Author Studies H – Q

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H

Haizi 海子

Kunze, Rui. Struggle and Symbiosis: The Canonization of the Poet Haizi and Cultural Discourses in Contemporary China. Bochum: Projekt Verlag, 2012. [MCLC Resource Center review by Lucas Klein]

[Abstract: The poet Haizi committed suicide in March of 1989, only months before many others died on June 4th of that same year. A relatively obscure poet at the time of his death, Haizi is now hailed as the epitome of the “hero of poetry” whose writings represent the idealistic 1980s. Does Haizi’s death coincide with the 1989 pro-democratic movement only in time or are there certain connections? Why are Haizi and his poetry interpreted as representative of the “idealism” of the 1980s? What does this interpretation suggest about culture and society in post-1989 China? This study examines the ongoing canonization of Haizi. It first traces the cultural practices involved with the canonization from 1989 to 2010. After contextualizing Haizi and his writings within discussions of “modernism” and “world literature,” this study investigates three literary aspects of his texts contributing heavily to his canonization: the literary theme of minjian to contest the official narratives of “history” and “nation”; the writing of epic to create a national canon; and the rhetorization of Christian symbols and motifs which shares ideological grounds with the “Mao style” in their prescription of a “sublime” poet-hero. Theoretically founded on E. Husserl’s phenomenological notion of “sedimentation,” this study observes the continuity and changes in Chinese culture from the Maoist era to the 1980s and the post-1989 decades, in particular the increasingly subtle struggle and symbiosis between literature and politics, between the intellectual and the state in China.]

Li, Si. “Reconstructing Mysticism as Epistemological Endeavor in Haizi’s Poems.” Frontiers of Literary Studies in China 9, 3 (2015): 395-416.

[Abstract: Most scholarship on Haizi’s mystical poetry has not highlighted his mysticism and has failed to identify its general epistemological significance in the life and writing of poets. While mysticism after Misty poetry has been confined to the mystification of nature, the secrecy of destiny, or the elusiveness of truth—a spiritual heritage that struggles to maintain one’s national pride—Haizi’s dramatic verses feature monotheistic mysticism and center on the paradoxical and ineffable experiences of divinity. With this epistemological breakthrough, he attempted to unify Chinese culture with Christian tradition, to write “real poetry,” and to replace condescendingly objective and external descriptions of human experience and truth with an empathetic and active participation that blurs the line between subjectivity and objectivity, living and writing. His Sun: Seven Books demonstrates a gradual but steady transition from Greek pantheism to the Judeo-Christian tradition, such as in his Book of Regicide. As a modern rendition of Oedipus the King, the Book of Regicide takes on Greek “elements,” but transcends its maternal inheritance and rejuvenates it in modern dramatic verses, enriched with poetic means of expression, and offered as an alternative approach for Chinese intellectuals to engage in spirituality and self-realization.]

van Crevel, Maghiel. “Thanatography and the Poetic Voice: Ways of Reading Haizi.” minima sinica 18, 1 (2006): 90-146. Revised as “Thanatography and the Poetic Voice: Haizi.” In van Crevel, Chinese Poetry in Times of Mind, Mayhem and Money. Leiden: Brill, 2008, 91-136.

Han Bangqing 韩邦庆

Cheng, Stephen. Flowers of Shanghai and the Late Qing Courtesan Novel. Ph. D. diss. Cambridge: Harvard University, 1979.

Des Forges, Alexander. Street Talk and Alley Stories: Tangled Narratives of Shanghai from Lives of Shanghai Flowers (1892) to Midnight (1933). Ph.D. diss. Princeton: Princeton University, 1998.

—–. Mediasphere Shanghai: The Aesthetics of Cultural Production. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 2007. [see chapters 1 and 7]

Fan, Boqun. “The Sing-Song Girls of Shanghai: The Pioneering World of Modern Popular Fiction.” Frontiers of Literary Studies in China 2, 3 (Sept. 2008): 572-90.

Liang, Samuel Y. “Ephemeral Households, Marvelous Things: Business, Gender, and Material Culture in Flowers of Shanghai.Modern China 33 (2007): 377-418.

Starr, Chloë F. Red-light Novels of the Late Qing. Leiden: Brill, 2007.

[Abstract: Chinese literature has traditionally been divided by both theorists and university course providers into ‘classical’ and ‘modern.’ This has left nineteenth-century fiction in limbo, and allowed negative assessments of its quality to persist unchecked. The popularity of Qing dynasty red-light fiction – works whose primary focus is the relationship between clients and courtesans, set in tea-houses, pleasure gardens, and later, brothels – has endured throughout the twentieth century. This volume explores why, arguing that these novels are far from the ‘low’ work of ‘frustrated scholars’ but in their provocative play on the nature of relations between client, courtesan and text, provide an insight into wider changes in understandings of self and literary value in the nineteenth century.]

Wang, David Der-wei. Fin de Siecle Splendor: Repressed Modernities of Late Qing Fiction, 1849-1911. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1997, 89-101.

—–. “Foreword.” In Han Bangqing, The Sing-song Girls of Shanghai. Tr. Eileen Chang, revised and edited by Eva Hung. NY: Columbia University Press, 2005, ix-xv.

Wang, Xiaojue. “Han’s (韓邦慶) Novel 海上花列傳 (The Sing-Song Girls of Shanghai) and Urbanity in Late Qing Shanghai.” CLCWeb: Comparative Literature and Culture 17, 1 (2015).

Han Dong 韩东

van Crevel, Maghiel. “Desecrations? The Poetics of Han Dong and Yu Jian (part One).” Studies on Asia Series III, 2, 1 (2005): 28-48. Revised as “Desecrations? Han Dong’s and Yu Jian’s Explicit Poetics.” In van Crevel, Chinese Poetry in Times of Mind, Mayhem and Money. Leiden: Brill, 2008, 365-397.

—-. “Desecrations? The Poetics of Han Dong and Yu Jian (part Two).” Studies on Asia Series III, 2, 2 (2005): 81-97. Revised as “Desecrations? Han Dong’s and Yu Jian’s Explicit Poetics.” In van Crevel, Chinese Poetry in Times of Mind, Mayhem and Money. Leiden: Brill, 2008, 365-397.

—–. True Disbelief: The Poetry of Han Dong.” Tamkang Review 36, 4 (2006): 107-140. Revised as “True Disbelief: Han Dong.” In van Crevel, Chinese Poetry in Times of Mind, Mayhem and Money. Leiden: Brill, 2008, 63-89.

Han Han 韩寒

Chau, Angie. “A Public Intellectual in the Internet Age: Han Han’s Everyman Appeal.” Chinese Literature Today 5, 1 (2015): 73-81.

Coderre, Laurence. “Meaningful Mobility and the Ties That Bind: 1988 as a Postsocialist Road Story.” Modern Chinese Literature and Culture 26, 2 (Fall 2014): 1-37.

Elegant, Simon. 2010. “Han Han: China’s Literary Bad Boy.” Time International (May 10): 58.

Fumian, Marco. “The Temple and the Market: Controversial Positions in the Literary Field with Chinese Characteristics.” Modern Chinese Literature and Culture 21, 2 (Fall 2009): 126-66.

Guo, Shaohua. “The Appeal of Style: Han Han and Microcultural Contention in Digital China.” Modern Chinese Literature and Culture 28, 2  (Fall 2016): 90-138.

Han Renjun 韩仁均. Erzi Han Han 儿子韩寒 (My son Han Han). Shanghai: Shanghai renmin, 2008.

Henningsen, Lena. Copyright Matters: Imitation, Creativity and Authenticity in Contemporary Chinese Literature. Berlin: BWV, Berliner Wissenschafts-Verlag, 2010.

Kong, Shuyu. “Literary Celebrity in China: From Reformers to Rebels.” In Louise Edwards and Elaine Jeffreys, eds., Celebrity in China. Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press, 2010, 125–143.

Martinsen, Joel. “Han Han the Novelist Versus Fang Zhouzi the Fraud-Buster.” Danwei (Feb. 1, 2012).

