chinese Cultural Revolution: A Two-day Multimedia Event (University of California, San Diego, Jan. 12-13, 2007).

Rethinking Cultural Revolution Culture. Conferencee website (Heidelberg, Feb. 22-24).

Roberts, Rosemary. “Positive Women Characters in the Revolutionary Model Works of the Chinese Cultural Revolution: An Argument Against the Theory of Erasure of Gender and Sexuality.” Asian Studies Review 28, 4 (Dec. 2004): 407- 422.

—–. “Gendering the Revolutionary Body: Theatrical Costume in Cultural Revolution China.” Asian Studies Review 30, 2 (June 2006).

—–. “Performing Gender in Maoist Ballet: Mutual Subversions of Genre and Ideology in The Red Detachment of Women.” Intersections: Gender and Sexuality in Asia and the Pacific 16 (March 2008).

—–. “Maoist Women Warriors: Historical Continuities and Cultural Transgressions.” In Tao Dongfeng, Yang Xiaobin, Rosemary Roberts, and Yang Ling, eds. Chinese Revolution and Chinese Literature. Cambridge: University of Cambridge Press, 2009, 139-62.

—–. Maoist Model Theatre: The Semiotics of Gender and Sexuality in the Chinese Cultural Revolution (1966-1976). Leiden: Brill, 2010.

[Abstract: Here is a convincing reflection that changes our understanding of gender in Maoist culture, esp. for what critics from the 1990s onwards have termed its ‘erasure’ of gender and sexuality. In particular the strong heroines of the yangbanxi, or ‘model works’ which dominated the Cultural Revolution period, have been seen as genderless revolutionaries whose images were damaging to women. Drawing on contemporary theories ranging from literary and cultural studies to sociology, this book challenges that established view through detailed semiotic analysis of theatrical systems of the yangbanxiincluding costume, props, kinesics, and various audio and linguistic systems. Acknowledging the complex interplay of traditional, modern, Chinese and foreign gender ideologies as manifest in the ‘model works’, it fundamentally changes our insights into gender in Maoist culture]

Roberts, Rosemary and Li Li, eds. The Making and Remaking of China’s “Red Classics” Politics, Aesthetics, and Mass Culture. HK: Hong Kong University Press, 2017. [MCLC Resource Center review by Yizhong Gu]

[Abstract: the first full-length work to bring together research on the “red classics” across the entire Maoist period through to the reform era. It covers a representative range of genres including novels, short stories, films, TV series, picture books, animation, and traditional-style paintings. Collectively the chapters offer a panoramic view of the production and reception of the original “red classics” and the adaptations and remakes of such works after the Cultural Revolution. The contributors present fascinating stories of how a work came to be regarded as, or failed to become, a “red classic.” There has never been a single answer to the question of what counts as a “red classic”; artists had to negotiate the changing political circumstances and adopt the “correct” artistic technique to bring out the “authentic” image of the people, while appealing to the taste of the mass audience at the same time. A critical examination of these works reveals their sociopolitical and ideological import, aesthetic significance, and function as mass cultural phenomenon at particular historical moments. This volume marks a step forward in the growing field of the study of Maoist cultural products.]

Schwarcz, Vera. “The Burden of Memory: The Cultural Revolution and the Holocaust.” China Information 11, 1 (Summer 1996): 1-13.

—–. Bridge Across Broken Time: Chinese and Jewish Cultural Memory. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1998.

Schrift, Melissa. Biography of a Chairman Mao Badge. Piscatawy, NY: Rutgers UP, 2001.

Song, Yongyi. “A Glance at the Underground Reading Movement during the Cultural Revolution.” Journal of Contemporary China 16, 51 (May 2007): 325-333.

Thurston, Anne. F. Enemies of the People: The Ordeal of the Intellectuals in China’s Great Cultural Revolution. NY: Alfred A. Knopf, 1987.

Unger, Jonathan. “Grassroots Turmoil in China’s Cultural Revolution: A Half-Century Perspective.” 77th George E. Morrison Lecture. Chinoiserie.info (Nov. 9, 2016).

[Abstract: After Mao launched the Cultural Revolution in 1966, vast numbers of students, workers, peasants and other ordinary people divided into hostile groups that violently fought against each other for more than a year and a half. Each group claimed it was fighting out of loyalty to Mao’s teachings. But research by the speaker that included a large number of in-depth interviews in the 1970s and 1980s with former participants in these conflicts revealed that the fighting between groups was actually the consequence of mounting tensions within Chinese society prior to the Cultural Revolution. The upheavals in the Cultural Revolution pitted those who had earlier been favoured by Communist Party policies against those who had been disfavoured. But the nature of grievances and antagonisms differed from group to group—be they students, workers, peasants or government office workers. As a result, there were a number of different types of upheavals, generated by different reasons, in different sectors of society. Examining these provides insights into the complex fabric of Chinese society under Mao.]

Virtual Museum of the Cultural Revolution (CND).

Wagner, Vivian. “Songs of the Red Guards: Keywords Set to Music.” East Asian Working Papers Series on Language and Politics in Modern China, Indiana University.

Wang, Ban. “The Cultural Revolution: A Terrible Beauty is Born.” In Wang, The Sublime Figure of History Aesthetics and Politics in Twentieth-Century China. Stanford: Stanford UP, 1997, 194-228. [online version by Morningsun.com]

Wang, Ban, ed. Words and Their Stories: Essays on the Language of the Chinese Revolution. Leiden: Brill, 2010.

[Abstract: As China joins the capitalist world economy, the problems of social disintegration that gave rise to the earlier revolutionary social movements are becoming pressing. Instead of viewing the Chinese Revolution as an academic study, these essays suggest that the motifs of the Revolution are still alive and relevant. The slogan “Farewell to Revolution” that obscures the revolutionary language is premature. In spite of dislocations and ruptures in the revolutionary language, to rethink this discourse is to revisit a history in terms of sedimented layers of linguistic meanings and political aspirations. Earlier meanings of revolutionary words may persist or coexist with non-revolutionary rivals. Recovery of the vital uses of key revolutionary words proffers critical alternatives in which contemporary capitalist myths can be contested.]

Wasserstron, Jeffrey and Sue Tuohy, eds. East Asian Working Papers Series on Language and Politics in Modern China. Bloomington: Indiana University.

Wu, Guo. “The Social Construction and Deconstruction of Evil Landlords in Contemporary Chinese Fiction, Art, and Collective Memory.” Modern Chinese Literature and Culture 25, 1 (Spring 2013): 131-64.

Yang, Guobin and Ming-Bao Yue, eds. “Collective Memories of the Cultural Revolution,” special issue of The China Review 5, 2 (Fall 2005). [essays by Guobin Yang, Ming-Bao Yue, Xiaomei Chen, David Davies, Jennifer Hubbert, Lei Ouyang Bryant]

Yang Jian 杨健. Wenhua dageming zhong de dixia wenxue 文化大革命中的底下文学 (Underground literature of the Cultural Revolution). Beijing: Zhaohua, 1993.

—–. Zhongguo zhiqing wenxue shi 中国知青文学史 (History of Chinese ‘sent down’ youth literature). Beijing: Zhongguo gongren, 2001.

Yang Kelin 楊克林, ed. Wenhua da geming bowuguan 文化大革命博物馆 (Museum of the Cultural Revolution). 2 vols. HK: Dongfang, 1995. [a beautifully illustrated–posters, photographs, film stills, etc.–history of the Culural Revolution]

Yang, Lan. Chinese Fiction of the Cultural Revolution. HK: Hong Kong UP, 1998.

—–. “The Depiction of the Hero in the Cultural Revolution Novel.” China Information 12, 4 (Spring 1998): 68-95.

—–. “The Ideal Socialist Hero: Literary Conventions in Cultural Revolution Novels.” In Woei Lian Chong, ed., China’s Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution: Master Narratives and Post-Mao Counternarratives. Lanham: Rowman and Littlefield, 2002, 185-213.

—–. “Ideological Style in the Language of the Chinese Novels of the Cultural Revolution.” Modern Chinese Literature 10, 1/2 (1998): 149-172.

—–. “The Language of Chinese Fiction of the Cultural Revolution: An Anti-dialectal Style.” Copenhagen Journal of Asian Studies 15 (2001).

—–. “‘Socialist Realism’ versus ‘Revolutionary Realism plus Revolutionary Romanticism.'” In Chung, ed. In the Party Spirit: Socialist Realism and Literary Practice in the Soviet Union, East Germany and China. Critical Studies no. 6. Amsterdam: Rodopi, 1996, 88-105.

Yee, Law Kam, ed., The Chinese Cultural Revolution Reconsidered:Beyond Purge and Holocaust. NY: Palgrave Mcmillan, 2003.

Yung, Bell. “Model Opera as Model: Fron Shajiabang to Sagabong.” In Bonnie McDougall, ed. Popular Chinese Literature and Performing Arts in the PRC, 1949-1979. Berkeley: UCP, 1984, 144-64.


Post-Mao (1976-89)

Admussen, Nick. Recite and Refuse: Contemporary Chinese Prose Poetry. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 2016.

[Abstract: Chinese prose poetry today is engaged with a series of questions that are fundamental to the modern Chinese language: What is prose? What is it good for? How should it look and sound? Millions of Chinese readers encounter prose poetry every year, both in the most official of state-sponsored magazines and in the unorthodox, experimental work of the avant-garde. Recite and Refuse makes their answers to our questions about prose legible by translating, surveying, and interpreting prose poems, studying the people, politics, and contexts that surround the writing of prose poetry. Admussen argues that unlike most genres, Chinese prose poems lack a distinct size or shape. Their similarity to other prose is the result of a distinct process in which a prose form is recited with some kind of meaningful difference—an imitation that refuses to fully resemble its source. This makes prose poetry a protean, ever-changing group of works, channeling the language of science, journalism, Communist Party politics, advertisements, and much more. The poems look vastly different as products, but are made with a similar process. Focusing on the composition process allows Admussen to rewrite the standard history of prose poetry, finding its origins not in 1918 but in the obedient socialist prose poetry of the 1950s. Recite and Refuse places the work of state-sponsored writers in mutual relationship to prose poems by unorthodox and avant-garde poets, from cadre writers like Ke Lan and Guo Feng to the border-crossing intellectual and poet Liu Zaifu to experimental artists such as Ouyang Jianghe and Xi Chuan. The volume features never-before seen English translations that range from the representative to the exceptional, culminating with Ouyang Jianghe’s masterpiece “Hanging Coffin.” Reading across the spectrum enables us to see the way that artists interact with each other, how they compete and cooperate, and how their interactions, as well as their creations, continuously reinvent both poetry and prose.]

Anagnost, Ann. “Who is Speaking Here? Discursive Boundaries and Representation in Post-Mao China.” In John Hay, ed. Boundaries in China. London: Reaktion Books, 1994, 257-79.

Balcom, John. “Bridging the Gap: Contemporary Chinese Literature from a Translator’s Perspective.” Wasafiri 55 (2008): 19-23.

Barme, Geremie. “Flowers or More Weeds? Culture in China Since the Fall of the Gang of Four.” Australian Journal of Chinese Affairs 1 (1979): 125-33.

—–. “Chaotou wenxue: China’s New Literature.” Australian Journal of Chinese Affairs 2 (1979): 137-48.

—–. “The Chinese Velvet Prison: Culture in the New Age 1976-1989.” Issues and Studies 25, 8 (1992): 54-79; also in Bih-jaw Lin, ed. Post-Mao Sociopolitical Changes in Mainland China: The Literary Perspective. Taibei: Institute of International Relations, National Chengchi University, 1991, 45-70.

—–. “History for the Masses.” In Jonathan Unger, ed., Using the Past to Serve the Present. M.E. Sharpe, Inc., Armonk, NY, 1993.

—–. “To Screw Foreigners is Patriotic: China’s Avant-Garde Nationalists.” The China Journal 34 (July 1995).

Braester, Yomi. “Disjointed Time, Split Voices: Retrieving Historical Experience in Scar Literature.” In Braester, Witness Against History: Literature, Film, and Public Discourse in Twentieth-Century China. Stanford: Stanford UP, 2003, 146-57.

—–. “The Aesthetics and Anesthetics of Memory: PRC Avant-Garde Fiction.” In Braester, Witness Against History: Literature, Film, and Public Discourse in Twentieth-Century China. Stanford: Stanford UP, 2003, 177-91.

Brodsgaard, Kjeld Erik. “The Democracy Movement in China, 1978-1979: Opposition Movements, Wall Poster Campaigns, and Underground Journals.” Asian Survey 21, 7 (July 1981): 747-73.

Cai, Rong. The Subject in Crisis in Contemporary Chinese Literature. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 2004.

Cao, Zuoya. Out of the Crucible: Literary Works about the Rusticated Youth. Lanham: Lexington Books, 2003.

Chan, Peter. “Popular Publications in China: A Look at ‘The Spring of Peking.'” Contemporary China 3, 4 (Winter 1979): 103-111.

Chan, Sylvia. “The Blooming of a ‘Hundred Flowers’ and the Literature of the ‘Wounded Generation.'” In Bill Brugger, ed., China Since the ‘Gang of Four’. London: Croon Helm, 1980.

—–. “Blooming and Contending: Chinese Writers’ Response on Chinese Literature.” Australian Journal of Chinese Affairs 8 (1982): 127-35.

—–. “Two Steps Forward, One Step Back: Towards a ‘Free Literature.'” Australian Journal of Chinese Affairs 19/20 (Jan/July 1988): 81-126.

Chang, Tze-chang. “Modern Literary Techniques in Mainland China’s Protest Literature.” Issues and Studies 21, 10 (October 1985): 123-40.

Chen, Dazhuan. “The Hunan Writers.” Tr. Alice Childs. Chinese Literature (Summer 1989): 3-11.

Chen, Dengke. “Some Suggestions Concerning Literary Work.” Tr. Maurice Tseng. In Howard Goldblatt, ed., Chinese Literature From the 1980s: The Fourth Congress of Writers and Artists. Armonk: M.E. Sharpe, 1982, 91-102.

Chen Fong-ching and Jin Guantao. From Youthful Manuscripts to River Elegy: The Chinese Popular Cultural Movement and Political Transformation, 1979-1989. HK: Chinese University of HK Press, 1997.

Chen, Jianguo. The Aesthetics of the ‘Beyond’: Phantasm, Nostalgia, and the Literary Practice in Contemporary China. Newark: University of Delaware Press, 2009.

[Abstract: This book is about an alternative mode of reading, thinking, and representing the intricacies of human experience in Chinese literature of the late twentieth century, which the author calls the aesthetics of the “beyond.” It investigates how contemporary Chinese writers, by means of dynamic interface of literary practice and cultural philosophical considerations, engage the reader in critical reflection on and aesthetic appreciation of the complexity of human conditions. By studying the “beyond” in its various manifestations: the semiotics of human embodiment, the discourse of the phantasm, the politics of nostalgia with regard to “origin” and “center,” and the metaphysics of death in the writings of some major contemporary Chinese writers, the book explores the ways in which the “beyond” is constructed as a new paradigm of critical thinking in literary, aesthetic, and philosophical terms. It examines how its discursive strategies, structural features, and aesthetic possibilities are presented and how varied literary tropes are used in an attempt to unravel human experience in all its aspects.]

Chen, Jo-hsi. Democracy Wall and the Unofficial Journals. Berkeley: Center for Chinese Studies, University of California, 1982.

Chen, Xiaomei. “Misunderstanding Western Modernism: The Menglong Movement in Post-Mao China.” Representations 35 (Summer 1991): 143-63.

—–. Occidentalism: A Theory of Counterdiscourse in Post-Mao China. NY: Oxford UP, 1995.

—–. “Women as Dramatic Other in the Body Politics of Post-Mao Theater.” In Gerd Kaminski, Barbara Kreissel, and Constantine Tung, eds., China’s Perception of Peace, War, and the World. Wien: Ludwig Bolzmann Institut fur China, 1997, 160-67.

—–. “Introduction to Occidentalism.” In Diana Bryden, ed., Postcolonialism: Critical Concepts in Literary and Cultural Studies. NY: Routledge, 2000.

—–. “Audience, Applause, and Actor: Border Crossing in Social Problem Plays.” In Chen, Acting the Right Part: Political Theater and Popular Drama in Contemporary China, 1966-1996. Honolulu: University of Hawaii, 2002, 195-234. [MCLC Resource Center review by Ruru Li]

—–. “A Stage of Their Own: Feminism, Countervoices, and the Problematic of Women’s Theater.” In Chen, Acting the Right Part: Political Theater and Popular Drama in Contemporary China, 1966-1996. Honolulu: University of Hawaii, 2002, 235-60. [MCLC Resource Center review by Ruru Li]

—–. “From Discontented Mother to Woman Warrior: Body Politics in Post-Maoist Theater.” In Chen, Acting the Right Part: Political Theater and Popular Drama in Contemporary China, 1966-1996. Honolulu: University of Hawaii, 2002, 261-90. [MCLC Resource Center review by Ruru Li]

—–. “A Stage in Search of a Tradition: The Dynamics of Form and Content in Post-Maoist Theater.” Asian Theatre Journal 18, 2 (2001): 200-21. [Project Muse link]. Also in Chen, Acting the Right Part: Political Theater and Popular Drama in Contemporary China, 1966-1996. Honolulu: University of Hawaii, 2002, 291-330.

Chen, Xiaoming. “The Disappearance of Truth: From Realism to Modernism in China.” In Chung, ed. In the Party Spirit: Socialist Realism and Literary Practice in the Soviet Union, East Germany and China. Critical Studies no. 6. Amsterdam: Rodopi, 1996, 158-65.

Chey, Jocelyn. “Chinese Cultural Policy–Liberalization?” The Australian Journal of Chinese Affairs 1 (Jan. 1979): 107-112.

Chih, Pien. “The ‘Wound’ Debate.” Chinese Literature 3 (March 1979): 103-05.

Chiu, Ling-yeong. “The Pen is Mightier than the Sword: A Study of the Wounded Literature in China Since 1976.” In: Chen, Edward K.Y., and Steve S.K. Chin, eds. Development and Change in China. Hong Kong: Centre of Asian Studies, University of Hong Kong, 1981, 313-326 .

Chou, Yu-shan. “Communist China’s ‘Scar Literature.'” Issues and Studies (Taipei) 16, 2 (Feb 1980): 57-67.

—–. “Change and Continuity in Communist Chinese Policy on Literature and Art.” Issues and Studies 22, 9 (Jan. 1986): 9-12.

Choy, Howard Yuen Fung. Remapping the Past: Fictions of History in Deng’s China, 1979-1997. Ph. D. diss. Boulder: University of Colorado, 2004.

—–. Remapping the Past: Fictions of History in Deng’s China, 1979-1997. Leiden: Brill, 2008. [MCLC Resource Center Review by Andrew Stuckey]

Chung, Hilary and Tommy McClellan. “The ‘Command Enjoyment’ of Literature in China: Conferences, Controls and Excesses.” In Chung, ed. In the Party Spirit: Socialist Realism and Literary Practice in the Soviet Union, East Germany and China. Critical Studies no. 6. Amsterdam: Rodopi, 1996, 1-23. [deals with the Yan’an Forum and the 1979 Fourth Congress of Chinese Writers and Artist and compares them to similar conferences in the Soviet Union]

Clarke, Donald C. “Political Power and Authority in Recent Chinese Literature.” The China Quarterly 102 (1985): 234-52.

Day, Michael. China’s Second World of Poetry: The Sichuan Avant-garde, 1982-1992. Leiden: Digital Archive for Chinese Studies (DACHS). Leiden University, 2005. [MCLC Resource Center review by Heather Inwood]

Diefenbach, Thilo. Kontexte der Gewalt in moderner Chineschiche Literatur. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz Verlag, 2004. [deals primarily with Mo Yan, Su Tong, Zhang Wei, and Chen Zhongshi]

Doar, Bruce. “Speculation in a Distorting Mirror: Scientific and Political Fantasy in Contemporary Chinese Literature.” Australian Journal of Chinese Affairs 8 (1982): 51-64.

Duke, Michael S. “Chinese Literature in the Post-Mao Era: The Return of ‘Critical Realism.'” Bulletin of Concerned Asian Scholars 16, 3 (1984): 2-5.

—–. “Reinventing China: Cultural Exploration in Contemporary Chinese Fiction.” In Bih-jaw Lin, ed. Post-Mao Sociopolitical Changes in Mainland China: The Literary Perspective. Taibei: Institute of International Relations, National Chengchi University, 1991, 23-44.

Eber, Irene. “Old Issues and New Directions in Cultural Activities since September 1976.” In Jurgen Domes, ed., Chinese Politics after Mao. Cardiff: University of Cardiff Press, 1979.

Emerson, Andrew G. “The Guizhou Undercurrent.” Modern Chinese Literature and Culture 13, 2 (Fall 2001): 111-33.

Edwards, Louise. “Consolidating a Socialist Patriarchy: The Women’s Writers’ Industry and ‘Feminist’ Literary Criticism.” In Antonia Finnan and Ann McLaren, eds. Dress, Sex and Text in Chinese Culture. Clayton, Australia: Monash Asia Institute, 1999, 183-97.

Ferrari, Rossella. “Avant-garde Drama and Theater: China” In Cody, Gabrielle and Sprinchorn, Evert, eds., The Columbia Encyclopaedia of Modern Drama. New York: Columbia University Press, 2007.

—–. Pop Goes the Avant-garde: Meng Jinghui and Contemporary Chinese Avant-garde Theatre. PhD diss. London: SOAS, 2007.

—–. Pop Goes the Avant-garde: Experimental Theater in Contemporary China. London, NY, Calcutta: Seagull Books, 2012.

[Abstract: The first comprehensive review of the history and development of avant-garde drama and theater in the PRC since 1976. Drawing on a range of critical perspectives in the fields of comparative literature, theater, performance, and culture studies, the book explores key artistic movements and phenomena that have emerged in China’s major cultural centers in the last several decades. It surveys the work of China’s most influential dramatists, directors and performance groups, with a special focus on Beijing-based playwright, director and filmmaker Meng Jinghui¡Xthe former enfant terrible of Beijing theater, who is now one of Asia’s foremost theater personalities. Through an extensive critique of theories of modernism and the avant-garde, the author reassesses the meanings, functions and socio-historical significance of this work in non-Western contexts by proposing a new theoretical construct¡Xthe pop avant-garde¡Xand exploring new ways to understand and conceptualize aesthetic practices beyond Euro-American cultures and critical discourses.]

—–. “Contemporary Experimental Theaters in the People’s Republic of China, Taiwan, and Hong Kong.” In Kirk A. Denton, ed, Columbia Companion to Modern Chinese Literature. NY: Columbia University Press, 2016, 320-26.

Fokkema, D. W. “Chinese Literature since the Death of Mao Tse-tung: A Comparison with the Russian ‘Thaw’ and Its Aftermath.” In Ying-hsiung Chou, ed. The Chinese Text: Studies in Comparative Literature. HK: CUP, 1986, 159-76.

Goldblatt, Howard. “Fresh Flowers Abloom Again: Chinese Literature on the Rebound.” World Literature Today 55, 1 (1981): 7-10.

—–, ed. Chinese Literature From the 1980s: The Fourth Congress of Writers and Artists. Armonk: M.E. Sharpe, 1982.

—–, ed. Worlds Apart: Recent Chinese Writing and Its Audiences. Armonk: M.E. Sharpe, 1990.

Goodman, David S. G. Beijing Street Voices: The Poetry and Politics of China’s Democracy Movement. London: Marion Boyers, 1981.

—–. “To Write the Word for Man Across the Sky: Literature and its Political Context in the People’s Republic of China, 1978-1982.” The Journal of Communist Studies (March 1985).

Gu, Edward X. “Cultural Intellectuals and the Politics of the Cultural Public Space in Communist China (1979-1989): A Case Study of Three Intellectual Groups.” Journal of Asian Studies 58, 2 (May 1999): 389-431.

Gunn, Edward. “Perception of Self and Values in Recent Chinese Literature.” In Robert Hegel and Richard Hessney eds., Expressions of Self in Chinese Literature. NY: Columbia UP, 1985, 308-41.

Haishi Zou Hao: Chinese Poetry, Drama and Literature of the 1980’s. Bonn: Engelhardt-NG, 1989.

Harnisch, Thomas. Chinas neue Literature: Schrifsteller und ihre Kurzgeschicten in den Jahren 1978-1979. Bochum: Brockmeyer, 1985.

He, Yuhuai. Cycles of Repression and Relaxation: Politco-Literary Events in China, 1976-1989. Bochum: Brockmeyer, 1992.

Hong, Zicheng. A History of Contemporary Chinese Literature. Tr. Michael M. Day. Leiden: Brill, 2007. [MCLC Resource Center review by Edward Gunn]

Huang, Yibing. Contemporary Chinese Literature: From the Cultural Revolution to the Future. NY: Palgrave Macmillan, 2007. [publisher’s blurb]

[Chapters: (1) Rethinking the Legacy of the Cultural Revolution; (2) Duo Duo: An Impossible Farewell, or, Exile between Revolution and Modernism; (3) Wang Shuo: Playing for Thrills in the Era of Reform, or, A Genealogy of the Present; (4) Zhang Chengzhi: Striving for Alternative National Forms, or, Old Red Guard and New Cultural Heretic; (5) Wang Xiaobo: From “Golden Age” to “Silver Age,” or, Writing Against the Gravity of History; (6) Revising a Double-Faced Chinese Modernity]

Huang, Yiju. Tapestry of Light: Aesthetic Afterlives of the Cultural Revolution. Leiden: Brill, 2014. [MCLC Resource Center review by Rebecka Eriksson]

[AbstractTapestry of Light offers an account of the psychic, intellectual, and cultural aftermath of the Chinese Cultural Revolution. Drawing on a wide range of works including essay, fiction, memoir, painting and film, the book explores links between history, trauma and haunting. Challenging the leftist currents in Cultural Revolution scholarship, the tone pervading the book is a rhythm of melancholia, indeterminacy but also hope. Huang demonstrates that aesthetic afterlives resist both the conservative nostalgia for China’s revolutionary past as well as China’s elated, false confidence in the market-driven future. Huang engages with prominent Chinese intellectuals, writers, artists and filmmakers, including Ba Jin, Han Shaogong, Hong Ying, Zhang Xiaogang, Jiang Wen and Ann Hui.]

Huot, Marie Claire. La petite revolution culturelle. Arles: Philippe Picquier, 1994.

—–. China’s New Cultural Scene: A Handbook of Changes. Durham: Duke UP, 2000.

—–. “Literary Experiments: Six Files.” In Huot, China’s New Cultural Scene: A Handbook of Changes. Durham: Duke University Press, 2000, 7-48. [deals mostly with avant-garde writers]

Huters, Theodore. “Contemporary Chinese Letters.” In Barbara Stoler Miller, ed., Masterworks of Asian Literature in Comparative Perspective: A Guide for Teaching. Armonk, NY: Sharpe, 1994, 330-44.

Iovene, Paula. “Why Is There a Poem in this Story? Li Shangyin’s Poetry, Contemporary Chinese Literature, and the Futures of the Past.” Modern Chinese Literature and Culture 19, 2 (Fall 2007): 71-116.

—–. Tales of Future Past: Anticipation and the Ends of Literature in Contemporary China. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2014. [MCLC Resource Center review by Nathaniel Kenneth Isaacson]

[Abstract: Most studies of Chinese literature conflate the category of the future with notions of progress and nation building, and with the utopian visions broadcast by the Maoist and post-Mao developmental state. The future is thus understood as a preconceived endpoint that is propagated, at times even imposed, by a center of power. By contrast, Tales of Futures Past introduces “anticipation”—the expectations that permeate life as it unfolds—as a lens through which to reexamine the textual, institutional, and experiential aspects of Chinese literary culture from the 1950s to 2011. In doing so, Paola Iovene connects the emergence of new literary genres with changing visions of the future in contemporary China. This book provides a nuanced and dynamic account of the relationship between state discourses, market pressures, and individual writers and texts. It stresses authors’ and editors’ efforts to redefine what constitutes literature under changing political and economic circumstances. Engaging with questions of translation, temporality, formation of genres, and stylistic change, Iovene mines Chinese science fiction and popular science, puts forward a new interpretation of familiar Chinese avant-garde fiction, and offers close readings of texts that have not yet received any attention in English-language scholarship. Far-ranging in its chronological scope and impressive in its interdisciplinary approach, this book rethinks the legacies of socialism in postsocialist Chinese literary modernity.]

Jenner, W.J.F. “1979: A New Start for Literature in China.” The China Quarterly 86 (1981): 274-303.

Jones, Andrew F. “Avante-Garde Fiction in China.” In Joshua Mostow, ed, and Kirk A. Denton, China section, ed., Columbia Companion to Modern East Asian Literatures. NY: Columbia UP, 2003, 554-60. Rpt. as “Avant-gard Fiction in Post-Mao China.” In Denton, ed, Columbia Companion to Modern Chinese Literature. NY: Columbia University Press, 2016, 313-19.

Kahn-Ackerman, Michael. “Issues in Contemporary Chinese Literature.” In Jochen Noch et al., eds., China Avant-Garde. Berlin: Haus der Kulturen der Welt, 1993, 67-72.

King, Richard. “‘Wounds’ and ‘Exposure’: Chinese Literature after the Gang of Four.” Pacific Affairs 54, 1 (1981): 92-99.

—–. “Writings on the Urban Youth Generation.” Renditions 50 (1998): 4-9.

—–. “Models and Misfits: Rusticated Youth in Three Novels of the 1970s.” In William A. Joseph, ed., New Perspectives on the Cultural Revolution. Cambridge: Harvard UP, 1991,

Kinkley, Jeffrey, ed. After Mao: Chinese Literature and Society, 1978-1981. Cambridge, MA: Harvard UP, 1985.

—–. “New Realism in Contemporary Chinese Literature” (review article). Journal of Chinese Language Teachers Association 17, 1 (1982): 77-100.