Osnos, Evan. “The Han Dynasty: How Far Can a Youth-Culture Idol Tweak China’s Establishment.” The New Yorker (July 4, 2011): 50-59.

Xu Ben 徐贲. “Meiguoren kanbudong Han Han” 美国人看不懂韩寒 (Americans don’t understand Han Han). Nanfang dushibao (April 15, 2010).

Yang, Lijun. “Han Han and the Public.” In Perry Link, Richard P. Madsen, and Paul G. Pickowicz, eds., Restless China. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefiled, 2013, 109-128.

Han Shaogong 韩少功

Cai, Rong. “The Subject in Crisis: Han Shaogong’s Cripple(s).”The Journal of Contemporary China 5 (Spring1994): 64-77.

Cheung, Martha. “Introduction.” In Han, Shaogong. Homecoming? and Other Stories. HK: Renditions, 1992, ix-xxi.

Choy, Howard Y. F. “Idiocy and Idiolect: Han Shaogong’s Root Searches in Hunan.” In Choy, Remapping the Past: Fictions of History in Deng’s China, 1979-1997. Leiden: Brill, 2008, 25-43.

Feuerwerker, Yi-tsi Mei. “The Post-Modern ‘Search for Roots’ in Han Shaogong, Mo Yan, and Wang Anyi.” In Feuerwerker, Ideology, Power, Text: Self-Representation and the Peasant “Other” in Modern Chinese Literature. Stanford: SUP, 1998, 188-238.

Huang, Yiju. “Aesthetics of Heterogeneity: Roots in Han Shaogong’s Theoretical and Literary Writings.” In Huang, Tapestry of Light: Aesthetic Afterlives of the Cultural Revolution. Leiden: Brill, 2014, 45-74.

Iovene, Paola. “Authenticity, Postmodernity, and Translation: The Debates around Han Shaogong’s Dictionary of Maqiao.” Annali dell’Università degli Studi di Napoli L’Orientale 62 (2002): 197-218.

Kong, Ying. “A Dictionary of Maqiao: Metafiction of Collective Biography.” Frontiers of Literary Study in China 5, 4 (2011): 633-49.

Lau, Joseph S. M. “Visitation of the Past in Han Shaogong’s Post-1985 Fiction.” In Ellen Widmer and David Wang, eds., From May Fourth to June Fourth: Fiction and Film in Twentieth-Century China. Cambridge: Harvard UP, 1993, 295-326.

Lee, Vivian. “Cultural Lexicology: Maqiao Dictionary by Han Shaogong.” Modern Chinese Literature and Culture 14, 1 (Spring 2002): 145-177

Leenhouts, Mark. “Is it a Dictionary or a Novel?- On Playfulness in Han Shaogong’s Dictionary of Maqiao.” In Bonnie McDougall, Anders Hansson, eds, The Chinese at Play: Festivals, Games and Leisure. London: Kegan Paul, 2002.

—–. Leaving the World to Enter the World: Han Shaogong and Chinese Root-Seeking Literature. Leiden: CNWS Publications, 2005. [CNWS blurb]

—–. “Empty Talk: The Roots of Han Shaogong’s Writing.” World Literature Today (web exclusive) 85, 4 (July 2011).

Møller-Olsen, Astrid. “Fictional Dictionaries: Power and Philosophy of Language in Contemporary Chinese Fiction.” Modern Chinese Literature and Culture 29, 2  (Fall 2017): 66-108.

Stuckey, Andrew. “Return to the Primitive: De-Civilized Origins in Han Shaogong’s Fiction.” In Stuckey, Old Stories Retold: Narrative and Vanishing Pasts in Modern China. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 2010, 43-58.

Zhang, Jingyuan. “Han Shaogong.” In Thomas Moran and Ye (Dianna) Xu, eds., Chinese Fiction Writers, 1950-2000. Dictionary of Literature Biography, vol. 370. Detroit: Thomson Gale, 2013, 89-99.

Zhang, Yinde. “Han Shaogong, traducteur de Milan Kundera.” In Isabelle Rabut, ed., Les belles infideles dans l’empire du milieu: Problematique et pratiques de la traduction dans le monde Chinois moderne. Paris: You Feng, 2010, 111-23.

Zhou, Zuyan. “Dao and Reconstruction of Cultural Identity in Contemporary Chinese Literary and Mass Media Products.” Modern Chinese Literature and Culture 28, 2  (Fall 2016): 223-284.

Han Song 韓松

Song, Mingwei. “Variations on Utopia in Contemporary Chinese Science Fiction.” Science Fiction Studies 40 (2013): 86-102.

[Abstract: This essay focuses on the variations of utopian narrative in contemporary Chinese sf, with a view toward appreciating the genre’s historical development since the late Qing. Through analyzing the writings of three writers, Han Song, Wang Jinkang, and Liu Cixin, this essay examines three themes that characterize China’s current new wave of science fiction: China’s rise, the myth of development, and posthumanity. Deeply entangled with the politics of a changing China, science fiction today both strengthens and complicates the utopian vision of a new and powerful China: it mingles nationalism with utopianism/dystopianism, sharpens social criticism with an acute awareness of China’s potential for further reform, and wraps political consciousness in scientific discourse about the powers of technology and the technologies of power.

Hao Ran 浩然

Chao, Ching. “Introducing the Writer Hao Jan.” Chinese Literature 4 (1974): 95-101.

Egan, Michael. “A Notable Sermon: The Subtext of Hao Ran’s Fiction.” In Bonnie S. McDougal, ed., Popular Chinese Literature and Performing Arts in the People’s Republic of China. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1984, 224-43.

Elvin, Mark. “The Magic of Moral Power: Hao Ran, The Children of the Western Sands.” In Elvin, Changing Stories in the Chinese World. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1997, 149-77.

Hsu, Kai-yu. “Hao Ran.” In Hsu, ed. The Chinese Literary Scene: A Writers’ Visit to the People’s Republic. NY: Vintage Books, 1975, 86-99.

Huang, Joe C. “Hao Ran [Hao Jan]: The Peasant Novelist.” Modern China 2 (1976): 369-96.

Jenner, W.J.F. “Class Struggle in a Chinese Village-A Novelist’s View: Hao Ran’s Yan Yang Tian [Yen-yang t’ien].” Modern Asian Studies 1 (1967): 191-206.

King, Richard. “Revisionism and Transformation in the Cultural Revolution Novel.” Modern Chinese Literature 7, 1 (Spring 1993): 105-29.

Sun Dayou and Liang Chunshui, eds. Hao Ran yanjiu zhuanji (Anthology of research on Hao Ran). Beijing: Baihua wenyi, 1994.

Wong, Kam-ming. “A Study of Hao Ran’s Two Novels: Art and Politics in Bright Sunny Skies and The Road of Golden Light.” In Wolfgang Kubin and Rudolf Wagner, eds., Essays in Modern Chinese Literature and Literary Criticism. Bochum: Brokmeyer, 1982, 117-49.

Yang, Lan. “Cultural Restoration Versus Cultural Revolution: A Traditional Perspective on Hao Ran’s The Golden Road.” China Information 18, 3 (Nov. 2004): 463-88.

He An 何安

Sieber, Patricia. “He An.” In Sieber, ed. Red Is Not the Only Color: Contemporary Chinese Fiction on Love and Sex between Women, Collected Stories. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield, 2001, 186-88.

He Dun 何顿

Lu, Jie. “Cultural Invention and Cultural Intervention: Reading Chinese Urban Fiction of the Nineties.” Modern Chinese Literature and Culture 13, 1 (Spring 2001): 107-39.

Visser, Robin. “Urban Ethics: Modernity and the Morality of Everyday Life.” In Charles Laughlin, ed., Contested Modernities in Chinese Literature.New York: Palgrave, 2005. 193-216. [deals with fiction by Qiu Huadong, Zhu Wen, and Hu Dun [Ximalaya shan])

He Jiahong 何家弘

Sautede, Eric. “Lawyer Hong’s Father: A Writer’s Tale of China’s Past 30 Years.” Chinese Cross Currents 1, 2 (2004): 70-95.

He Lingyun 何凌云

Wagner, Rudolf. The Contemporary Chinese Historical Drama. Berkeley: UCP, 1990, 312-14. [deals with “Hua da chao” (Women beat up the emperor)]

He Qifang 何其芳

Galik, Marian. “Early Poems and Essays of Ho Ch’i-fang.” Asian and African Studies (Bratislava) 15 (1979): 31-63.

—–. “Ho Ch’i-fang’s Paths in Dreams: the Interliterary Relations with English, French Symbolism and Greek Mythology.” In Galik, ed., Milestones in Sino-Western Literary Confrontation (1898-1979). Weisbaden: Otto Harrassowitz, 1986, 153-76.

McDougall, Bonnie S. “European Influences in the Poetry of Ho Ch’i-fang.” Journal of the Oriental Society of Australia 5, 1/2 (1967): 133-51.

—–. “The Poetry of Ho Ch’i Fang.” M.A. (Hons) thesis, University of Sydney, 1967.

—–. “Memories and Metamorphoses of a Thirties’ Intellectual: A Study of He Qifang’s ‘Old Men’ (Lao ren).” Chinese Literature: Essays, Articles, Reviews 3, 1 (Jan. 1981): 93-107.

Wang, David Der-wei. “Of Dream and Snake: He Qifang, Feng Zhi, and Born-Again Lyricism.” In Wang, The Lyrical in Epic Time: Modern Chinese Intellectuals and Artists through the 1949 Crisis. NY: Columbia University Press, 2015, 113-54.

He Zhen (He-Yin Zhen) 何震

Liu, Huiying. “Feminism: An Organic or an Extremist Position? On Tien Yee As Represented by He Zhen.” positions 11, 3 (Winter 2003): 179-800.

Liu, Lydia, Rebecca E. Karl, and Dorothy Ko, eds. The Birth of Chinese Feminism: Essential Texts in Transnational Theory. NY: Columbia University Press, 2013. [MCLC Resource Center review by Shaoling Ma]

[Abstract: He-Yin Zhen (ca. 1884-1920?) was a theorist who figured centrally in the birth of Chinese feminism. Unlike her contemporaries, she was concerned less with China’s fate as a nation and more with the relationship among patriarchy, imperialism, capitalism, and gender subjugation as global historical problems. This volume, the first translation and study of He-Yin’s work in English, critically reconstructs early twentieth-century Chinese feminist thought in a transnational context by juxtaposing He-Yin Zhen’s writing against works by two better-known male interlocutors of her time. The editors begin with a detailed analysis of He-Yin Zhen’s life and thought. They then present annotated translations of six of her major essays, as well as two foundational tracts by her male contemporaries, Jin Tianhe (1874-1947) and Liang Qichao (1873?1929), to which He-Yin’s work responds and with which it engages. Jin, a poet and educator, and Liang, a philosopher and journalist, understood feminism as a paternalistic cause that liberals like themselves should defend. He-Yin presents an alternative conception that draws upon anarchism and other radical trends. Ahead of her time, He-Yin Zhen complicates conventional accounts of feminism and China’s history, offering original perspectives on sex, gender, labor, and power that remain relevant today.]

Zarrow, Peter. “He Zhen and Anarcho-Feminism in China.” The Journal of Asian Studies 47, 4 (Nov. 1988): 796-813.

Hei Ying 黑嬰

Zhang, Yinjing. “The Texture of the Metropolis: Modernist Inscriptions of Shanghai in the 1930s.” Modern Chinese Literature 9, 1 (Spring 1995): 11-30.

Hong Ling (Lucifer Hung) 洪凌

Parry, Amie and Liu Jen-peng. “The Politics of Schadenfreude: Violence and Queer Cultural Critique in Lucifer Hung’s Science Fiction.” positions: east asia cultures critique 18, 2 (Fall 2010): 351-72.

Hong Shen 洪深

Ammirati. “Hong Shen and the ‘Natural Death’ of Female Impersonation: Rethinking the History of Gender-appropriate Performance.” Modern Chinese Literature and Culture 27, 2 (Fall 2015): 172-207.

Bao, Weihong. “The Art of Control: Hong Shen, Behavioral Psychology, and the Technics of Social Effects.” Modern Chinese Literature and Culture 27, 2 (Fall 2015): 249-97.

Chen, Xiaomei. “Mapping a ‘New’ Dramatic Canon: Rewriting the Legacy of Hong Shen.” In Peng Hsiao-yen and Isabelle Rabut, eds., Modern China and the West. Leiden: Brill, 2014, 224-45.

Denton, Kirk A., ed. Hong Shen and The Wedded Husband. Columbus: Foreign Language Publications, 2014. [includes the original English script of The Wedded Husband and a Chinese translation by Man He]

Dong Limin 董麗敏. Hong Shen: jiliu zhong de nahan 洪深:激流中的吶喊 (Hong Shen: call to arms amidst raging waves). Shanghai: Shanghai jiaoyu, 1999.

Galik, Marian. “Hung Shen’s Chao–The King of Hell: the Interliterary Relations with O’Neil and Baker.” In Galik, ed., Milestones in Sino-Western Literary Confrontation (1898-1979). Weisbaden: Otto Harrassowitz, 1986, 123-34.

Hong, Qian. “‘Ninety-Four Years and Seven Months.” Tr. Yichun Xu. In Denton, ed., Hong Shen and The Wedded Husband. Columbus: Foreign Language Publications, 2014, 1-2.

Hong Qian 洪鈐, ed. Zhongguo huaju dianying xianqu Hong Shen: lishi biannian ji 中國話劇電影先驅洪深:歷世編年紀 (Hong Shen—a pioneer of Chinese spoken drama and film: a chronological record). Taibei: Xiuwei zixun keji, 2011.

Hong Shen and the Hong Shen Collection.” The Ohio State University Libraries. (April. 8, 2016).

Hong Shen Project. The Ohio State University, Fall 2013.

Huang, Xuelei. “Hong Shen and the Popular Press, 1924-1949.” Modern Chinese Literature and Culture 27, 2 (Fall 2015): 9-50.

Liu, Steven Siyuan. “Notes on Directing The Wedded Husband.” In Denton, ed., Hong Shen and The Wedded Husband. Columbus: Foreign Language Publications, 2014, 12-19.

—–. “Hong Shen and Adaptation of Western Plays in Modern Chinese Theater.” Modern Chinese Literature and Culture 27, 2 (Fall 2015): 106-71.

—–. “Hong Shen and the Modern Mediasphere in Republican-Era China: An Introduction.” Modern Chinese Literature and Culture 27, 2 (Fall 2015): 1-8.

Liu, Siyuan and Xiaomei Chen, guest editors. Special issue on Hong Sheng and the Modern Mediasphere in Republican-Era China.” Modern Chinese Literature and Culture 27, 2 (Fall 2015).

Luo, Liang. “Reading Hong Shen Intermedially.” Modern Chinese Literature and Culture 27, 2 (Fall 2015): 208-48.

Man, He. “Hong Shen: A Life in Theatre and Film.” In Denton, ed. Hong Shen and The Wedded Husband. Columbus: Foreign Language Publications, 2014, 3-11.

—–. “When S/He Is Not Nora: Hong Shen, Cosmopolitan Intellectuals, and Chinese Tehaters in 1910s China and America.” Modern Chinese Literature and Culture 27, 2 (Fall 2015): 51-105.

Meserve, J. and Ruth I. Meserve. “Hung Shen: Chinese Dramatist Trained in America.” Theatre Journal 31, 1 (Mar. 1979): 25-34.

Wu, Chih. “The Collected Works of Hung Shen.” Chinese Literature 9 (1963): 110-114.