Kleinman, Arthur. “How Bodies Remember: Social Memory and Bodily Experience of Criticism, Resistance and Deligitimation Following China’s Cultural Revolution.” New Literary History 25, 1 (Winter 1994): 27-48.

Knight, Deirdre Sabina. “Scar Literature and the Memory of Trauma.” In Joshua Mostow, ed, and Kirk A. Denton, China section, ed., Columbia Companion to Modern East Asian Literatures. NY: Columbia UP, 2003, 527-32. Rpt. in Denton, ed, Columbia Companion to Modern Chinese Literature. NY: Columbia University Press, 2016, 293-98.

—–. “Historical Trauma and Humanism in Post-Mao Realism.” In The Heart of Time: Moral Agency in Twentieth-Century Chinese Fiction. Cambridge: Harvard University Asia Center, 2006, 162-90.

Korenaga, Shun. “The Growing Acceptance of Contemporary Chinese Poetry in Japan.” Acta Asiatica 72 (1997): 106-16.

Kraus, Richard. “China’s Cultural ‘Liberalization’ and Conflict over the Social Organization of the Arts.” Modern China 9, 2 (April 1983): 212-27.

—–. “Four Trends in the Politics of Chinese Culture.” In Bih-jao Lin and James T. Meyers, eds., Forces for Change in Contemporary China. Taipei: Institute of International Relations, 1992, 213-24.

Larson, Wendy and Richard Krauss. “Chinas Writers, The Nobel Prize, and the International Politics of Literature.” Australian Journal of Chinese Affairs 21 (1989): 143-60.

—–.. “Realism, Modernism, and the Anti-‘Spiritual Pollution’ Campaign in Modern China.” Modern China 15, 1 (Jan. 1989): 37-71.

Lau, Joseph. “The Wounded and the Fatigued: Reflections on Post-1976 Chinese Fiction.” Journal of Oriental Studies 20, 2 (1982): 128-42.

Laughlin, Charles. “Literature and Popular Culture.” In Robert E. Gamer, ed., Understanding Contemporary China. Boulder: Lynne Rienner, 1999.

Lee, Gregory. Troubadours, Trumpeters, Troubled Masks: Lyricism, Nationalism, and Hybridity in China and Its Others. Durham: Duke UP, 1996.

—–. China’s Lost Decade: The Politics and Poetics of the 1980s in Place of History. Lyon: Editions Tigre de Papier, 2009. 2nd Edition. Brookline, MA: Zephyr Press, 2012.

[Abstract: The period in China’s recent history between the death of Mao and the debacle of 1989 can be seen as a “lost” decade: “lost” in the sense that the political engagement of intellectuals and makers of culture has been occulted by official history-telling; “lost” also in that tis memory has been abandoned even by many who lived through it; “lost” also in the embarassed silence of those who prefer to focus on the economic miracle of the 1990s that gave rise to today’s more prosperous Chna; and “lost” as a time of opportunity for cultural and political change that ultimately did not happen. Calling on over thirty years of acquaintance with China including five years spent studying the cultural scene in Beijing during the 1980s, the author here traces the imbrication of culture, politics, and history of a decade when everything seemed possible.]

Lee, Gregory. “Between the Fall of the Gang of Four and the Rise of Best-Sellers: Modern China’s Long Decade.” Wasafiri 55 (2008): 5-12.

Leenhouts, Mark. “Culture Against Politics: Roots-Seeking Literature.” In Joshua Mostow, ed, and Kirk A. Denton, China section, ed., Columbia Companion to Modern East Asian Literatures. NY: Columbia UP, 2003, 533-40. Rpt. in Denton, ed, Columbia Companion to Modern Chinese Literature. NY: Columbia University Press, 2016, 299-306.

Li, Peter. “War and Modernity in Chinese Military Fiction.” Society 34, 5 (July 1997): 77-89. [deals in part with Li Cunbao’s Wreath at the Foot of the Mountain and Xu Huaizhong’s Anecdotes on the Western Front]

Li, Tuo. “The New Vitality in Modern Chinese.” In W. Larson and Anne Wedell-Wedellsborg, eds., Inside Out: Modern and Postmodernism in Chinese Literary Culture. Aarhus, Denmark: Aarhus UP, 1993, 65-77.

Li, Xia. “Confucius, Playboys and Rusticated Glasperlenspieler: from Classical Chinese Poetry to Postmodernism.” Interlitterraria 4 (1999): 41-60.

—–. “Fractured Perspectives and Visions: Literary Representations of Chinese Intellectuals in Post-Mao Fiction.” In Discontinuities and Displacements: Studies in Comparative Literature. Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 2009, 116-125.

Li, Xiaojiang. “Resisting While Holding the Tradition: Claims for Rights Raised in Literature by Chinese Women Writers in the New Period.” Tamkang Review 30, 2 (Winter, 1999): 99-110. Rpt. in Peng-hisang Chen and Whitney Crothers Dilley, eds., Feminism/Femininity in Chinese Literature. Amsterdam,: Rodopi, 2002, 109-116.

Lin, Bih-jaw, ed. Post-Mao Sociopolitical Changes in Mainland China: The Literary Perspective. Taipei: Institute of International Relations, National Chengchi University, 1991.

Lin, Min and Maria Galikowski. The Search for Modernity: Chinese Intellectuals and Cultural Discourse in the Post-Mao Era. NY: St. Martin’s Press, 1999.

Link, Perry. The Uses of Literature: Life in the Socialist Chinese Literary System. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2000.

La Litterature chinoise contemporaine, tradition et modernite: colloque d’Aix-en-Provence, le 8 juin 1988. Aix-en-Provence: Publications de l’Universite de Provence, 1989.

Liu, Bai. Cultural Policy in the People’s Republic of China: Letting a Hundred Flowers Blossom. Paris: Unesco, 1983.

Liu, Jianmei. “The Resurrection of Zhuangzi in the 1980s.” In Liu, Zhuangzi and Modern Chinese Literature. NY: Oxford University Press, 2016, 163-85.

Liu, Kang. “Subjectivity, Marxism, and Cultural Theory in China.” In X. Tang and K. Liu, eds. Politics, Ideology, and Literary Discourse in Modern China: Theoretical Interventions and Cultural Critique. Durham: Duke UP, 1993, 23-54.

Liu, Lu. “Toward the Demythification of US Images in Chinese First Person Books.” In Ray Heisey, ed., Chinese Perspectives in Rhetoric and Communication. Stamford, CT: Ablex Publishing, 2000, 119-38.

Liu, Toming Jun. “Uses and Abuses of Sentimental Nationalism: Mnemonic Disquiet in Heshang and Shuobu.” Modern Chinese Literature and Culture 13, 1 (Spring 2001): 169-209.

Liu, Zaifu. “Chinese Literature in the Past Ten Years: Spirit and Direction.” Chinese Literature (Autumn 1989): 151-77.

Lo, Man-wa. “Female Initiation and Subjectivity in Contemporary Chinese Fiction.” Comparative Literature and Culture 3 (Sept. 1998): 74-87.

Louie, Kam. “Discussions of Exposure Literature Since the Fall of the Gang of Four.” Contemporary China 3, 4 (1979): 91-102.

—–. “The Uses of Literature as Social Commentary in Present Day China.” China in the Eighties Conference Papers. Goulburn: Goulburn College of Advanced Education, 1980, 22-33

—–. “Between Paradise and Hell: Literary Double-Think in Post-Mao China.” Australian Journal of Chinese Affairs 10 (1983): 99-113.

—–. Between Fact and Fiction: Essays on Post-Mao Chinese Literature and Society. Broadway, NSW: Wild Peony, 1989.

—–. “Educated Youth Literature: Self-Discovery in the Chinese Villages.” In Louie, Between Fact and Fiction: Essays on Post-Mao Chinese Literature and Society. Sydney: Wild Peony, 1989, 91-102.

—–. “Discussion of Exposure Literature in the Chinese Press, 1978-1979.” In Louie, Between Fact and Fiction: Essays on Post-Mao Chinese Literature and Society. Sydney: Wild Peony, 1989, 1-13.

—–. “Love Stories: The Meaning of Love and Marriage in China, 1978-1981.” In Louie, Between Fact and Fiction: Essays on Post-Mao Chinese Literature and Society. Sydney: Wild Peony, 1989, 41-75.

Lu, Jie. “Cultural Invention and Cultural Intervention: Reading Chinese Urban Fiction of the Nineties.” Modern Chinese Liteature and Culture 13, 1 (Spring 2001): 107-39.

Lu, Tonglin. Misogyny, Cultural Nihilism, and Oppositional Politics: Contemporary Chinese Experimental Fiction. Stanford: SUP, 1995.

Ma, Sheng-Mei. “Contrasting Two Survival Literatures: On the Jewish Holocaust and the Chinese Cultural Revolution.” Holocaust and Genocide Studies 2, 1 (1987): 81-93.

MacKerras, Colin. “Drama and Politics in Mainland China, 1976-89.” In Bih-jaw Lin, ed. Post-Mao Sociopolitical Changes in Mainland China: The Literary Perspective. Taibei: Institute of International Relations, National Chengchi University, 1991, 109-38.

Martin, Helmut. Origins and Consequences of China’s Democracy Movement 1989 : Social and Cultural Criticism in the PRC. Köln: Bundesinstitut für Ostwissenschaftliche und Internationale Studien,1990.

—–. “China, Hong Kong, and Taiwan During the 1980s and 1990s.” In Victor H. Mair, ed. The Columbia History of Chinese Literature. NY: Columbia UP, 2001, 758-81.

Martin, Helmut, ed. Cologne-Workshop 1984 on Contemporary Chinese Literature: Chinesische Gegenwartsliterature. Koln: Deutsche Welle, 1986.

—– and Karl-Heinz Pohl, eds. Chinesische Schriftsteller der 80er Jahre. Special issue of Akzente (Munich) 2 (April 1985).

McDougall, Bonnie. “Censorship and Self-Censorship in Chinese Poetry and Fiction.” In McDougall, Fictional Authors, Imaginary Audiences: Modern Chinese Literature in the Twentieth Century. HK: Chinese University Press, 2003, 205-24.

—–. “Censorship and Self-Censorship in Contemporary Chinese Literature.” In Susan Whitfield, ed., After the Event: Human Rights and their Future in China. London: Wellsweep, 1993, 73-90.

—–. “Poems, Poets, and Poetry 1976: An Exercise in the Typology of Modern Chinese Literature.” Contemporary China 2, 4 (Winter 1978).

—–. “Dissent Literature: Official and Nonofficial Literature In and About China in the Seventies.” Contemporary China 3, no. 4 (1979): 49-79.

—–. “Underground Literature: Two Reports from Hong Kong.” Contemporary China 3, 4 (1979): 80-90.

—–. “Breaking Through: Literature and the Arts in China, 1976-1986.” Copehagen Papers in East and Southeast Asian Studies 1 (1988): 35-65. Rpt. in McDougall, Fictional Authors, Imaginary Audiences: Modern Chinese Literature in the Twentieth Century. HK: Chinese University Press, 2003, 171-204.

—–. “Problems and Possibilities in Translating Contemporary Chinese Literature.” The Australian Journal of Chinese Affairs 25 (Jan. 1991): 37-67.

Mi, Jiayan. “Poetics of Navigation: River Lyricism, Epic Consciousness, and Post-Mao Sublime Poemscape.” Modern Chinese Literature and Culture 19, 1 (Spring 2007): 91-137.

Misra, Kalpana. From Post-Maoism to Post-Marxism: The Erosion of Official Ideology in Deng’s China. NY: Routledge, 1998.

Mok, Ka-ho. Intellectuals and the State in Post-Mao China. NY: St. Martin’s Press, 1998.

Neder, Christina. Lesen in der Volksrepublik China: eine empirisch-qualitative Studie zu Leseverhalten und Lektürepräferenzen der Pekinger Stadtbevölkerung vor dem Hintergrund der Transformation des chinesischen Buch- und Verlagswesens 1978-1995. Hamburg: Institut für Asienkunde, 1999. [empirical study of reading habits in the post-Mao period]

Palandri, Angela Jung. “The Polemics of Post-Mao Poetry: Controversy over Meng-lung shih.” Journal of the Chinese Language Teachers Association 19, 3 (1984): 67-86.

Pan, Yuan and Jie Pan. “The Non-Official Magazine Today and the Younger Generation’s Ideals for a New Literature.” In J. Kinkley, ed., After Mao: Chinese Literature and Society, 1978-1981. Cambridge, MA: Harvard UP, 1985, 193-219.

Roberts, Rosemary A. “Politics and Pathos: The Reappearance of Tragedy in Chinese Rural Literature.” Australian Journal of Chinese Affairs 13 (Jan. 1985): 85-95.

Siu, Helen. “Social Responsibility and Self-Expression: Chinese Literature in the 1980s.” Modern Chinese Literature 5, 1 (1989): 7-32.

Sun, Lung-kee. “Contemporary Chinese Culture: Structure and Emotionality.” The Australian Journal of Chinese Affairs (July 1991).

Tan, Chee Lay. “An Attempt to Read Mistiness: Examining the Imagery of Chinese Misty Poetry from an Eastern-Western Comparative Perspective.” Korean Journal of Chinese Linguistics and Literature 58 (2014): 105-28.

Tao, Dongfeng. “Thirty Years of New Era Literature: From Elitization to De-Elitization.” In Yingjin Zhang, ed. A Companion to Modern Chinese Literature. Chichester, UK: Wiley Blackwell, 2016, 98-115.

Tsai, Yuan-huang. “The Second Wave: Recent Developments in Mainland Chinese Literature.” In Bih-jaw Lin, ed. Post-Mao Sociopolitical Changes in Mainland China: The Literary Perspective. Taibei: Institute of International Relations, National Chengchi University, 1991, 5-22.

Twitchell, Jeffrey and Huang Fan. “Avant-Garde Poetry in China: The Nanjing Scene 1981-1992.” World Literature Today 71, 1 (1997): 29-35.

Van Crevel, Maghiel. Chinese Poetry in Times of Mind, Mayhem and Money, Leiden: Brill, 2008

Visser, Robin. “Privacy and its Ill Effects in Post-Mao Urban Fiction.” In Bonnie S. McDougall and Anders Hansson, eds., Chinese Concepts of Privacy. Leiden: Brill, 2002, 171-94.

—–. “Post-Mao Urban Fiction.” In Joshua Mostow, ed, and Kirk A. Denton, China section, ed., Columbia Companion to Modern East Asian Literatures. NY: Columbia UP, 2003, 570-77.

—– and Jie Lu. “Contemporary Urban Fiction: Rewriting the City.” In Kirk A. Denton, ed., Columbia Companion to Modern Chinese Literature. NY: Columbia University Press, 2016, 345-54.