Hong Ying 虹影

Gunnars, Kristjana. “Trans-East Asian Literature: Language and Displacement in Hong Ying, Hikaru Okuizumi, and Yi Mun-yol.” In Maria N. Ng and Philip Holden, eds., Reading Chinese Transnationalisms Society, Literature, Film. HK: Hong Kong UP, 2006.

Huang, Yiju. “Familial Secrets: Mao’s Famine in Hong Ying’s Daughter of the River.” In Huang, Tapestry of Light: Aesthetic Afterlives of the Cultural Revolution. Leiden: Brill, 2014, 17-44.

Laurence, Patricia.”Bloomsburied in China: Hong Ying’s ‘K.'” The Nation (April 4, 2003): 29-32.

The Life in London in Writer Hong Ying’s Eyes.” Women of China.com (March 22, 2005).

Sieber, Patricia. “Hong Ying.” In Sieber, ed. Red Is Not the Only Color: Contemporary Chinese Fiction on Love and Sex between Women, Collected Stories. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield, 2001, 188-89.

Xu, Jian. “Subjectivity and Class Consciousness in Hong Ying’s Autobiographical Novel The Hungry Daughter.” Journal of Contemporary China 56 (Aug. 2008): 529-42.

[Abstract: This essay studies Hong Ying’s Hungry Daughter primarily as a novel, treating its autobiographical structure and enunciation as novelistic techniques aimed at developing a doubled subjectivity that straddles past and present to give the memory of social suffering a class consciousness. Choosing not to treat the work as purely a memoir, I highlight the fictional form of narration in the work’s character portrayal and temporal configuration. I undertake to show how the personal and the private in Hong Ying’s novel invariably lead outward to the collective experience. By focusing on the novel’s distinctive qualities in developing a class-conscious subjectivity that mediates between the lived experience of suffering and the writer’s imagination, I seek to set the work apart from the trendy memoir writing that produces cross-cultural commodities.]

Hu Feng 胡风

Biasco, Margherita. “Il caso Hu Feng.” Mondo Cinese 75 (Sep 1991): 27-54.

Denton, Kirk A.. The Problematic of Self in Modern Chinese Literature: Hu Feng and Lu Ling. Stanford: Stanford UP, 1998.

—–. “The Hu Feng Group: Genealogy of a Literary School.” In Kirk A. Denton and Michel Hockx, eds., Literary Societies in Republican China. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 2008, 413-66.

Endrey, Andrew. “Hu Feng–Return of a Counter-Revolutionary.” Australian Journal of Chinese Affairs 5 (1981): 73-90.

Gibbs, Donald A. ed. “Dissonant Voices in Chinese Literature: Hu Feng.” Chinese Studies in Lterature 1 (1979-1980), 947-74.

Goldman, Merle. “Hu Feng’s Conflict with the Communist Literary Authorties.” Papers on China 11 (1957), 149-91. Rpt. in The China Quarterly 17 (1962): 102-38.

Huang, Sung-k’ang. “The Inner Story of the Case of Hu Feng.” Revue des Pays de l’Est (1990).

Hung, Ruth Y. Y. “The Politics of Literary Criticism in Modern China: The Hu Feng Incident Revisited.” In Meesha Nehru and Sara Jones, eds., Writing under Socialism. Nottingham: Critical, Cultural, and Communication Press, 2011.

—–. “Time Has Begun: Hu Feng’s Poeisis in Socialist China, 1937-50.” Canadian Review of Comparative Literature 44, 3 (Sept. 2017): 579-93.

Huters, Theodore. “Hu Feng and the Critical Legacy of Lu Xun.” In Leo Lee, ed. Lu Xun and His Legacy. Berkeley: UCP, 1985, 129-52.

Kondo, Tatsuya. “The Transmission of the Yenan Talks to Chungking and Hu Feng: Caught Between the Struggle for Democracy in the Great Rear Area and Maoism.” Acta Asiatica 72 (1997): 81-105.

Liu, Kang. “Subjectivity, Marxism, and Culture Theory in China.” Social Text 31/32 (1992): 114-40.

Mao, Zedong. “Preface and Editor’s Notes to the Material on the Counter-Revolutionary Hu Feng Clique.” From Selected Works of Mao Tse-tung. Beijing: Foreign Languages Press,1977, vol. 5: 176-83.

—–. “In Refutation of ‘Uniformity of Public Opinion.'” From Selected Works of Mao Tse-tung. Beijing: Foreign Languages Press,1977, vol. 5: 172-75..

Mei Zhi. F: Hu Feng’s Prison Years. Edited and translated by Gregor Benton. London: Verso, 2013.

[Abstract: China’s first literary dissident’s Kafkaesque journey through the prisons of the Cultural Revolution. Hu Feng, the ‘counterrevolutionary’ leader of a banned literary school, spent twenty-five years in the Chinese Communist Party’s prison system. But back in the Party’s early days, he was one of its best known literary theoreticians and critics—at least until factional infighting, and his short fuse, made him persona non grata among the establishment. His wife, Mei Zhi, shared his incarceration for many years. F is her account of that time, beginning ten years after her and Hu Feng’s initial arrest. She herself was eventually released, after which she navigated the party’s Byzantine prison bureaucracy searching for his whereabouts. Having finally found him, she voluntarily returned to gaol to care for him in his rage and suffering, watching his descent into madness as the excesses of the Cultural Revolution took their toll. Both an intimate portrait of Mei Zhi’s life with Hu Feng and a stark account of the prison system and life under Mao, Fis at once beautiful and harrowing.]

Kuskowski-Pieroni, Theresa. The Writings of a Poet-Warrior: Hu Feng’s Vision of Realism in China (1928-1948). Ph.D. diss. U. Wisconsin, Madison.

Shu, Yunzhong. Buglers on the Home Front: The Wartime Practice of the Qiyue School. Albany: State University of New York Press, 2000, 23-42, 87-106.

Sorokin, Vladislav. “Hu Feng: His Views and His Life.” Far Eastern Affairs (Moscow) 132, 4 (2000): 83-95.

Yang I-fan. The Case of Hu Feng. HK: Union Research Institute, 1956.

Hu Lancheng 胡兰成

Wang, David Der-wei. “A Lyricism of Betrayal: The Enigma of Hu Lancheng.” In Wang, The Lyrical in Epic Time: Modern Chinese Intellectuals and Artists through the 1949 Crisis. NY: Columbia University Press, 2015, 155-90.

Hu Ping 胡平

Williams, Philip F. “Some Provincial Precursors of Popular Dissent Movements in Beijing.” China Information 6, 1 (1991): 1-9. [analyzes Hu Ping’s 1989 reportage novel, Zhongguo de mouzi, among other matters relevant to contemporary Chinese literature and culture].

Hu Shi 胡适

Bai, Ji’an. “Hu Shi and Zhang Shizhao.” Chinese Studies in History 39, 3 (Spring 2006): 3-32.

Chang, Han-liang. “Hu Shih and John Dewey: ‘Scientific Method’ in the May Fourth Era–China 1919 and After.” Comparative Criticism 22 (2000): 91-103.

Chou, Min-chih. Hu Shih and Intellectual Choice in Modern China. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1984.

Egan, Susan Chan and Chih-p’ing Chou. A Pragmatist and His Free Spirit: The Half-Century Romance of Hu Shi and Edith Clifford Williams. HK: The Chinese University of Hong Kong Press, 2008.

Eide, Elizabeth. China’s Ibsen: From Ibsen to Ibsenism. London: Curzon Press, 1980.

Fan, Hongye. “The Association Between Ren Hongjun and Hu Shi.” Chinese Studies in History 37, 3 (Spring 2004): 3-33.

Fried, Daniel. “Beijing’s Crypto-Victorian: Traditionalist Influences on Hu Shi’s Poetic Practice.” Comparative Critical Studies 3, 3 (Autumn 2006): 371-89.

Fujii Shozo 藤井省三. “Ta shi Niuyue Dada pai: Hu Shi de lianren E. Kulifuduo Weliansi de yisheng” 她是纽约达达派: 胡适的恋人 E库力弗多·韦莲司的一生 (She was a New York Dadaist: a biography of Hu Shi’s lover E. Clifford Williams). Tr. Wang Huimin. Lu Xun yanjiu yuekan 182 (June 1997): 50-57.