Vittinghoff, Natascha. “China’s Generation X: Rusticated Red Guards in Controversial Contemporary Plays.” In Woei Lian Chong, ed., China’s Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution: Master Narratives and Post-Mao Counternarratives. Lanham: Rowman and Littlefield, 2002, 285-318. [discusses Sha Yexin’s New Sprouts from the Borderlands, Wang Peigong’s We, and Xun Pinli’s Yesterday’s Longan Trees]

Wagner, Rudolf. “Der chinesische Autor im eigenen Licht. Literarische Selbstreflexion über die Literatur und ihren Zweck in der VR China” (The Chinese writer in his own light: literary self-reflections on literature and its purpose in the PRC) . In W. Kubin (ed.), Moderne Chinesische Literatur. Frankfurt: Suhrkamp, l985, 75-101.

—–. “The Chinese Writer in his Own Mirror: Writer, State, and Society–the Literary Evidence.” In Merle Goldman, Timothy Cheek and Carol Hamrin, eds., China’s Intellectuals and the State: In Search of a New Relationship. Cambridge: Council on East Asian Studies, Harvard University, 1987, 183-231.

—–. “The PRC Intelligentsia: A View from Literature.” In J. Kallgren, ed., Building a Nation-State. China After Forty Years. China Research Monograph 37. Berkeley: Center for Chinese Studies, 1990, 153-183.

Wang, Jing. High Culture Fever: Politics, Aesthetics, and Ideology in Deng’s China. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1997.

Wang, Mason Y.H., ed. Perspectives in Contemporary Chinese Literature. Michigan: Green River Press, 1983.

Watson, James L. “The Renegotiation of Chinese Cultural Identity in the Post-Mao Era: An Anthrological Perspective.” In K. Lieberthal et al., eds., Perspectives on Modern China: Four Anniversaries. Armonk: M.E. Sharpe, 1991, 364-86.

Wedell-Wedellsborg, Anne. “The Changing Concept of Self as Reflected in Chinese Literature of the 1980s.” In Viviane Alleton, ed., Notions et Perceptions du Changement en Chine. Paris: Institut des Hautes Etudes Chinoises, College de France, 1994.

—–. “Haunted Fiction: Modern Chinese Literature and the Supernatural.” International Fiction Review 32, 1-2 (2005): 21-31.

Williams, Philip F. “Some Mainstream Features and Divergent Currents in Post-Mao Stories from 1979-80.” Journal of Chinese Studies 2, 1 (1985): 1-15.

—–. “Divergent Portrayals of the Rustication Experience in Chinese Narrative After Mao.” Contrastes: Revue de linguistique contrastive (Paris) 18/19 (1989): 89-97.

—–. “Some Provincial Precursors of Popular Dissent Movements in Beijing.” China Information 6, 1 (1991): 1-9. [analyzes Hu Ping’s 1989 reportage novel, Zhongguo de mouzi, among other matters relevant to contemporary Chinese literature and culture].

—–. “Migrant Laborer Subcultures in Recent Chinese Literature: a Communicative Perspective.” Intercultural Communication Studies 8, 2 (1998-99): 153-161. [discusses the literary portrayal of contemporary ruralmangliu, esp. in Zhang Mingyuan’s 1989 play, Duo yu de xiatian].

—–. “Ingraining Self-Censorship and Other Functions of the Laogai, as Revealed in Chinese Fiction and Reportage.” In Voices from the Laogai: Fifty Years of Surviving China’s Forced Labor Camps. Washington: Laogai Research Foundation, 2000, 97-104.

—–. “Remolding and the Labor Camp Novel.” Asia Major 4, 2 (1991): 133-149.

Williams, Philip F. and Yenna Wu. The Great Wall of Confinement: The Chinese Prison Camp Through Contemporary Fiction and Reportage. Berkeley: UCP, 2004. [contains a history of incarercation in China, as well as an overview of prison camps in the PRC, but it’s main focus is to look at post-Mao literary representations of prison camps] [MCLC Resource Center review by Maghiel van Crevel]

Wu, Liang. “Re-membering the Cultural Revolution: Chinese Avant-garde Literature of the 1980s.” In Pang-yuan Chi and David Wang, eds., Chinese Literature in the Second Half of the Twentieth Century: A Critical Survey. Bloomington: Indiana UP, 2000, 125-36.

Xiao, Hui Faye. “Science and Poetry: Narrativizing Marital Crisis in Reform-Era Rural China.” Modern Chinese Literature and Culture 23, 2 (Fall 2011): 146-74.

—–. Family Revolution: Marital Strife in Contemporary Chinese Literature and Visual Culture. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 2014.

[Abstract: As state control of private life in China has loosened since 1980, citizens have experienced an unprecedented family revolution–an overhaul of family structure, marital practices, and gender relationships. While the nuclear family has become a privileged realm of romance and individualism symbolizing the post-revolutionary “freedoms” of economic and affective autonomy, women’s roles in particular have been transformed, with the ideal “iron girl” of socialism replaced by the feminine, family-oriented “?good wife and wise mother.” Problems and contradictions in this new domestic culture have been exposed by China’s soaring divorce rate. Reading popular “divorce narratives” in fiction, film, and TV drama, Hui Faye Xiao shows that the representation of marital discord has become a cultural battleground for competing ideologies within post-revolutionary China. While these narratives present women’s cultivation of wifely and maternal qualities as the cure for family disintegration and social unrest, Xiao shows that they in fact reflect a problematic resurgence of traditional gender roles and a powerful mode of control over supposedly autonomous private life.]

Xu, Jilin. “The Fate of Enlightenment–Twenty Years in the Chinese Cultural Sphere, 1978-98.” East Asian History 20 (Dec. 2000): 169-86.

Yang, Daniel S.P. “Theater Activities in Post-Cultural Revolution China.” In C. Tung and C. Mackerras, eds., Drama in the People’s Republic of China. Albany: SUNY Press, 1987, 164-80.

Yang, Haiou. “‘Cultural Fever’: A Cultural Discourse in China’s Post-Mao Era.” In Virginia R. Dominguez and David Y. H. Wu, eds., From Beijing to Port Moresby: The Politics of National Identity in Cultural Policies. Amsterdam: Gordon and Breach, 1998, 207-45.

Yang, Min and Don Kuiken. “‘Scar’: A Social Metaphor for Working Through Revolution Trauma.” Frontiers of Literary Studies in China 10, 2 (2016): 318-42.

[Abstract: This article examines the social and psychological function of the “scar” metaphor at the turn from the late 1970s to the early 1980s. We propose that the widely employed scar metaphor, which was first created in the scar literature movement of the late 1970s and early 1980s, enabled Chinese readers to “work through” the blend of psychological and ideological disquietude that lingered after the Cultural Revolution. We will first clarify how the scar metaphor facilitated this process of “working through,” using as an example Lu Xinhua’s “The Scar” (Shanghen). We will then describe how the scar metaphor became dispersed throughout Chinese popular culture and enabled a broad spectrum of Chinese readers to participate in a similar process. At both levels of analysis, we will argue that the scar metaphor simultaneously provides a literary space for working through personal trauma and related anxieties about the ideological transition during this socio-political change.]

Yang, Xiaobin. Selections from Lishi yu xiuci (History and rhetoric). Contemporary Chinese Literature, 1999. [in Chinese, browser required]

—–. The Chinese Postmodern: Trauma and Irony in Chinese Avant-garde Fiction. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2002. [MCLC Resource Center review by Wendy Larson]

—–. “Toward a Theory of Postmodern/Post-Mao–Deng Literature.” In Charles Laughlin, ed., Contested Modernities in Chinese Literature. NY: Palgrave Macmillan, 2005, 81-97.

Yeh, Michelle. “Misty Poetry.” In Joshua Mostow, ed, and Kirk A. Denton, China section, ed., Columbia Companion to Modern East Asian Literatures. NY: Columbia UP, 2003, 520-26. Rpt. in Denton, ed, Columbia Companion to Modern Chinese Literature. NY: Columbia University Press, 2016, 286-92.

Zhang, Xudong. Chinese Modernism in the Era of Reforms: Culture Fever, Avant-garde Fiction, and the New Chinese Cinema. Durham: Duke UP, 1997.

Zhang, Yu and Calvin Hui. “Postsocialism and Its Narratives: An Interview with Cai Xiang.” MCLC Resource Center Publication (June 2018).

Zhao, Henry. “New Waves in Recent Chinese Fiction.” In Henry Zhao, ed., The Lost Boat: Avant-garde Fiction from China. London: Wellsweep, 1993, 9-18.

—–. “The River Fans Out: Chinese Fiction Since the Late 1970s.” European Review 11, 2 (May 2003): 193-208.

Zheng, Yiran. Writing Beijing: Urban Spaces and Cultural Imaginations in Contemporary Chinese Literature and Films. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 2016.

Zhong, Xueping. “Shanghai Shimin Literature and the Ambivalence of (Urban) Home.” Modern Chinese Literature 9, 1 (1995): 79-99.

—–. Masculinity Besieged? Issues of Modernity and Male Subjectivity in Chinese Literature of the late Twentieth Century. Durham: Duke UP, 2000.

Zhou, Xiaoyi. “The Ideological Function of Western Aesthetics in 1980s China.” Literary Research / Recherche Litteraire 18, 35 (Spring-Summer 2001): 112-19

Zhou, Zuyan. “Dao and Reconstruction of Cultural Identity in Contemporary Chinese Literary and Mass Media Products.” Modern Chinese Literature and Culture 28, 2  (Fall 2016): 223-284.


Post-1989/Postsocialist

Admussen, Nick. Recite and Refuse: Contemporary Chinese Prose Poetry. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 2016.

[Abstract: Chinese prose poetry today is engaged with a series of questions that are fundamental to the modern Chinese language: What is prose? What is it good for? How should it look and sound? Millions of Chinese readers encounter prose poetry every year, both in the most official of state-sponsored magazines and in the unorthodox, experimental work of the avant-garde. Recite and Refuse makes their answers to our questions about prose legible by translating, surveying, and interpreting prose poems, studying the people, politics, and contexts that surround the writing of prose poetry. Admussen argues that unlike most genres, Chinese prose poems lack a distinct size or shape. Their similarity to other prose is the result of a distinct process in which a prose form is recited with some kind of meaningful difference—an imitation that refuses to fully resemble its source. This makes prose poetry a protean, ever-changing group of works, channeling the language of science, journalism, Communist Party politics, advertisements, and much more. The poems look vastly different as products, but are made with a similar process. Focusing on the composition process allows Admussen to rewrite the standard history of prose poetry, finding its origins not in 1918 but in the obedient socialist prose poetry of the 1950s. Recite and Refuse places the work of state-sponsored writers in mutual relationship to prose poems by unorthodox and avant-garde poets, from cadre writers like Ke Lan and Guo Feng to the border-crossing intellectual and poet Liu Zaifu to experimental artists such as Ouyang Jianghe and Xi Chuan. The volume features never-before seen English translations that range from the representative to the exceptional, culminating with Ouyang Jianghe’s masterpiece “Hanging Coffin.” Reading across the spectrum enables us to see the way that artists interact with each other, how they compete and cooperate, and how their interactions, as well as their creations, continuously reinvent both poetry and prose.]

Balcom, John. “Bridging the Gap: Contemporary Chinese Literature from a Translator’s Perspective.” Wasafiri 55 (2008): 19-23.

Barme, Geremie. “Soft Porn, Packaged Dissent, and Nationalism: Notes on Chinese Culture in the 1990s.” Current History (Sept. 1994).

—–. Shades of Mao: The Posthumous Cult of the Great Leader. NY: M.E. Sharpe, 1996.

—–. In the Red, Contemporary Chinese Culture. NY: Columbia UP, 1999.

Baranovich, Nimrod. “Inverted Exile: Uyghur Writers and Artists in Beijing and the Political Implications of Their Work.” Modern China 33 (2007): 462-504.

Berry, Michael. A History of Pain: Trauma in Modern Chinese Literature and Film. NY: Columbia UP, 2008.

[Abstract: The portrayal of historical atrocity in fiction, film, and popular culture can reveal much about the function of individual memory and the shifting status of national identity. In the context of Chinese culture, films such as Hou Hsiao-hsien’s City of Sadness and Lou Ye’s Summer Palace and novels such as Ye Zhaoyan’s Nanjing 1937: A Love Story and Wang Xiaobo’s The Golden Age collectively reimagine past horrors and give rise to new historical narratives. Table of Contents: Prelude: A History of Pain. Part I: Centripetal Trauma: 1. Musha 1930; 2. Nanjing 1937; 3. Taipei 1947. Part II: Centrifugal Trauma: 4. Yunnan 1968; 5. Beijing 1989; Coda: Hong Kong 1997]

Cai, Rong. The Subject in Crisis in Contemporary Chinese Literature. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 2004.

Chao I-heng [Zhao Yiheng].”Post-Isms and Chinese New Conservatism.” New Literary History 28, 1 (Winter 1997): 31-44.

Chao, Shih-Chen. “The Re-institutionalisation of Popular Fiction–The Internet and a New Model of Popular Fiction Prosumption in China.” Journal of the British Association of Chinese Studes 3 (Dec. 2013).

Chen, Jianguo. “The Logic of the Phantasm: Haunting and Spectrality in Contemporary Chinese Literary Imagination.” Modern Chinese Literature and Culture 14, 1 (Spring 2002): 231-65. [deals with texts by Mo Yan, Chen Cun, and Yu Hua]. Rpt. in Chen, The Aesthetics of the ‘Beyond’: Phantasm, Nostaligia, and the Literary Practice in Contemporary China. Newark: University of Deleware Press, 2009, 62-90.

—–. The Aesthetics of the ‘Beyond’: Phantasm, Nostaligia, and the Literary Practice in Contemporary China. Newark: University of Deleware Press, 2009.

[Abstract: This book is about an alternative mode of reading, thinking, and representing the intricacies of human experience in Chinese literature of the late twentieth century, which the author calls the aesthetics of the “beyond.” It investigates how contemporary Chinese writers, by means of dynamic interface of literary practice and cultural philosophical considerations, engage the reader in critical reflection on and aesthetic appreciation of the complexity of human conditions. By studying the “beyond” in its various manifestations: the semiotics of human embodiment, the discourse of the phantasm, the politics of nostalgia with regard to “origin” and “center,” and the metaphysics of death in the writings of some major contemporary Chinese writers, the book explores the ways in which the “beyond” is constructed as a new paradigm of critical thinking in literary, aesthetic, and philosophical terms. It examines how its discursive strategies, structural features, and aesthetic possibilities are presented and how varied literary tropes are used in an attempt to unravel human experience in all its aspects.]

Chen, Jianhua. “Local and Global in Narrative Contestation: Liberalism and the New Left in Late 1990s China.” Journal of Asian Pacific Communication 9, 1-2 (1998).

Chen, Xiaomei. Acting the Right Part: Political Theater and Popular Drama in Contemporary China, 1966-1996. Honolulu: University of Hawaii, 2002. [MCLC Resource Center review by Ruru Li]

Chen, Xiaoming. “The Chinese Perspective and the Assessment of Contemporary Chinese Literature.” Tr. Nancy Tsai. Chinese Literature Today (Winter/Spring 2011): 23-27.

Cheng, Yinghong. “Che Guevara: Dramatizing China’s Divided Intelligentsia at the Turn of the Century.” Modern Chinese Literature and Culture 15, 2 (Fall 2003): 1-44.