Galik, Marian. “Hu Shih, Chou Tso-jen, Ch’en Tu-hsiu and the Beginning of Modern Chinese Literary Criticism.” In Galik, The Genesis of Modern Chinese Liteary Criticism (1917-1930). London: Curzon Press, 1980, 9-27.

Ge, Zhaoguang. “On Hu Shih’s Coattails: Reflections on and Prognostications for Research on Chan Buddhism.” The Journal of Chinese Literature and Culture 4, 1 (April 2017): 1-18.

[Abstract: This article surveys the legacy of Hu Shih in order to assess the current state of the field of Chan studies in mainland China. Though the work of Hu Shih was long neglected in the mainland, his work has enjoyed renewed popularity since the 1980s and the dynamics of “culture fever” in Chinese intellectual communities. The article demonstrates that the strengths of Chinese scholarship today are particularly indebted to the methodological advances achieved by Hu Shih in the last century. Comparisons with Japanese and Euro-American scholarship underscore the particular contributions of Chinese scholars. The article concludes with a few prognostications regarding the field of Chan history in Chinese academia as well as a defense of Hu Shih’s legacy.]

Grieder, Jerome. Hu Shih and the Chinese Renaissance. Cambridge: Harvard UP, 1970.

—–. “Hu Shi: An Appreciation.” China Heritage Quarterly 29 (March 2012). Originally published in The China Quarterly 12 (October-December 1962): 92-101.

Huang, Airen. “Hu Shi and Wang Yunwu.” Chinese Studies in History 37, 3 (Spring 2004): 34-65.

Kuo, Thomas. “Ch’en Tu-hsiu (1879-1942) and Hu Shih (1891-1962).” Chinese Studies of History 31, 1 (Fall 1997): 23-54.

Ip, Manying. “Unlikely Friends: Hu Shih and Chang Yuan-chi.” Chinese Studies of History 31, 1 (Fall 1997): 55-85

Jensen, Lionel. “Particular is Universal: Hu Shi, Ru, and the Chinese Transcendence of Nationalism.” In Manufacturing Confucianism: Chinese Traditions and Universal Civilization. Durham: Duke UP, 1998, 217-64.

Hu Shi Memorial Hall (胡適紀念館) (Academica Sinica) (Big5)

Liu, Jianmei. “Hu Shi: Biological Evolutionism and Zhuangzi.” In Liu, Zhuangzi and Modern Chinese Literature. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2016, 46-58.

Moller, Hans-Georg. “Philosophical Reflections on Life and Death in Twentieth Century China: Hu Shi’s ‘On Immortality.'” Asian and African Studies [Brataslava] 4, 2 (1996): 137-48.

Ng, Janet. “Names and Destiny: Hu Shi’s and Lu Xun’s Self-Nomination through Autobiography.” In Ng, The Experience of Modernity: Chinese Autobiography in the Early Twentieth Century. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2003, 91-118.

Takeuchi, Yoshimi. “Hu Shi and Dewey.” In Yoshimi Takeuchi. What Is Modernity? Writings of Takeuchi Yoshimi. Tr. Richard Calichman. New York: Columbia University Press, 2005.

Tam, Kwok-kan. “Iconoclasm as Ibsenism: Ibsen in the May Fourth Era.” In Marian Galik, ed., Interliterary and Intraliterary Aspects of the May Fourth Movement 1919 in China. Bratislava: Veda, 1990, 119-28.

—–. “Ibsenism and Ideological Constructions of the ‘New Woman’ in Modern Chinese Fiction.” In Peng-hisang Chen and Whitney Crothers Dilley, eds., Feminism/Femininity in Chinese Literature. Amsterdam,: Rodopi, 2002, 179-86.

—–. “Ibsenism and the Modern Chinese Self.” Monumenta Serica 54 (2006): 287-98.

Wong, Yoon Wah. “The ‘New Tide’ That Came from America.” In Wong, Essays on Chinese Literature. Singapore: Singapore University Press, 1988, 28-39.

—–. “Imagism and Hu Shi’s Programme for Literary Revolution.” In Wong, Essays on Chinese Literature. Singapore: Singapore University Press, 1988, 39-51.

Yi, Zhuxian. “The Eternal Friendship Between Hu Shi and Chen Hengzhe.” Chinese Studies in History 37, 3 (Spring 2004): 66-86.

Hu Yepin 胡也频

Ptak, Roderich. Hu Yeh-p’in und siene Erzahlung ‘Nach Moskau’ (Hu Yepin and his story “To Moscow). Bad Boll: Klemmerber-Verlag, 1979.

Hu Yuzhi 胡愈之

Bachner, Andrea. “Graphic Germs: Mediality, Virulence, Chinese Writing.” Modern Chinese Literature and Culture 23, 1 (Spring 2011): 197-225.

Huanzhulouzhu 还珠楼主

Chard, Robert L. “Transcendents, Sorcerers, and Women Warriors: Huanzhulouzhu’s Mountain Sword-warriors of Sichuan.” Chinoperl Papers 20-22 (1997-99): 169-96.

Huang Beijia 黄蓓佳

Shi, Jinyu. “After 40, Memory Is Still Engraved on My Heart.” Tr. Jesse Field. Chinese Arts and Letters 1, 2 (2014): 75-88.

Xiao, Hua and Wang Zheng. “One Fabulous Family: On the Novels of Huang Beijia.” Tr. Jesse Field. Chinese Arts and Letters 1, 2 (2014): 55-74.

Huang Biyun (Wong Bik Wang) 黄碧云

Asker, D.B.D. “Eating Babies is Right and Wrong or Neither of the Above: Jonathan Swift and Huang Biyun.” Journal of Modern Literature in Chinese 3, 1 (July 1999): 131-43.

Hui, Isaac. “Translating Hong Kong Female Writing into English: Wong Bio-wan’s Language of the ‘Repressed’.” Frontiers of Literary Studies in China 11, 1 (2017): 206-31.

[Abstract: If a domesticated translation from Chinese to English can be understood as an act of eurocentrism, then the difficulties in translating Wong Bik‐wan’s latest novel Weixi chong xing (The re‐walking of Mei‐hei, 2014) reveal how this Hong Kong female writer uses language to escape patriarchal and colonial influences. This article examines how Wong makes use of the strategy of writing as a “repressed” individual (both in terms of her subject position and language style). Even though her language and sentences are at times short and dense, and the rhythm is fast, Wong demonstrates how one can reveal more by seemingly saying less. Attempts to reduce her text to a single interpretation have only resulted in failure. If it is hard for the repressed to speak without oppression, Wong illustrates how one can circumvent the constraints through the tactic of evasion, and demonstrates how the repressed can explode from gaps and silence.]

Lau, Joseph S. M. “The ‘Little Woman’ as Exorcist: Notes on the Fiction of Huang Biyun.” Journal of Modern Literature in Chinese 2, 2 (January 1999): 149-63.

Lee, Tong Kong. “Forbidden Imaginations: Three Chinese Narratives on Mother-Son Incest.” Chinese Literature: Essays, Articles, Reviews 36 (2014): 1-24.

[Abstract:This paper explores the representation of incest in contemporary Chinese fiction. Specifically, it looks at three short stories by Chinese woman writers, focusing its discussion on their relation to psychoanalytic models, the significance of trauma and causality and the arising discourses on incestuous desire. It asks the following questions: To what extent do incest narratives challenge or reinforce extant norms on sexual relations? What are the ethical implications of these stories for (de)situating incest within the popular erotic imagination? The analysis indicates that in articulating the occurrence of incest, different narrative trajectories project divergent discourses on consanguineous sex. The various guises in which the Oedipal narrative is replayed also reveal the tensions and anxieties involved in representing the culturally tabooed.]

Ng, Janet. “Writing from the Obverse: Wong Bik-Wan’s Fiction and Nostalgia in Hong Kong.” Modern Chinese Literature and Culture 20, 1 (Spring 2008): 44-71

Sieber, Patricia. “Wong Bikwan (Huang Biyun).” In Sieber, ed. Red Is Not the Only Color: Contemporary Chinese Fiction on Love and Sex between Women, Collected Stories. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield, 2001, 193-95.

Szeto, Mirana May. “Intra-Local and Inter-Local Sinophone: Rhizomatic Politics of Hong Kong Writers Saisai and Wong Bik-wan.” In Shu-mei Shih and Chien-hsin Tsai eds. Sinophone Studies: A Critical Reader. NY: Columbia University Press, 2013, 191-206.

Huang Chunming (Hwang Ch’un-ming) 黄春明

Fan, Ming-ju. “The Sense of Place in Hwang Chun-ming’s Fiction.” In Carsten Storm and Mark Harrison, eds., The Margins of Becoming: Identity and Culture in Taiwan. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, 2007, 117-24.

Goldblatt, Howard. “The Rural Stories of Hwang Chun-ming.” In Jeannette L. Faurot, ed., Chinese Fiction from Taiwan: Critical Perspectives. Bloomington: IUP, 1980, 110-33.

Grueber, Isa. Moderne Zeiten–Chinesische Literatur aus Taiwan: Huang Chunmings Erzahlungen, 1967-1977. Bochum: Brockmeyer, 1987.

Kubin, Wolfgang. Search for Identity: Huang Chunming’s “Sayonara-Zaijian”. Honolulu: Workshop on Critical Approaches to Modern Chinese Short Stories, East-West Center, 1982.

Lai, Stanley. “The Short Stories of Huang Chun-ming.” Fu Jen Studies 10 (1977): 25-40.

Li, Guoqing. “Roots in the Same Land: On Hwang Ch’un-ming and Kao Hsiao-sheng’s Stories.” Chinese Culture 38, 3 (1997): 117-35.

Li, Rui-t’eng. “Comfort the Old? On the Condition of the Aged in Huang Ch’un-ming’s Fiction.” Tr. Sylvia Li-chun Lin. Taiwan Fiction English Translation Series 5 (1999): 81-102.

Lupke, Christopher. “Huang Chunming.” In Thomas Moran and Ye (Dianna) Xu, eds., Chinese Fiction Writers, 1950-2000. Dictionary of Literature Biography, vol. 370. Detroit: Thomson Gale, 2013, 100-110.

Tam, King-fai. “Beautiful Americans, Ugly Japanese, Obsequiuous Chinese: The Depiction of Race in Huang Chunming’s Stories.” In Berel Lang, ed., Race and Racism in Theory and Practice. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield, 2000, 165-77.

Huang Guliu 黄谷柳

Leung, Ping-kwan. “Two Discourses on Colonialism: Huang Guliu and Eileen Chang on Hong Kong in the Forties.” Boundary 2. Special Issue ed. Rey Chow. 25, 2 (Fall 1998): 77-96.

Huang Guobin 黄国彬

Wong, Wai-leung. “An Appreciation of Huang Guobin’s Poems.” In Goldblatt, ed. Worlds Apart: Recent Chinese Writing and its Audiences. Armonk: M.E. Sharpe, 166-73.

Huang Jinshu (Ng Kim Chew) 黄锦树

Groppe, Alison. Not Made in China: Inventing Local Identities in Contemporary Malaysian Chinese Fiction (Li Yongping, Huang Jinshu, Li Tianbao, Li Zishu, Singapore). Ph. D. diss. Cambridge: Harvard University, 2006.

—–. “The Dis/Reappearance of Yu Dafu in Ng Kim Chew’s Fiction.” Modern Chinese Literature and Culture 22, 2 (Fall 2010): 161-195.

Huang Luyin, see Lu Yin

Huang Qiuyun 黄秋耘

K’ang, Cho. “Huang Ch’iu-yun’s Revisionist Tendencies.” In Hualing Nieh, ed. and co-trans., Literature of the Hundred Flowers Volume II: Poetry and Fiction. NY: Columbia University Press, 1981, 364-70.

Huang Shihui 黃石輝

Kloter, Henning. “Taiwan Literature and the Negotiation of Language from Below: Huang Shihui (1900-1945) and His Ideological Convictions.” Studia Orientalia Slovaca 11, 1 (2012).

Huang Xiang 黄翔

Emerson, Andrew G. “The Guizhou Undercurrent.” Modern Chinese Literature and Culture 13, 2 (Fall 2001): 111-33.

—–. A Bilingual Edition of Poetry Out of Communist China by Huang Xiang. Tr. Andrew G. Emerson. Lewiston, NY: Mellen Press, 2004. [includes a general introduction on Huang Xiang’s life and works]

Garside, Roger. “The Poet-Writer and the Poet.” In Roger Garside, Coming Alive: China After Mao. NY: McGraw Hill, 1981, 285-98.

Hutton, Susan. “Writing on the Wall.” Poetry Foundation (June 26, 2006).

Huang Youde 黃有德

Louie, Kam. “Masculinity and Penile Potency: Huang Youde’s ‘Ah Yi the Madman and Ah Zhu the Saint.” The Journal of the Oriental Society of Australia 25/26 (1993/94): 165-76.

Huang Zunxian 黄遵宪

Chen, Jianhua. “The Late Qing Poetry Revolution: Liang Qichao, Huang Zunxian, and Chinese Literary Modernity.” In Joshua Mostow, ed, and Kirk A. Denton, China section, ed., Columbia Companion to Modern East Asian Literatures. NY: Columbia UP, 2003, 333-40. Rpt in Kirk A. Denton, ed., Columbia Companion to Modern Chinese Literature. NY: Columbia University Press, 2016, 89-96.

Cheng, Yu-yu. “The Geographic Measure of Traditional Poetic Discourse: Reading Huang Zunxian’s ‘Poems on Miscellaneous Subjects from Japan.'” Trs. Jack W. Chen and Yunshuang Zhang. Renditions 79 (Spring 2013): 39-58

Kamachi, Noriko. Reform in China: Huang Tsun-hsien and the Japanese Model. Cambridge: Harvard UP, 1981.

Lynn, John Richard. “A Nineteenth-Century Chinese Cross-Cultural Perspective: Huang Zunxian in Japa (1877-82).” Canadian Review of Comparative Literature 24, 4 (1997): 946-64.

Ng, Wai-ming. “The Formation of Huang Tsun-hsien’s Political Thought in Japan (1877-1882).” Sino-Japanese Studies 8, 1 (Oct. 1995): 4-21.

Schmidt, J.D. Within the Human Realm: The Poetry of Huang Zunxian, 1848-1905. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1994.

Tian, Xiaofei. “Muffled Dialect Spoken by Green Fruit: An Alternative History of Modern Chinese Poetry.” Modern Chinese Literature and Culture 21, 1 (Spring 2009): 1-45.

Huang Zuolin 黄佐临 | 黄作霖

Chen, Xiaomei. “Wilder, Mei Lanfang, and Huang Zuolin: A ‘Suggestive Theater’ Revisited.” In Chen, Occidentalism: A Theory of Counter-Discourse in Post-Mao China. NY: Oxford UP, 1995, 119-36.

Fei, Faye Chunfang. Huang Zuolin: China’s Man of the Theatre. Ph.d. diss. NY: City University of New York, 1991,

Hsia, Arian. “Huang Zuolin’s Ideal of Drama and Bertolt Brecht.” In C. Tung and C. MacKerras, eds., Drama in the People’s Republic of China. Albany: SUNY, 1987, 151-62.

Quah, Sy Ren. “Searching for Alternative Aesthetics in the Chinese Theatre: The Odyssey of Huang Zuolin and Gao Xingjian.” Asian Culture 24 (June 2000): 44-66.


J

Ji Pang 冀汸

Shu, Yunzhong. “(Re)presentation of Historical Particularities Ji Pang’s Night Travellers.” In Shu, Buglers at the Home Front: The Wartime Practice of the Qiyue School. Albany: SUNY Press, 2000: 153-73.