Choy, Howard Yuen Fung. Remapping the Past: Fictions of History in Deng’s China, 1979-1997. Ph. D. diss. Boulder: University of Colorado, 2004.

—–. Remapping the Past: Fictions of History in Deng’s China, 1979-1997. Leiden: Brill, 2008. [MCLC Resource Center Review by Andrew Stuckey]

Conceison, Claire. “Hot Tickets: China’s New Generation Takes the Stage.” Persimmon 3, 1 (Spring 2002): 18-27.

Dai, Jinhua. “Redemption and Consumption: Depicting Culture in the 1990s.” positions east asia cultures critique 4, 1 (Spring 1996): 127-43.

—–. “Invisible Writing: The Politics of Chinese Mass Culture in the 1990s.” Modern Chinese Literature and Culture 11,1 (Spring 1999): 31-60.

—–. “Rewriting the Red Classics.” In Carlos Rojas and Eileen Cheng-yin Chow, eds., Rethinking Chinese Popular Culture: Cannibalizations of the Canon. NY: Routledge, 2009, 151-78.

Davies, Gloria. “Anticipating Community, Producing Dissent: The Politics of Recent Chinese Intellectual Praxis.” The China Review 2, 2 (Fall 2002): 1-35.

[Abstract: This paper explores the ongoing debate between the “liberals” and the “New Left” in relation to the rhetorical and discursive strategies adopted by various authors on both sides of this “ideological” division. In articulating the need for greater democracy and social justice in present-day Mainland Chinese society, these authors deploy tropes and concepts drawn from a wide range of Chinese and EuroAmerican sources. Their common anticipation of community—the word that is now most frequently used in Anglophone scholarship to signify the common good—has produced dissent and debate, primarily because of the different ways in which these authors have formulated their vision of the common good. This paper also examines the foundational concepts and values that underpin “liberal” and “New Left” conceptualizations of the common good, and situates their differently formulated concerns in the context of both globalization and a transformed Chinese party-state, whose current ideology shares much in common with the economic rationalistic doctrine of neo-liberalism.]

—–. Worrying About China: The Language of Chinese Critical Inquiry. Cambridge: Harvard UP, 2007. [HUP webpage]

[Abstract: As an intellectual mandate, “worrying about China” carries with it the moral obligation of identifying and solving perceived “Chinese problems”–social, political, cultural, historical, or economic–in order to achieve national perfection. In Worrying about China, Gloria Davies pursues this inquiry through a wide range of contemporary topics, including the changing fortunes of radicalism, the peculiarities of Chinese postmodernism, shifts within official discourse, attempts to revive Confucianism for present-day China, and the historically problematic engagement of Chinese intellectuals with Western ideas.]

Davis, Edward, ed. Encyclopedia of Contemporary Chinese Culture. London: Routledge, 2004.

Day, Michael. “Introduction: Contemporary Chinese Poetry and Literature on the Internet.” Digital Archive for Chinese Studies (DACHS), Leiden Division. [study of contemporary Chinese poetry websites]

—–. China’s Second World of Poetry: The Sichuan Avant-garde, 1982-1992. Leiden: Digital Archive for Chinese Studies (DACHS). Leiden University, 2005. [MCLC Resource Center review by Heather Inwood]

Des Forge, Roger and Luo Xu. “China as a Non-Hegemonic Superpower? The Uses of History among the China Can Say No Writers and Their Critics.” Critical Asian Studies 33, 4 (Dec. 2001).

Dong, Jian. “Withering of the Spirit of Contemporary Chinese Drama.” Frontiers of Literary Studies in China 1, 4 (Oct. 2007): 571-80.

Edwards, Louise. “Consolidating a Socialist Patriarchy: The Women’s Writers’ Industry and ‘Feminist’ Literary Criticism.” In Antonia Finnan and Ann McLaren, eds. Dress, Sex and Text in Chinese Culture. Clayton, Australia: Monash Asia Institute, 1999, 183-97.

Feng, Jin. “‘Addicted to Beauty’: Consuming and Producing Web-based Chinese Danmei Fiction at Jinjiang.” Modern Chinese Literature and Culture 21, 2 (Fall 2009): 1-41.

—–. “Cong Jinjian danmei wen kan Zhongguo nuxing xingbie shenfen de goucheng” (Constructing female gender identities through Danmei at Jinjiang). Zhongguo xing yanjiu 30, 3 (2009): 132-153.

Ferrari, Rossella. “Avant-garde Drama and Theater: China” In Cody, Gabrielle and Sprinchorn, Evert, eds., The Columbia Encyclopaedia of Modern Drama. New York: Columbia University Press, 2007.

—–. Pop Goes the Avant-garde: Meng Jinghui and Contemporary Chinese Avant-garde Theatre. PhD diss. London: SOAS, 2007.

—–. Pop Goes the Avant-garde: Experimental Theater in Contemporary China. London, NY, Calcutta: Seagull Books, 2012.

[Abstract: The first comprehensive review of the history and development of avant-garde drama and theater in the PRC since 1976. Drawing on a range of critical perspectives in the fields of comparative literature, theater, performance, and culture studies, the book explores key artistic movements and phenomena that have emerged in China’s major cultural centers in the last several decades. It surveys the work of China’s most influential dramatists, directors and performance groups, with a special focus on Beijing-based playwright, director and filmmaker Meng Jinghui¡Xthe former enfant terrible of Beijing theater, who is now one of Asia’s foremost theater personalities. Through an extensive critique of theories of modernism and the avant-garde, the author reassesses the meanings, functions and socio-historical significance of this work in non-Western contexts by proposing a new theoretical construct¡Xthe pop avant-garde¡Xand exploring new ways to understand and conceptualize aesthetic practices beyond Euro-American cultures and critical discourses.]

Ferry, Megan M. “Marketing Chinese Women Writers in the 1990s, or the Politics of Self-Fashioning.” In Jie Lu, ed., China’s Literary and Cultural Scenes at the Turn of the 21st Century. NY: Routledge, 2008, 59-80.

Fokemma, Douwe. “Chinese Postmodernist Fiction.” Modern Language Quarterly 69, 1 (2008): 141-65.

[Abstract: The title of this essay implies that there is a Chinese postmodernism that differs from American or European postmodernism. But the different postmodernisms also have a common basis, which can be found at the level of unstable signification. First the author briefly sketches how the concept of postmodernism traveled from the United States to western Europe and Russia, with key roles for American critics such as John Barth, Leslie Fiedler, Ihab Hassan, and Matei Calinescu and, in Europe, writers such as Umberto Eco and the reception of Jorge Luis Borges and Vladimir Nabokov. To the author, Chinese postmodernism differs from other variants of postmodernism because of its different cultural-historical and literary-historical background. With few exceptions, modernism was a late discovery in China. After 1978 Wang Meng, Zhang Jie, Wang Anyi, and others wrote fiction in a modernist style. The simultaneity of modernism and postmodernism is a clue to the interpretation of Chinese fiction of the 1980s and 1990s. Postmodernist exuberant fabulation, partly inspired by Gabriel García Márquez and partly by traditional Chinese fiction, can be found in fiction by Mo Yan, Yu Hua, and Han Shaogong.Please Don’t Call Me Human (Qianwan bie ba wo dang ren, 1989), by Wang Shuo, who was recently honored with a Chinese compilation of “research material concerning Wang Shuo” (Tianjin, 2005), is also discussed.]

Friedman, Edward. “Democracy and ‘Mao Fever.'” Journal of Contemporary China 6 (Summer 1994): 84-95.

Fumian, Marco. “The Temple and the Market: Controversial Positions in the Literary Field with Chinese Characteristics.” Modern Chinese Literature and Culture 21, 2 (Fall 2009): 126-66.

—–. “Chronicle of Du Lala’s Promotion: Exemplary Literature, the Middle Class, and the Socialist Market.” Modern Chinese Literature and Culture 28, 1  (Spring 2016): 78-128.

Gan Yang. “A Critique of Chinese Conservatism in the 1990s.” Social Text 55 (Summer 1998): 45-66.

Goldblatt, Howard. “Border Crossings: Chinese Writing, in Their World and Ours.” In Timothy B. Weston and Lionel Jensen, eds., China Beyond the Headlines. Lanham, MD: Rowan and Littlefield, 2000, 327-45.

—–. “Fictional China.” In Lional M. Jensen and Timothy B. Weston, eds., China’s Transformations: The Stories beyond the Headlines. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield, 2007.

Goldman, Merle. “Poltically-Engaged Intellectuals in the 1990s.” The China Quarterly 159 (Sept. 1999): 700-711.

Gong, Haomin. Uneven Modernity: Literature, Film, and Intellectual Discourse in Postsocialist China. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 2011.

[Abstract: Postsocialist China is marked by paradoxes: economic boom, political conservatism, cultural complexity. Haomin Gong’s dynamic study of these paradoxes, or “unevenness,” provides a unique and seminal approach to contemporary China. Reading unevenness as a problem and an opportunity simultaneously, Gong investigates how this dialectical social situation shapes cultural production. He begins his investigation of “uneven modernity” in China by constructing a critical framework of unevenness among different theoretical schools and expounding on how dialectical thinking points to a metaphysical paradox in capitalism and modernity: the inevitable tension between a constant pursuit of infinite fullness and a break of fullness (unevenness) as the means of this pursuit. In the Chinese context, this paradox is created in the “uneven developmentalism” that most manifestly characterizes the postsocialist period. Gong goes on to investigate manifestations of the dialectics of unevenness in specific cultural events. Four case studies address respectively but not exclusively literature (the prose of Yu Qiuyu), popular fiction (Chi Li’s neorealist fiction), commercial cinema (the movies of Feng Xiaogang), and art-house cinema (Wang Xiaoshuai’s filmmaking). Representing different aspects of cultural production in postsocialist China, these writers and directors deal with the same social condition of uneven development, and their works clearly exhibit the problematics of this age. Uneven Modernity makes a significant contribution to the burgeoning field of China studies as well as the study of uneven development in general. It addresses some of the most popular, yet understudied, cultural phenomena in contemporary China. Specialists and students will find its insights admirable and its style accessible.]

Guo, Yingjie. Cultural Nationalism in Contemporary China: The Search for National Identity under Reform. London: RoutledgeCurzon, 2004.

—–. “Pushing the (Red) Envelope.” Time Asia 156, 16 (Oct 23, 2000). [ part of a special issue on youth in China, includes brief looks at works by Wei Hui, Mian Mian, Yu Xiu, Han Han, and Zhu Wen.]

Hao, Zhidong. Intellectuals at a Crossroads: The Changing Politics of China’s Knowledge Workers. Albany: State University of New York Press, 2003.

He, Baogang and Yingjie Guo. “Patriotic Villains and Patriotic Heroes: New Trends in Literary Nationalism.” In Nationalism, National Identity and Democratization in China. Brookfield, VT: Ashgate Publishing, 2000, 53-78.

He, Ping. China’s Search for Modernity: Cultural Discourse in the Late 20th Century. Houndmills: PalgraveMacmillan, 2002.

Henningsen, Lena. “Harry Potter with Chinese Characteristics, Plagiarism between Orientalism and Occidentalism.” China Information 20, 2 (2006): 275-311.

—–. Copyright Matters: Imitation, Creativity and Authenticity in Contemporary Chinese Literature. Berlin: Berliner Wissenschafts-Verlag, 2010. [MCLC Resource Center review by Krista Van Fleit Hang]

[Abstract: Henningsen offers five studies that challenge the wide-spread prejudice among the Western Press that China is an empire of plagiarism, sometimes even referred to as the “People’s Republic of Cheats”. By analyzing the cases of convicted plagiarist Guo Jingming, the victim of plagiarism Han Han, the follow-up publications to Jiang Rong’s Wolf’s Totem, the Harry Potter fakes and fan fiction, as well as discussions of academic plagiarism, Henningsen proves that copyright increasingly matters to Chinese writers. Confronted with instances of copyright infringements on their own works, they voice their opposition and fight for their rights, be it through legal action or their writing. At the same time, the author demonstrates that a text that is commonly considered to be “plagiarized” or “imitated” may turn out to be a highly creative work in its own right, for example when Harry Potter appears as a timid exchange student in China. Therefore, Henningsen opts for a literary reading of these “derivative” works and argues that imitation may, at times, be a creative tool. While these two central arguments appear to be contradictory, the author shows that they represent two sides of the same coin: the emergence of a new self-conception among Chinese authors, as they struggle to recast their relationship with society and state.]

Hillenbrand, Margaret. “Beleaguered Husbands: Representations of Marital Breakdown in Some Recent Mainland Fiction.” Tamkang Review 30, 2 (1999).

—–. “Murakami Haruki in Greater China: Creative Responses and the Quest for Cosmopolitanism.” Journal of Asian Studies 68, 3 (2009): 715-747. [deals in part with Chun Shu, Mian Mian, Wei Hui, Chungking Express, and Taiwan Internet literature]

Hockx, Michel. “Links with the Past: Mainland China’s Online Literary Communities and their Antecedents.” Journal of Contemporary China 13, 38 (Feb. 2004): 105-27.

[Abstract: This article compares Chinese literary journals from the early twentieth century with a Mainland Chinese literary website from the early twenty-first century. In both these periods, literary practice underwent significant changes as a result of major changes in the technological processes involved in the production and distribution of texts. Five aspects of these changes are examined: the mixed media environment, the provision of information about authors’ identities, engagement with social issues, community building, and the relationship with serious literature. The article argues that a very traditional Chinese view of literature as a socially embedded act of communication continued to play a significant role in both periods, and was even further enhanced through interaction with the new technologies. Despite the fact that both types of publication appeal(ed) to large readerships, it is argued that it is not helpful simply to consider them as ‘popular literature’. Both the journals from 100 years ago and the website of today represent literary communities that share a serious view of literature, albeit one that is not compatible with the familiar New Literature paradigm.]

—–. Internet Literature in China. NY: Columbia University Press, 2015.

[Abstract: Since the 1990s, Chinese literary enthusiasts have explored new spaces for creative expression online, giving rise to a modern genre that has transformed Chinese culture and society. Ranging from the self-consciously avant-garde to the pornographic, web-based writing has introduced innovative forms, themes, and practices into Chinese literature and its aesthetic traditions. Conducting the first comprehensive survey in English of this phenomenon, Michel Hockx describes in detail the types of Chinese literature taking shape right now online and their novel aesthetic, political, and ideological challenges. Offering a unique portal into postsocialist Chinese culture, this book presents a complex portrait of internet culture and control in China that avoids one-dimensional representations of oppression. The Chinese government still strictly regulates the publishing world, yet it is growing increasingly tolerant of internet literature and its publishing practices while still attempting to draw a clear yet ever-shifting ideological bottom line. Readers interested in encountering these new forms of writing, some of which are no longer available online, will value this book. Hockx interviews online authors, publishers, and censors, capturing the convergence of mass media, creativity, censorship, and free speech that is upending traditional hierarchies and conventions within China–and across Asia.]