Ji Xian (Chi Hsien) 纪弦

Lin, Julia C. “Chi Hsien: An Exuberant Rhapsodist.” In Lin, Essays on Contemporary Chinese Poetry. Athens, OH: Ohio University Press, 1985, 12-26.

Jia Pingwa 贾平凹

Barme, Geremie. “Soft Porm, Packaged Dissent, and Nationalism: Notes on Chinese Culture in the 1990s.” Current History 98, 584 (Sept. 1994): 270-76.

—–. In the Red: On Contemporary Chinese Culture. New York: Columbia University Press, 1999,181-85.

Belfer, Lauren. “Review of Turbulence.” New York Times (Sept. 22, 1991).

Chen, Jianhua 陈建华. “Feidu jiqi qishi: moshi wenshi de lishi fuying” 废都及其启示末世文士的历史覆影 (Defunct Capital and its messages: the historical ‘replica’ of literati at the end of the century). Ershiyi shiji 25 (Oct. 1994): 83-93.

—–. “Feidu fei zai nali” 废都废在哪里 (What does fei mean in Feidu?). Jintian no.4 (1994): 231-37.

—–. “Jia Pingwa, Feidu (Ruined Capital).” The Journal of Contemporary China 5 (Spring 1994): 106-9.

Curien, Annie “Feidu (La Capitale déchue): Le Jing Ping Mei de notre époque?” Perspectives chinoises 21 (janvier – février 1994): 52 -9.

—–. 2000 “La ville et l’ailleurs: Deux écrivains contemporains, Ye Si et Jia Pingwa.”Perspectives chinoises 62 (novembre – décembre, 2000): 57-64.

Chen, Thomas. “Blanks to be Filled: Public-Making and the Censorship of Jia Pingwa’s Decandent Capital.” China Perspectives 1 (2015): 15-22.

[Abstract: Jia Pingwa’s Decadent Capital was wildly popular upon its publication in 1993. Offering plenty of sex and a bleak view of Chinese society under reform, it was also highly controversial, not least because of the blank squares strewn throughout the text to represent erotic descriptions edited out by the author. Commentators accused Jia of selling out high culture, much like the intellectuals portrayed in the narrative. The novel was banned in 1994 but rereleased in 2009 with one major change: the blank squares were replaced by ellipses. I argue that these blank squares not only make public censorship itself but also constitute the space of alternative publics, whether harking back to an elided past or projecting into a future yet to be written, that the post-Tiananmen Party-state tries to nullify.]

Curien, Annie and Jin Siyan, eds. Littérature chinoise: Le passé et l’écriture contemporaine. Paris: Maison des sciences de l’homme, 2001.

Du, Zhuan. “A Profile of Jia Pingwa.” Chinese Literature 7 (1983): 40-43.

Duo Wei 多维, ed. Feidu ziwei 废都滋味 (The flavor of Abandoned Capital). Zhengzhou: Henan renmin, 1993. [volume of essays on the novel Feidu]

Fang, Jincai. The Crisis of Emasculation and the Restoration of Patriarchy in the Fiction of Chinese Contemporary Male Writers Zhang Xianliang, Mo Yan, and Jia Pingwa. Ph.D. Diss. Vancouver: University of British Columbia, 2004.

Fei Bingxun费炳勋, ed. Feidu daping 废都大平 (A complete collection of essays on Jia Pingwa). Hong Kong: Tiandi tushu gong si, 1998.

—–. Jia Pingwa lun 贾平凹论 (On Jia Pingwa). Taipei: Shuiniu 1992.

Fen Youyuan 冯有源. Pingwa de foshou 平凹的佛手 (The Buddha’s hand in Jia Pingwa’s possession). Shanghai: Shanghai renmin, 1997.

Hu Heqing 胡河清. Lingdi de mianxiang 灵地的缅想 (Affectionate thoughts in the land of the spirits). Beijing: Xuelin, 1994.

Huang Haizhou. Feidu zhi mi 废都之谜 (Mystery of Defunct Capital). Guiyang: Guizhou renmin, 1993.

Hutchinson, Paul E. “Review of Turbulence.” Library Journal 116 (1992): 145.

Jia Pingwa and Mo Tao 贾平凹, 穆涛. Pingwa zhi lu: Jia Pingwa jingshen zizhuan 平凹之路: 贾平凹精神自传 (An uneven path: autobiography of Jia Pingwa’s intellectual development). Xining: Qinghai renmin, 1994.

Jiang Xin 江心. Feidu zhi mi 废都之谜 (The mysteries of Defunct Capital). Taipei: Fengyun, 1994.

Kinkley, Jeffrey C. “Review of Turbulence.” Choice 29 (April 1992): 1235.

Lai Daren 赖大仁. Hungui hechu: Jia Pingwa lun 魂归何处: 贾平凹论 (Where could the soul settle? On Jia Pingwa), Beijing: Huaxia, 2000.

Leung, K. C. “Review of Turbulence.” World Literature Today 67 (Winter 1993): 232.

Liu Bin and Wang Ling, eds. Shizu de Jia Pingwa (The mistaking Jia Pingwa). Beijing: Huaxia, 1994.

Louie, Kam. “The Macho Eunuch: The Politics of Masculinity in Jia Pingwa’s ‘Human Extremities.'” Modern China 17, 2 (1991): 163-87.

Lu, Sheldon Hsiao-peng. China, Transnational Visuality, Global Postmodernity. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2001, 239-59.

Rabut, Isabelle. “Jia Pingwa: sexe, verite et impertinence.” La quinzaine litteraire 272 (Nov. 1997): 8-9.

Rojas, Carlos. “Flies’ Eyes, Mural Remnants, and Jia Pingwa’s Perverse Nostalgia.” positions: east asia cultures critique 14, 3 (Winter 2006): 749-73. [Project Muse link]

Siu, Helen F ed. Furrows: Peasants, Intellectuals, and the State: Stories and Histories from Modern China. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1990.

Stember, Nick. “The Jia Pingwa Project.” Chinese Literature Today 6, 1 (2017): 24-28.

Stowe, John Edward. The Peasant Intellectual Jia Pingwa: An Historico-Literary Analysis of His Life and Early Works. Ph. d. diss. Toronto: University of Toronto, 2003.

Sun, Jianxi. “Jia Pingwa and his Ficiton.” In Yang Bian, ed., The Time is Not Ripe: Contemporary China’s Best Writers and Their Stories. Beijing: FLP, 1991, 99-111.

—–. Guicai Jia Pingwa 鬼才贾平凹 (The genius Jia Pingwa). 2 vols. Taiyuan: Beiyue, 1994.

—–. Zhongguo wentan dadizhen: Jia Pingwa changxiaoshu chuangzuo chuban jishi 中国文坛大地震:贾平凹畅销书创作出版记事 (Earthquakes in China’s literary scene: a true record of the creation and production of Jia Pingwa’s best sellers). Beijing: Zhongguo guangbo dianshi, 2000.

—–. Jia Pingwa qianzhuan 贾平凹前传 (A preliminary biography of Jia Pingwa). 3 vols. Guangzhou: Huacheng, 2001.

Wang, David Der-wei. “Review of Turbulence.” Modern Chinese Literature 6, 1/2 (1992): 247-250.

—–. “Tuijian xu: Lang lai le” 推荐序: 狼来了 (A preface of recommendation: the wolves are here), in Jia Pingwa, Huainian lang (Remembering the wolves). Taipei: I-front Publications, 2001, 3-6.

Wang, Yiyan. “Elegy for Chinese High Culture: Feidu as Fictional Enculturation.” The Journal of the Oriental Society of Australia 27/28 (1995/96): 165-94.

—–. “Language, Time and Introspection: Margaret Atwood and Jia Pingwa.” Australian-Canadian Studies: a Journal for the Humanities & Social Sciences 15/16, 1/2 (1997-1998): 13-41.