Hockx, Michel and Julia Strauss, eds. Special Issue: Culture in the Contemporary PRC. The China Quarterly 183 (Sept. 2005). [articles by Jing Wang, Michel Hockx, Yomi Braester, Kirk A. Denton, Antonia Finnane, Jeroen de Kloet, Maghiel van Crevel, and Deborah Davis]. Rpt as Culture in the Contemporary PRC. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 2005. [MCLC Resource Center review by Hai Ren]

Hong, Zhigang. “Another Look at Subjective Self-Consciousness and Contemporary Chinese Literature.” Tr. Ronald Kimmons. Chinese Literature Today (Winter/Spring 2011): 36-39.

Hong, Zicheng. A History of Contemporary Chinese Literature. Tr. Michael M. Day. Leiden: Brill, 2007. [MCLC Resource Center review by Edward Gunn]

Hu, Andy Yinan. Swimming Against the Tide: Tracing and Locating Chinese Leftism Online. MA Thesis. Simon Fraser University, 2006.

Hu, Ying. “Writing Erratic Desire: Sexual Politics in Contemporary Chinese Fiction.” In Xiaobing Tang and S. Snyder, eds., In Pursuit of Contemporary East Asian Culture. Boulder: Westview Press, 1996, 49-68.

Huang, Yibing. Contemporary Chinese Literature: From the Cultural Revolution to the Future. NY: Palgrave Macmillan, 2007. [MCLC Resource Center review by Darryl Sterk]

[Chapters: (1) Rethinking the Legacy of the Cultural Revolution; (2) Duo Duo: An Impossible Farewell, or, Exile between Revolution and Modernism; (3) Wang Shuo: Playing for Thrills in the Era of Reform, or, A Genealogy of the Present; (4) Zhang Chengzhi: Striving for Alternative National Forms, or, Old Red Guard and New Cultural Heretic; (5) Wang Xiaobo: From “Golden Age” to “Silver Age,” or, Writing Against the Gravity of History; (6) Revising a Double-Faced Chinese Modernity]

Huang, Yiju. Tapestry of Light: Aesthetic Afterlives of the Cultural Revolution. Leiden: Brill, 2014. [MCLC Resource Center review by Rebecka Eriksson]

[AbstractTapestry of Light offers an account of the psychic, intellectual, and cultural aftermath of the Chinese Cultural Revolution. Drawing on a wide range of works including essay, fiction, memoir, painting and film, the book explores links between history, trauma and haunting. Challenging the leftist currents in Cultural Revolution scholarship, the tone pervading the book is a rhythm of melancholia, indeterminacy but also hope. Huang demonstrates that aesthetic afterlives resist both the conservative nostalgia for China’s revolutionary past as well as China’s elated, false confidence in the market-driven future. Huang engages with prominent Chinese intellectuals, writers, artists and filmmakers, including Ba Jin, Han Shaogong, Hong Ying, Zhang Xiaogang, Jiang Wen and Ann Hui.]

Huot, Claire. “Here, There, Anywhere: Networking by Young Chinese Writers Today.” In Michel Hockx, ed., The Literary Field of Twentieth Century China. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1999, 198-215.

—–. China’s New Cultural Scene: A Handbook of Changes. Durham: Duke UP, 2000.

—–. “Literary Experiments: Six Files.” In Huot, China’s New Cultural Scene: A Handbook of Changes. Durham: Duke University Press, 2000, 7-48. [deals mostly with avant-garde writers]

Huters, Theodore. “Contemporary Chinese Letters.” In Barbara Stoler Miller, ed., Masterworks of Asian Literature in Comparative Perspective: A Guide for Teaching. Armonk, NY: Sharpe, 1994, 330-44.

Inwood, Heather. On the Scene of Contemporary Chinese Poetry. Ph. D. dissertation. London: SOAS, 2008. [mainland poetry scene from 2000-2008]

—–. Verse Going Viral: China’s New Media Scenes. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 2014

[Abstract: examines what happens when poetry, a central pillar of traditional Chinese culture, encounters an era of digital media and unabashed consumerism in the early twenty-first century. Inwood sets out to unravel a paradox surrounding modern Chinese poetry: while poetry as a representation of high culture is widely assumed to be marginalized to the point of death, poetry activity flourishes across the country, benefiting from China’s continued self-identity as a “nation of poetry” (shiguo) and from the interactive opportunities created by the internet and other forms of participatory media. Through a cultural studies approach that treats poetry as a social rather than a purely textual form, Inwood considers how meaning is created and contested both within China’s media-savvy poetry scenes and by members of the public, who treat poetry with a combination of reverence and ridicule.]

—–. “Internet Literature: From YY to MOOC.” In Kirk A. Denton, ed., Columbia Companion to Modern Chinese Literature. NY: Columbia University Press, 2016, 436-40.

Iovene, Paula. “Why Is There a Poem in this Story? Li Shangyin’s Poetry, Contemporary Chinese Literature, and the Futures of the Past.” Modern Chinese Literature and Culture 19, 2 (Fall 2007): 71-116.

—–. Tales of Future Past: Anticipation and the Ends of Literature in Contemporary China. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2014. [MCLC Resource Center review by Nathaniel Kenneth Isaacson]

[Abstract: Most studies of Chinese literature conflate the category of the future with notions of progress and nation building, and with the utopian visions broadcast by the Maoist and post-Mao developmental state. The future is thus understood as a preconceived endpoint that is propagated, at times even imposed, by a center of power. By contrast, Tales of Futures Past introduces “anticipation”—the expectations that permeate life as it unfolds—as a lens through which to reexamine the textual, institutional, and experiential aspects of Chinese literary culture from the 1950s to 2011. In doing so, Paola Iovene connects the emergence of new literary genres with changing visions of the future in contemporary China. This book provides a nuanced and dynamic account of the relationship between state discourses, market pressures, and individual writers and texts. It stresses authors’ and editors’ efforts to redefine what constitutes literature under changing political and economic circumstances. Engaging with questions of translation, temporality, formation of genres, and stylistic change, Iovene mines Chinese science fiction and popular science, puts forward a new interpretation of familiar Chinese avant-garde fiction, and offers close readings of texts that have not yet received any attention in English-language scholarship. Far-ranging in its chronological scope and impressive in its interdisciplinary approach, this book rethinks the legacies of socialism in postsocialist Chinese literary modernity.]

Jiang, Hong, ed. “The Cultural Configuration of Literature and Film in the 1990s China: A New Perspective,” a special issue of The China Review 3, 1 (Spring 2003).

Jiang, Hong. “The Personalization of Literature: Chinese Women’s Writing in the 1990s.” The China Review 3, 1 (Spring 2002).

Jones, Andrew F. “Avante-Garde Fiction in China.” In Joshua Mostow, ed, and Kirk A. Denton, China section, ed., Columbia Companion to Modern East Asian Literatures. NY: Columbia UP, 2003, 554-60. Rpt. as “Avant-Garde Fiction in Post-Mao China.” In Denton, ed, Columbia Companion to Modern Chinese Literature. NY: Columbia University Press, 2016, 313-19.

Kinkley, Jeffrey C. Chinese Justice, the Fiction: Law and Literature in Modern China. Stanford: Stanford UP, 2000.

—–. “Modernity and Apocalypse in Chinese Novels from the End of the Twentieth Century.” In Charles Laughlin, ed., Contested Modernities in Chinese Literature. NY: Palgrave Macmillan, 2005, 101-20. [deals with Wang Lixiong’s Yellow Peril, Lu Tianming’s Heaven Above, Zhang Ping’s Choice, and Mo Yan’s Liquorland]

—–. Corruption and Realism in Late Socialist China. Palo Alto: Stanford UP, 2007. [Publisher’s blurb]

—–. Visions of Dystopia in China’s New Historical Novels. NY: Columbia University Press, 2014. [MCLC Resource Center review by Michael S. Duke]

[Abstract: The depiction of personal and collective suffering in modern Chinese novels differs significantly from standard Communist accounts and most Eastern and Western historical narratives. Writers such as Yu Hua, Su Tong, Wang Anyi, Mo Yan, Han Shaogong, Ge Fei, Li Rui, and Zhang Wei scramble common conceptions of China’s modern development, deploying avant-garde narrative techniques from Latin American and Euro-American modernism to project a surprisingly “un-Chinese” dystopian vision and critical view of human culture and ethics. The epic narratives of modern Chinese fiction make rich use of magical realism, surrealism, and unusual treatments of historical time. Also featuring graphic depictions of sex and violence and dark, raunchy comedy, these novels deeply reflect China’s turbulent recent history, re-presenting the overthrow of the monarchy in the early twentieth century and the resulting chaos of revolution and war; the recurring miseries perpetrated by class warfare during the dictatorship of Mao Zedong; and the social dislocations caused by China’s industrialization and rise as a global power. This book casts China’s highbrow historical novels from the 1990s to the mid-2000s as a distinctively Chinese contribution to the form of the global dystopian novel and, consequently, to global thinking about the interrelations of utopia and dystopia.]

Knight, Sabina. “Self-Ownership and Capitalist Values in 1990s Chinese Fiction.” In The Heart of Time: Moral Agency in Twentieth-Century Chinese Fiction. Cambridge: Harvard University Asia Center, 2006, 222-58. [deals with Yu Hua’s Xu Sanguan the Bloodseller and Weihui’s Shanghai Baby]

Kong, Shuyu. “Between a Rock and a Hard Place: Chinese Literary Journals in the Cultural Marketplace.” Modern Chinese Literature and Culture 14, 1 (Spring 2002): 93-144.

—–. Consuming Literature: Best Sellers and the Commercialization of Literary Production in Contemporary China. Stanford: Stanford UP, 2005.

Kramer, Oliver. “No Past to Long For?: A Sociology of Chinese Writers in Exile.” In Michel Hockx, ed., The Literary Field of Twentieth Century China. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1999, 161-77.

—–. “Nostalgia in Contemporary Chinese Exile Literature.” Paper presented at EASC in Prague 1994.

Kraus, Richard. “Public Monuments and Private Pleasures in the Parks of Nanjing: A Tango in the Ruins of the Ming Emperor’s Palace.” In Deborah Davis, ed., China’s Consumer Revolution. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1999.

—–. “China in 2003: From SARS to Spaceships.” Asian Survey 44 (Jan./Feb. 2004): 147-157.

—–. The Party and the Arty in China. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield, 2005. [MCLC Resource Center review by Matthew D. Johnson]

[Abstract: In this original exploration of the dynamic and potent interface between Chinese culture and politics, Richard Kraus examines the impact of the market on the once-comprehensive system of state patronage of the arts in the PRC. The author uses all genres of art to explore the changing nature of politics, seen through such phenomena as ideology, propaganda, censorship, and the relationship of artists to the state. Kraus makes three provocative arguments: First, the commercialization of China’s cultural life has been intellectually liberating, but also poses serious economic challenges that artists are sometimes slow to master. Second, despite conventional wisdom in the West that China’s economic reforms have not been followed by serious political reform, he shows that the shift from state patronage to a mixed system of private and public sponsorship is in fact a fundamental political change. Third, Western recognition of the reformation in China’s cultural life has been obscured by a combination of ignorance, ideological barriers, and foreign policy rivalry. Cogent, witty, and deeply informed, this comprehensive overview of the Chinese arts scene will be an essential text for all observers of contemporary China.]

Issues in Contemporary Chinese Literature: Informal Roundtable Discussion by Three Authors: Wang Meng, Liu Sola, Zha Jianying.” Tr. Marshal McArthur. Baker Institute, Rice University (March 10, 1998).

Larson, Wendy. “Never This Wild: Sexing the Cultural Revolution.” Modern China 25, 4 (1999): 423-50.

Laughlin, Charles. “Literature and Popular Culture.” In Robert E. Gamer, ed., Understanding Contemporary China. Boulder: Lynne Rienner, 1999.

Laurence, Patricia. “Beyond the Little Red Book: Literature in China Today.” The Nation (Sept. 4-11, 2000): 31-37.

Lei, Guang. “Rural Taste, Urban Fashions: The Cultural Politics of Rural/Urban Difference in Contemporary China.” positions 11, 3 (Winter 2003): 613-46.

Li Fukan and Eva Hung. “Post-Misty Poetry.” Renditions 37 (1992): 93-98.

Li, Jie and Enhua Zhang, ed. Red Legacies in China: Cultural Afterlives of the Communist Revolution. Cambridge: Harvard University Asia Center, 2016. [MCLC Resource Center review by Xing Fan]

Li, Xia. “Metropolis in Twilight: Urban Consciousness in Contemporary Chinese Literature.” Interlitteraria 6 (2001): 19-45.

Li, Xia. “Bulldozing Pudian Street: Destruction or Renewal? Ambiguities in Big City Novels in Late 20th Century Chinese Literature.” Portal: Journal of Multidisciplinary International Studies 4, 1 (Jan. 2007): 1-12. [In Chinese]

[Abstract: There is little doubt that the most cogent literary representation of the experience of modernity has been realised in big city fiction and cinematographic masterpieces such as Fritz Lang’s Metropolis(1926). Despite the formal and aesthetic incompatability of early twentieth century (predominantly Western) works of this literary genre and more recent ones, East and West, the underlying dialectic tension between progressive optimism and disorientation, existential up-rootedness, alienation and angst (Rilke’s loss of soul) as archetypal manifestation of mega-city reality and its social structure and organisation, constitutes a generic hallmark, regardless of time and place. Significantly, the relevance of this problem is reinforced, theoretically and practically, by the eminent scholar and architect Rem Koolhaas whose reflections have China as a principal reference point of the global “out-of-control process of modernisation”. This paper focuses on the literary representation of the complexity and universality of the problem and the social implications of the blurred and ambiguous vision of urban reality with particular reference to contemporary Chinese literature.]

Li, Xiaojiang. “Resisting While Holding the Tradition: Claims for Rights Raised in Literature by Chinese Women Writers in the New Period.” Tamkang Review 30, 2 (Winter, 1999): 99-110. Rpt. in Peng-hisang Chen and Whitney Crothers Dilley, eds., Feminism/Femininity in Chinese Literature. Amsterdam,: Rodopi, 2002, 109-116.

Lin, Min and Maria Galikowski. The Search for Modernity: Chinese Intellectuals and Cultural Discourse in the Post-Mao Era. NY: St. Martin’s Press, 1999.

Lin, Qingxin. Brushing History Against the Grain: Reading the Chinese New Historical Fiction, 1986-1999. HK: HK University Press, 2005. [includes discussion of Mo Yan, Su Tong, Wang Anyi, Chen Zhongshi, etc.]

Linder, Birgit Bunzel. “Metaphors unto Themselves: Mental Illness Poetics and Narratives in Contemporary Chinese Poetry.” In Howard Y. F. Choy, ed., Discourses of DiseaseWriting Illness, the Mind and Body in Modern China. Leiden: Brill, 2016, 90-120.

Liu, Kang. “Is There an Alternative to (Capitalist) Globalization?: The Debate About Modernity in China.” In Fredric Jameson and Masao Miyoshi, eds., The Cultures of Globalization. Durham, NC: Duke UP, 1998, 164-90.

—–. “What Is ‘Socialism with Chinese Characteristics’? Issues of Culture, Politics, and Ideology.” In Liu, Globalization and Cultural Trends in China. Honolulu: University of Hawai’I Press, 2004, 46-77.

—–. Globalization and Cultural Trends in China. Honlulu: University of Hawai’i Press, 2004.

—–. “Reinventing the “Red Classics” in the Age of Globalization.” Neohelicon 37, 2 (Spring 2010): 329-347.

[Abstract: The resurgence of revolutionary literature or Red Classics at the turn of the century is indicative of the cultural logic of the revolutionary hegemony during Mao and post-Mao China. Revolutionary hegemony served quite effectively to legitimate Mao Zedong’s, and much of Deng Xiaoping’s reign, but it has become increasingly difficult to sustain its viability and efficacy. From the beginning of the new century, both the state and consumer popular culture sectors have pushed for a Red Classic resurgence. While the ideological content and styles of the Red Classics are apparently incommensurable to China’s social reality today, their current popularity suggests a success in capturing or eliciting emotional responses from the audience primarily derived from their lived and felt experience during the Mao era. For the state, the Red Classics and the entire revolutionary legacy can now exist only as mummies of history, serving as a nationalist, “patriotic” narrative of the recent past. Meanwhile, the Red Classics is reinvented as nostalgia, a commodity in China’s cultural market. The paper examines the genealogy and current reinvention of the Red Classics, in order to shed some light on China’s post-revolutionary cultural politics.]

Liu, Lydia. “What’s Happened to Ideology? Transnationalism, Postsocialism, and the Study of Global Media Culture.” Duke Working Papers in Asian / Pacific Studies (Spring 1998).

Liu, Qingfeng. “The Topography of Intellectual Culture in 1990s Mainland China: A Survey.” Tr. Gloria Davies. In Gloria Davies, ed. Voicing Concerns: Contemporary Chinese Critical Inquiry. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefied, 2001, 47-70.

Liu, Toming Jun. “Uses and Abuses of Sentimental Nationalism: Mnemonic Disquiet in Heshang and Shuobu.” Modern Chinese Literature and Culture 13, 1 (Spring 2001): 169-209.

Lu, Jie. “Exploration of Language: The Foregrounding of Style in Contemporary Chinese Fiction.” American Journal of Chinese Studies 5, 1 (1998): 111-30.

—–. “Cultural Invention and Cultural Intervention: Reading Chinese Urban Fiction of the Nineties.” Modern Chinese Liteature and Culture 13, 1 (Spring 2001): 107-39.

Lu, Jie, ed. China’s Literary and Cultural Scenes at the Turn of the 21st Century. NY: Routledge, 2008.

[Contents: Introduction: China’s New Literary and Cultural Scenes at the Turn of the Twenty-first Century; (1) History in a Mythical Key: Temporality, Memory, and Tradition in Wang Anyi’s Fiction; (2) National Trauma, Global Allegory: Reconstruction of Collective Memory in Tian Zhuangzhuang’s The Blue Kite; (3) Globalizing Chinese Literature: Toward a Rewriting of Contemporary Chinese Literary Culture; (4) The Quest of Ma Lihua, a Han Intellectual in Tibet; Who Is Afraid of Lu Xun?—Politics of ‘Debates about Lu Xun’ (Lu Xun lun zheng) and the Question of His Legacy in Post-Revolution China; (5) Shanghai Cosmopolitan: Class, Gender and Cultural Citizenship in Weihui’s Shanghai Babe; (6) Marketing Chinese Women Writers in the 1990s, or the Politics of Self-Fashioninl (7) From Real Time to Virtual Reality: Chinese Cinema in the Internet Age; (8) Links with the Past—Mainland China’s Online Literary Communities and their Antecedents; (9) Spaces of Disappearance: Aesthetic Responses to Contemporary Beijing City Planning; (10) Spectacles of Remembrance: Nostalgia in Contemporary Chinese Art; (11) Rewriting Beijing: A Spectacular City in Qiu Huadong’s Urban Fiction]

Lu, Sheldon H. “Literature: Intellectuals in the Ruined Metropolis at the Fin-de-siecle.” In Lu, ed., China, Trannational Visuality, Global Postmodernity. Stanford: Stanford UP, 2002, 239-59.

—–. “Popular Culture and Body Politics: Beauty Writers in Contemporary China.” Modern Language Quarterly 69, 1 (2008): 167-85.

[Abstract: This essay is a study of a group of women writers who emerged on the Chinese literary scene in the late 1990s and the turn of the twenty-first century. They have been called beauty writers (meinü zuojia), referring to the authors themselves being beautiful women. Their writings are characterized by an unabashed, unprecedented foregrounding of female sexuality. While their novels were censored by the state now and then, they circulate on the Internet and contribute to the formation of China’s booming Internet literature. The initial core group of beauty writers has made a large impact on other aspiring female writers eager to explore and expose their sensuality and sexuality. The parading and pandering of female subjectivity via a body politics have become a major literary fad in contemporary mainland China.]

Ma, Shu Yun. “The Rise and Fall of Neo-Authoritarianism in China.” China Information 5, 3 (Winter 1990/91).

McDougall, Bonnie S. “Censorship and Self-Censorship in Contemporary Chinese Literature.” In Susan Whitfield, ed., After the Event: Human Rights and their Future in China. London: Wellsweep Press, 1993: 73-90.

—–. “Literary Decorum or Carnivalistic Grotesque: Literature in the People’s Republic of China after 50 Years.” The China Quarterly 159 (Sept. 1999): 723-33.

—–. “Discourse on Privacy by Women Writers in Late Twentieth Century China.” China Information 19, 1 (March 2005): 97-119.

McGrath, Jason. Postsocialist Modernity: Chinese Cinema, Literature, and Criticism in the Market Age. Stanford: Stanford UP, 2008.

[Abstract: This book examines Chinese culture under the age of marke reforms. Beginning in the early 1990s and on into the new century fields such as literature and film have been fundamentall transformed by the forces of the market as China is integrated eve more closely into the world economic system. As a result, the formerl unified revolutionary culture has been changed into a pluralized stat that reflects the diversity of individual experience in the reform era New autonomous forms of culture that have arisen include avant-garde as well as commercial literature, and independent film as wel as a new entertainment cinema. Chinese people find their experience of postsocialist modernity reflected in all kinds of new cultural form as well as critical debates that often question the direction of Chines society in the midst of comprehensive and rapid change]

Misra, Kalpana. From Post-Maoism to Post-Marxism: The Erosion of Official Ideology in Deng’s China. NY: Routledge, 1998.

Mok, Ka-ho. Intellectuals and the State in Post-Mao China. NY: St. Martin’s Press, 1998. [discusses Yan Jiaqi, Fang Lizhi, Liu Binyan, and Liu Xiaobo]

Neder, Christina. Lesen in der Volksrepublik China: eine empirisch-qualitative Studie zu Leseverhalten und Lektürepräferenzen der Pekinger Stadtbevölkerung vor dem Hintergrund der Transformation des chinesischen Buch- und Verlagswesens 1978-1995. Hamburg: Institut für Asienkunde, 1999. [empirical study of reading habits in the post-Mao period]

Pirazzoli, Melinda. “Free Market Economy and Chinese Literature.” World Literature Today 70 (1996).

Schaffer, Kay and Xianlin Song. Women Writers in Postsocialist China. London: Routledge, 2014.

[Abstract: What does it mean to read from elsewhere? Women Writers in Postsocialist China introduces readers to a range and variety of contemporary Chinese women’s writing, which has seen phenomenal growth in recent years. The book addresses the different ways women’s issues are understood in China and the West, attending to the processes of translation, adaptation, and the grafting of new ideas with existing Chinese understandings of gender, feminism, subjectivity, consumerism and (post) modernism. By focusing on women’s autobiographical, biographical, fictional and historical writing, the book engages in a transcultural flow of ideas between western and indigenous Chinese feminisms. Taking account of the accretions of social, cultural, geographic, literary, economic, and political movements and trends, cultural formations and ways of thinking, it asks how the texts and the concepts they negotiate might be understood in the social and cultural spaces within China and how they might be interpreted differently elsewhere in the global locations in which they circulate. The book argues that women-centred writing in China has a direct bearing on global feminist theory and practice. This critical study of selected genres and writers highlights the shifts in feminist perspectives within contemporary local and global cultural landscapes.]

Scheen, Lena. Shanghai Literary Imaginings: A City in Transformation. Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press, 2015. [MCLC Resource Center review by Andrew David Field]

Schwieger, Irmy. “From Representing Trauma to Traumatized Representation: Experiential and Reflective Modes of Narrating the Past.” Frontiers of Literary Studies in China 9, 3 (2015): 345-68.

[Abstract: In contrast to history, which strives for a neutral and objective stance from which to narrate the past, literature can be thought of as multi-functional when it comes to traumatic history: as healing, in that it restores meaning where it has been destroyed; as subversive, in that it tells counter-histories of the master-narrative; as complementary, in that it integrates suppressed voices and painful experiences into the collective memory; or as disturbing, in that it narrates trauma as a persisting condition that continues into the present. This article looks into literary representations of trauma that make use of different narrative modes to reconstruct the past and to deal with collective trauma in 20th-century China. In order to understand the relationship between historical trauma and collective memory and to demonstrate the way in which memory relates to the past and to what extent memory shapes the collective identity of the present, the paper utilizes the concepts of communicative and cultural memory, as formulated by Jan and Aleida Assmann.]

Shi, Anbin. A Comparative Approach to Redefining Chinese-ness in the Era of Globalization. Lewiston, NY: Mellen Press, 2003, 129-206.[a general introductory chapter, with chapters on Cui Jian, Wei Hui and Wang Xiaobo, and Zhaxi Dawa]

Shu, Yunzhong. “New Historical Fiction in China.” Chinese Culture 37 (1996): 87-110.

Sautman, Barry. “Sirens of the Strongman: New-Authoritarianism in Recent Chinese Political Theory.” China Quarterly 129 (March 1992): 72-102.

Song, Mingwei. “How the Steel Was Tempered: The Rebirth of Pawel Korchagin in Contemporary Chinese Media.” Frontiers of Literary Studies in China 6, 1 (2012): 95-111.

[Abstract: Russian writer Nicholas Ostrovski’s novel How the Steel Was Tempered (1934) provided generations of Chinese youth with a widely admired role model: a young devoted communist soldier, Pawel Korchagin, whose image occupied a prominent place in the orthodoxy revolutionary education and literary imagination during Mao’s era. Over the past decade, Pawel Korchagin has regained his popularity in Chinese media, his name and image have been appropriated by numerous artists and filmmakers to help in portrayals of the new generation’s self-fashioning. The various (unorthodox) interpretations recently attached to Pawel’s heroic story reveal a huge gap between Maoist ideology and the post-Mao ideas. This paper looks into the intricate relationships between Pawel Korchagin’s revolutionary past and his varied contemporary representations. By doing so, I hope to gain a better understanding of the cultural politics of appropriating Mao’s legacy to create new meanings for a changing Chinese society. One example on which this paper focuses is the sixth-generation director Lu Xuechang’s film Becoming a Man (1997), which rewrites the revolutionary Bildungsroman of Pawel in a startling different context.]

—–. “Popular Genre Fiction: Science Fiction and Fantasy.” In Kirk A. Denton, ed., Columbia Companion to Modern Chinese Literature. NY: Columbia University Press, 2016, 394-99.

Strafella, Giorgio. Intellectual Discourse in Reform Era China: The Debate on the Spirit of the Humanities in the 1990s. London: Routledge, 2017.

[Abstract: This book explores intellectual discourse in reform era China by analysing the so-called “debate on the spirit of the Humanities”, which occurred in the years 1993-95, and which is recognised by scholars as one of the most interesting, influential and important debates of the 1990s. This debate, in which Chinese intellectuals reflected on reform-era mass culture and on their role in society, was the first debate in China after the crackdown of 1989 and the launch of new economic reforms after Deng Xiaoping’s 1992 “southern tour”. The book, drawing on a large corpus of texts and a wide range of individual positions, demonstrates how Chinese intellectuals, having to face the combination of political repression and economic liberalisation, conceptualised and reacted to both. The book reveals the scale and complexity of the debate, the nature of intellectual life in China, the status and relevance of intellectual voices in society, the divisions within the intellectual sphere as well as shared concepts and ideals, and how the key factors of political repression and economic liberalisation which remain central in China today were defined and articulated.]

Tang, Yijie. “Some Reflections on New Confucianism in Mainland Chinese Culture of the 1990s.” Tr.Gloria Davies. In Gloria Davies, ed. Voicing Concerns: Contemporary Chinese Critical Inquiry. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefied, 2001, 123-34.

Tao, Dongfeng. “When a Red Classic Was Spoofed: A Cultural Analysis of a Media Incident.” In Tao Dongfeng, Yang Xiaobin, Rosemary Roberts, and Yang Ling, eds. Chinese Revolution and Chinese Literature. Cambridge: University of Cambridge Press, 2009, 247-70.

—–. “Thirty Years of New Era Literature: From Elitization to De-Elitization.” In Yingjin Zhang, ed. A Companion to Modern Chinese Literature. Chichester, UK: Wiley Blackwell, 2016, 98-115.

Tao, Naikan. “Going Beyond: Post-Menglong Poets.” The Journal of the Oriental Society of Australia 27/28 (1995/96): 146-53.

Twitchell, Jeffrey and Huang Fan. “Avant-Garde Poetry in China: The Nanjing Scene 1981-1992.” World Literature Today 71, 1 (1997): 29-35.

van Crevel, Maghiel. “The Horror of Being Ignored and the Pleasure of Being Left Alone: Notes on the Chinese Poetry Scene.” MCLC Resource Center Publication (April 2003).

—–. Chinese Poetry in Times of Mind, Mayhem and Money. Leiden: Brill, 2008. [MCLC Resource Center review by Christopher Lupke]

[Abstract: is a groundbreaking contribution to scholarship, well-suited to classroom use in that it combines rigorous analysis with a lively style. Covering the period from the 1980s to the present, it is organized around the notions of text, context and metatext, meaning poetry, its socio-political and cultural surroundings, and critical discourse in the broadest sense. Authors and issues studied include Han Dong, Haizi, Xi Chuan, Yu Jian, Sun Wenbo, Yang Lian, Wang Jiaxin, Bei Dao, Yin Lichuan, Shen Haobo and Yan Jun, and everything from the subtleties of poetic rhythm to exile-bashing in domestic media. This book has room for all that poetry is: cultural heritage, symbolic capital, intellectual endeavor, social commentary, emotional expression, music and the materiality of language – art, in a word.]

Visser, Robin. “Privacy and its Ill Effects in Post-Mao Urban Fiction.” In Bonnie S. McDougall and Anders Hansson, eds. Chinese Concepts of Privacy. Leiden: Brill, 2002,171-194. [deals with texts by Chen Ran and Liu Heng, with bits on Sun Ganlu, Qiu Huadong, and Zhu Wen]

—–. “Post-Mao Urban Fiction.” In Joshua Mostow, ed, and Kirk A. Denton, China section, ed., Columbia Companion to Modern East Asian Literatures. NY: Columbia UP, 2003, 570-77.

—–. “Urban Ethics: Modernity and the Morality of Everyday Life.” In Charles Laughlin, ed., Contested Modernity in Chinese Literature. NY: Palgrave Macmillan, 2005, 193-216. [deals with Qiu Huadong, Zhu Wen, and He Dun]

—–. Cities Surround the Countryside: Urban Aesthetics in Postsocialist China. Durham: Duke UP, 2010. [MCLC Resource Center Publications review by Paul Manfredi]

—– and Jie Lu. “Contemporary Urban Fiction: Rewriting the City.” In Kirk A. Denton, ed., Columbia Companion to Modern Chinese Literature. NY: Columbia University Press, 2016, 345-54.

Wang, Ban. “Memory as History: Making Sense of the Past in Contemporary China.” American Journal of Chinese Studies 5, 1 (1998): 49-67.

—–. “From Historical Narrative to the World of Prose: The Essayistic Mode in Contemporary Chinese Literature.” In Martin Woesler, ed., The Modern Chinese Literary Essay: Defining the Chinese Self in the 20th Century. Bochum: Bochum UP, 2000, 173-88.

—–. “In Search of Real-Life Images in China: Realism in the Age of Spectacle.” Journal of Contemporary China 17 (56) (2008): 497-512.

Wang, Ban and Jie Lu, eds. China and New Left Visions: Political and Cultural Interventions. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 2012. [MCLC Resource Center Review by Xiaobing Tang]

Wang, Chaohua, ed. One China, Many Paths. London: Verso, 2003. [MCLC Resource Center review by Ban Wang]

[contains articles by and interviews with Wang Hui, Zhu Xueqin, Chen Pingyuan, Qian Liqun, He Qinglian, Qin Hui, Wang Yi, Li Changping, Xiao Xuehui, Wang Anyi, Gan Yang, Wang Xiaoming, etc; a good introduction to cultural discourse of 1990s PRC]

Wang, David Der-Wei. “Return to Go: Fictional Innovation in the Late Qing and the Late Twentieth Century.” In Milena Dolezelova-Velingerova and Oldrich Kral, eds., The Appropriation of Cultural Capital: China’s May Fourth Project. Cambridge: Harvard University Asia Center, 2001, 257-97.

—–. “Red Legacy in Fiction.” Korea Journal of Chinese Language and Literature 1 (2011): 213-48.

Wang, Hui. “Contemporary Chinese Thought and the Question of Modernity.” Social Text 55 (Summer 1998): 9-44.

—–. “PRC Cultural Studies and Cultural Criticism in the 1990s.” Tr. Nicholas Kaldis. positions: east asian cultures critique 6, 1 (1998): 239-51.

—–. “Challenging the Eurocentric, Cold-war View of China and the Making of a Post-Tiananmen Intellectual Field.” Xudong Zhang, ed. East Asia (Spring/Summer 2002).

—–. China’s New Order: Society, Politics and Economy in Transition. Ed. Theodore Huters. Cambridge: Harvard UP, 2003.

—–. “The New Criticism.” In Chaohua Wang, ed., One China, Many Paths. London: Verso, 2003, 55-86.

—–. “The Year 1989 and the Historical Roots of Neoliberalism in China.” positions: east asia cultures critique 12, 1 (Spring 2004): 1-69.

Wang, Lingzhen. “Reproducing the Self: Consumption, Imaginary, and Identity in Chinese Women’s Autobiographical Practice in the 1990s.” In Charles Laughlin, ed., Contested Modernity in Chinese Literature. NY: Palgrave Macmillan, 2005, 173-92. [deals primarily with Chen Ran’s Private Life and Lin Bai’s Self at War]

Wang Shaoguang, Deborah Davis, and Yanjie Bian. “The Uneven Distribution of Cultural Capital: Book Reading in Urban China.” Modern China 32, 3 (2006): 315-348.

[Abstract: Drawing on interviews with 400 couples in four cities in 1998, this exploratory study focuses on variation in reading habits to integrate the concept of cultural capital into the theoretical and empirical analysis of inequality and social stratification in contemporary urban China. Overall, we find that volume and composition of cultural capital varies across social classes independent of education. Thus, to the extent that cultural capital in the form of diversified knowledge and appreciation for certain genres or specific authors is unevenly distributed across social classes, we hypothesize that the possession of cultural capital may be a valuable resource in defining and crystallizing class boundaries in this hybrid, fast-changing society.]

Wang, Xiaoming. “China on the Brink of a ‘Momemtous Era.” positions east asia cultures critique 11, 3 (Winter 2003): 585-611.

Wedell-Wedellsborg, Anne. “Chinese Literature and Film in the 1990s.” In Robert Benewick and Paul Wingrove, eds., China in the 1990s. Basingstoke: Macmillan Press, 1995, 224-33.

—–. “Haunted Fiction: Modern Chinese Literature and the Supernatural.” International Fiction Review 32, 1-2 (2005): 21-31.

Williams, Philip F. “The Rage for Postism and a Chinese Scholar’s Dissent.” Academic Questions 12, 1 (Winter 1998-99): 43-53. [discusses Liu Zaifu and various debates over modern Chinese literary theory].

—–. “Migrant Laborer Subcultures in Recent Chinese Literature: a Communicative Perspective.” Intercultural Communication Studies 8, 2 (1998-99): 153-161. [discusses the literary portrayal of contemporary rural mangliu 盲流, esp. in Zhang Mingyuan’s 1989 play, Duo yu de xiatian 多雨的夏天].

Wong, Lisa Lai-ming. “Examples of Contemporary Chinese Women’s Poetry.” Modern China 32, 3 (2006): 385-408.

[Contemporary critics who study women’s literature often focus on the very act of speaking, or the possession of a voice. The speaker in a poem seems to lend the women of her time a voice to express their feelings and in so doing offers a female perspective on social and cultural aspects of life. Adopting ideas from Virginia Woolf’s A Room of One’s Own as well as Hélène Cixous’s notion of “writing the body, ” this article explores how women poets find a private space in their own rooms for examining “liberated” selves. A new conception of body and space is presented in these lyric voices. In contrast, in the voices of many critics, we hear a glaring double standard that exposes the persistence of patriarchal inhibition of women’s freedom of expression. This dialogic tension between the voices reveals women’s predicaments and their strong protests against the status quo in contemporary China.]

Wu, Guo. “The Social Construction and Deconstruction of Evil Landlords in Contemporary Chinese Fiction, Art, and Collective Memory.” Modern Chinese Literature and Culture 25, 1 (Spring 2013): 131-64.

—–. “Imagined Future in Chinese Novels at the Turn of the 21st century: A Study of Yellow Peril, The End of Red Chinese Dynasty and A Flourishing Age: China, 2013.” ASIANetwork Exchange 20, 1 (2012): 47-56.

Xiao, Hui Faye. Family Revolution: Marital Strife in Contemporary Chinese Literature and Visual Culture. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 2014.

[Abstract: As state control of private life in China has loosened since 1980, citizens have experienced an unprecedented family revolution–an overhaul of family structure, marital practices, and gender relationships. While the nuclear family has become a privileged realm of romance and individualism symbolizing the post-revolutionary “freedoms” of economic and affective autonomy, women’s roles in particular have been transformed, with the ideal “iron girl” of socialism replaced by the feminine, family-oriented “?good wife and wise mother.” Problems and contradictions in this new domestic culture have been exposed by China’s soaring divorce rate. Reading popular “divorce narratives” in fiction, film, and TV drama, Hui Faye Xiao shows that the representation of marital discord has become a cultural battleground for competing ideologies within post-revolutionary China. While these narratives present women’s cultivation of wifely and maternal qualities as the cure for family disintegration and social unrest, Xiao shows that they in fact reflect a problematic resurgence of traditional gender roles and a powerful mode of control over supposedly autonomous private life.]

Xu, Ben. “‘From Modernity to Chineseness’: The Rise of Nativist Cultural Theory in Post-1989 China.” positions east asia cultures critique 6, 1 (1998): 203-37.

—–. Disenchanted Democracy: Chinese Cultural Criticism after 1989. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1999.

—–. “Contesting Memory for Intellectual Self-Positioning: The 1990s’ New Cultural Conservativism in China.” Modern Chinese Literature and Culture 11, 1 (Spring 1999): 157-192.

Xu, Jilin. “The Fate of Enlightenment–Twenty Years in the Chinese Cultural Sphere, 1978-98.” East Asian History 20 (Dec. 2000): 169-86.

Yang, Guobin. “China’s Zhiqing Generation: Nostalgia, Identity, and Cultural Resistance in the 1990s.” Modern China 29, 3 (July 2003): 267-96.

Yang, Xiaobin. “Maoist Discourse, Trauma and Chinese Avant-Garde Literature.” American Imago 51, 2 (1994).

—–. Selections from Lishi yu xiuci (History and rhetoric). Contemporary Chinese Literature, 1999. [in Chinese, browser required]

—–. “Whence and Whither the Postmodern/Post-Mao-Deng Historical Subjectivity and Literary Subjectivity in Modern China.” In Xudong Zhang and Arif Dirlik, eds., Postmodernism and China. Durham: Duke UP, 2000, 379-98.

—–. The Chinese Postmodern: Trauma and Irony in Chinese Avant-garde Fiction. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2002. [MCLC Resource Center review by Wendy Larson]

—–. “Toward a Theory of Postmodern/Post-Mao–Deng Literature.” In Charles Laughlin, ed., Contested Modernities in Chinese Literature. NY: Palgrave Macmillan, 2005, 81-97.

Yang, Xin. From Beauty Fear To Beauty Fever: A Critical Study of Contemporary Chinese Female Writers. New York: Peter Lang, 2011.

[Abstract: looks at a «glamorous» literary and cultural moment in China at the turn of the twenty-first century, namely that of the high-profile female writers born in the 1970s. Dubbed as «beauty writers», they brought to light a series of literary, cultural, and social issues at an important moment of institutional and ideological transformation, when China was more actively participating in the global market economy. The discourse of beauty writers is closely related to the changing ideology from «beauty fear» to «beauty fever». Beauty fear resulted from the revolutionary ambition of denouncing the old institutionalized ideologies and embracing gender equality. Beauty fever was driven by commercialization in the mid- and late 1990s, when globalization became the new social reality and broke the boundaries of world/China, official/folk, and elite/mass. After years of revolutionary policies of gender erasure, beauty fever was the product of the intertwined narratives of resistance politics, feminism, capitalism, consumerism, and the postmodern ludic carnival.]

Zhang, Ning. “Garbage or Gold: Two Extreme Assessments of Contemporary Chinese Literature.” Tr. Denis Mair. Chinese Literature Today (Winter/Spring 2011): 28-30.

Zhang, Xudong. “Nationalism, Mass Culture, and Intellectual Strategies in Post-Tiananmen China.” Social Text 55 (Summer 1998): 109-40.

—–. “Challenging the Eurocentric, Cold War View of China and the Making of a Post-Tiananmen Intellectual Field.” East Asia 19, 1/2 (2001): 3-57. [available online through Ingenta Select]

—–. “Multiplicity or Homogeneity? The Cultural-Political Paradox of the Age of Globalization.” Cultural Critique 58 (Fall 2004): 30-55.

—–. Postsocialism and Cultural Politics: China in the Last Decade of the Twentieth Century. Durham, NC: Duke UP, 2008.

[Abstract: Xudong Zhang offers a critical analysis of China’s “long 1990s,” the tumultuous years between the 1989 Tiananmen Square crackdown and China’s entry into the World Trade Organization in 2001. The 1990s were marked by Deng Xiaoping’s market-oriented reforms, the Taiwan missile crisis, the Asian financial crisis, and the end of British colonial rule of Hong Kong. Considering developments including the state’s cultivation of a market economy, the aggressive neoliberalism that accompanied that effort, the rise of a middle class and a consumer culture, and China’s entry into the world economy, Zhang argues that Chinese socialism is not over. Rather it survives as postsocialism, which is articulated through the discourses of postmodernism and nationalism and through the co-existence of multiple modes of production and socio-cultural norms. Highlighting China’s uniqueness, as well as the implications of its recent experiences for the wider world, Zhang suggests that Chinese postsocialism illuminates previously obscure aspects of the global shift from modernity to postmodernity. Zhang examines the reactions of intellectuals, authors, and filmmakers to the cultural and political conflicts in China during the 1990s. He offers a nuanced assessment of the changing divisions and allegiances within the intellectual landscape, and he analyzes the postsocialist realism of the era through readings of Mo Yan’s fiction and the films of Zhang Yimou. With Postsocialism and Cultural Politics, Zhang applies the same keen insight to China’s long 1990s that he brought to bear on the 1980s in Chinese Modernism in the Era of Reforms.–from Duke UP website]

Zhang, Yu and Calvin Hui. “Postsocialism and Its Narratives: An Interview with Cai Xiang.” MCLC Resource Center Publication (June 2018).

Zhang, Zhen. “The World Map of Haunting Dreams: Reading Post-1989 Chinese Women’s Diaspora Writings.” In Mayfair Mei Hui Yang, ed. Spaces of Their Own: Women’s Public Sphere in Transnational China. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1999, 308-35. [deals with disporic writings of Liu Suola, Zha Jianying, Hong Ying, and You You]

—–. “Commercialization of Literature in the Post-Mao Era: Yu Hua, Beauty Writers, and Youth Writers.” In Kirk A. Denton, ed., Columbia Companion to Modern Chinese Literature. NY: Columbia University Press, 2016, 386-93.

Zhao, Bin. “Consumerism, Confucianism, Communism: Making Sense of China Today.” New Left Review (March-April 1997): 43-59.

Zhao, Henry Y.H. [Zhao Yiheng]. “Those Who Live in Exile Lose Belief But Create Literature.” In Breaking the Barriers: Chinese Literature Facing the World. Stockholm: The Olof Palme International Center, Sweden, 130-50.

—–. “The River Fans Out: Chinese Fiction Since the Late 1970s.” European Review 11, 2 (May 2003): 193-208.

Zheng, Yiran. Writing Beijing: Urban Spaces and Cultural Imaginations in Contemporary Chinese Literature and Films. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 2016.

Zhu, Xueqin. “For a Chinese Liberalism.” In Chaohua Wang, ed., One China, Many Paths. London: Verso, 2003, 87-107.

Zimmer, Thomas. Erwachen aus dem Koma? Eine literarische Bestimmung des heutigen Chinas (Awakening from the coma? A literary destiny of today’s China). Tectum, 2017.

[Abstract: The Frankfurt Book Fair of 2009 is a few years back. At that time, China was a guest country and has shown its best side. So why write a book about contemporary Chinese literature today? The answer to that is brief: Because in 2009 too little was said. China is a land of contradictions, and censorship, concealment, and beautification still play a big role. However, if you want to understand the country, you are well advised to understand its literature and the conditions under which it exists today: how strong is the official governance – is there censorship, and how does it work? What about the publishers – are they still in the grip of the party? And how does the interaction between authors Publishers and readers? With the help of well-known older and younger authors from the People’s Republic, the sinologist Thomas Zimmer attempts for the first time to discuss the scope of literature, art and culture in the field of tension of state control, market constraints and increasing international networking in present-day China.