—–. Narrating China: Defunct Capital and the Fictional World of Jia Pingwa. Ph.D. diss. Sydney: University of Sydney, 1998.

—–. “Mr Butterfly in Defunct Capital: Soft Masculinity and (Mis)engendering China.”In Kam Louie and Morris Low, eds., Chinese and Japanese Masculinities. London: Routledge, 2003.

—–. “Mr Butterfly in Defunct Capital: “Soft” Masculinity and (Mis)Engendering China.” In Kam Louie and Morris Low, eds., Asian Masculinities: The Meaning and Practice of Manhood in China and Japan. NY, London: RoutledgeCurzon, 2003.

—–. “Shuo jiayuan xiangqing, tan guozu shenfen: Shilun Jia Pingwa de xiangtu xiaoshuo” 说家园乡情,谈国族身份: 试论贾平凹乡土小说 (Local Stories, national identity: a study of Jia Pingwa’s nativist writing). Dangdai zuojia pinglun 2 (2003): 117-26.

—–. Narrating China: Jia Pingwa and His Fictional World. London, New York: Routledge, 2006. [MCLC Resource Center review by Robin Visser]

—–. “Interview with Jia Pingwa by Wang Yiyan. The IIS Interview Series (Xi’an; 27 Dec. 2003).

—–. “Jia Pingwa.” In Thomas Moran and Ye (Dianna) Xu, eds., Chinese Fiction Writers, 1950-2000. Dictionary of Literature Biography, vol. 370. Detroit: Thomson Gale, 2013, 111-20.

Wang Xinmin王新民, ed. Duose Jia Pingwa 多色贾平凹 (The flamboyant Jia Pingwa). Xi’an: Shaanxi renmin, 1993.

Wang Yongsheng 王永生, et al. Jia Pingwa de yuyan shijie 贾平凹的语言世界 (The linguistic world of Jia Pingwa), Xi’an: Taibai wenyi, 1994.

Wang Zhongsheng王仲生. Jia Pingwa de xiaoshuo yu dongfang wenhua 贾平凹的小说与东方文化 (Jia Pingwa’s fiction and oriental culture). Xi’an: Shaanxi renmin, 1992.

Xiao Xialin, ed. Feidu fei shei 废都废谁 (Who is abandoned in Abandoned Capital). Beijing: Xueyuan, 1993. [collection of essays about Feidu]

Xingming, ed. 1994. Jia Pingwa mi zhong mi 贾平凹谜中谜 (The mystery inside the mystery of Jia Pingwa). Xi’an: Taibai wenyi, 1994.

Xu Zidong. “Xungen wenxuezhongde Jia Pingwa he Ah Cheng” (Jia Pingwa and Ah Cheng in root-searching literature). Bulletin of Chinese Studies 3 (1996): 81-91.

Zeng Lingcun 曾令存. Jia Pingwa sanwen yanjiu 贾平凹散文研究 (Studies on Jia Pingwa’s prose essays). Beijing: Zhongguo shehui kexueyuan, 2003.

Zha, Jianying. “Yellow Peril.” TriQuarterly 93 (Spring-Summer 1995): 238-64.

—–. China Pop: How Soap Operas, Tabloids, and Bestsellers Are Transforming a Culture. NY: The New Press, 1995: 129-39, 146-64.

Zhang, Qinghua. “Carrying on ‘Chinese Fiction’ Traditions: An Interview with Jia Pingwa.” Tr. Xu Chenmei. Chinese Literature Today 6, 1 (2017): 18-23.

Zhang, Xiaoqin. “Butterfly’s Reincarnation: From Zhuang Zhidei to Lao Sheng.” Tr. Xu Chenmei. Chinese Literature Today 6, 1 (2017): 14-17.

Zheng, Mingfang. The Tragic Vision in Jia Pingwa’s Four Novels of 1990s (feidu, baiye, tumen, and gaolaozhuang). Ph.D diss. Vancouver: University of British Columbia, 2004.

Zhongguo dianying 中国电影, ed. Yeshan – cong xiaoshuo dao yinmu 野山:从小说到银幕 (Wild mountains: from fiction to film). Beijing: Zhongguo dianying, 1990.

Zhu Wenxin. ed. Shoucang Jia Pingwa – Jia Pingwa zhuzuo banben jilu 收藏贾平凹: 贾平凹著作版本记录 (Collecting Jia Pingwa: list of Jia Pingwa’s publications). Xi’an: Sanqin, 2002.

Jiang Guangci 蒋光慈

Crespi, John A. “Jiang Guangci.” In Dictionary of Literary Biography–Chinese Fiction Writers, 1900-1949. Ed. Thomas Moran. NY: Thomson Gale, 2007, 66-72.

Fang Ming, ed. Jiang Guangci yanji ziliao (Research materials on Jiang Guangci). Yinchuan: Ningxia renmin, 1983.

Galik, Marian. “Studies in Modern Chinese Literary Criticism: VI. Chiang Kuang-tz’u’s Concept of Revolutionary Literature.” AAS 8 (1972): 43-70.

—–. “Chiang Kuang-tz’u’s Theory of Revolutionary Literature.” In Galik, The Genesis of Modern Chinese Literary Criticism, 1917-1930. London: Curzon Press, 1980, 142-65.

Hsia, T.A. “The Phenomenon of Chiang Kuang-tz’u.” In T.A. Hsia. The Gate of Darkness. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1968, 55-100.

Laughlin, Charles. “The Moon Coming out from the Clouds: Jiang Guangci and Early Revolutionary Fiction in China.” In Tao Dongfeng, Yang Xiaobin, Rosemary Roberts, and Yang Ling, eds. Chinese Revolution and Chinese Literature. Cambridge: University of Cambridge Press, 2009, 27-44.

Lee, Leo Ou-fan. “Chiang Kuang-tz’u.” In Leo Ou-fan Lee. The Romantic Generation of Modern Chinese Writers. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1973, 201-221.

Williams, Philip F. “Pierrot Figures in the Modern Chinese Novella.” Asian Review 9, 1 (1989): 21-24. [comparative analysis of works by Mu Shiying and Jiang Guangci].

Jiang Gui (Chiang Kui) 姜貴

Hsia, C. T. “Obsession with China (II): Three Taiwan Writers.” In Hsia, A History of Modern Chinese Fiction. 3rd ed. Bloomington: Indiana UP, 363-86. [deals with Jiang Kui, Yu Guanzhong, and Bai Xianyong]

Ross, Timothy. Chiang Kuei. Boston: Twayne, 1974.

Wang, David Der-wei. “The Monster That Is History: Jiang Gui’s A Tale of Modern Monsters.” In David Der-wei Wang and Carlos Rojas eds., Writing Taiwan: A New Literary History. Durham, NC: Duke UP, 2006, 181-212.

Jiang He 江河

Yip, Wai-lim. “Crisis Poetry: An Introduction to Yang Lian, Jiang He and Misty Poetry.” Renditions 23 (1985): 120-30.

Jiang Wenye 江文也

Wang, David Der-wei. “In Search of a Genuine Chinese Sound: Jiang Wenye and Modern Chinese Music.” In Jing Tsu and David Der-wei Wang, eds., Global Chinese Literature: Critical Essays. Leiden: Brill, 2010, 157-76.

—–. “The Lyrical in Epic Time: The Music and Poetry of Jiang Wenye.” In Wang, The Lyrical in Epic Time: Modern Chinese Intellectuals and Artists through the 1949 Crisis. NY: Columbia University Press, 2015, 193-236.

Jiang Zidan 蒋子丹

Zhong, Xueping. “Sisterhood? Representations of Women’s Relationships in Two Contemporary Chinese Texts.” In Tonglin Lu, ed., Gender and Sexuality in Twentieth Century Chinese Literature and Society. Albany: SUNY Press, 1993, 157-73.

Jiang Zilong 蒋子龙

Louie, Kam. “In Search of Socialist Capitalism and Chinese Modernisation: Jiang Zilong’s Ideas on Industrial Management.” Australian Journal of Chinese Affairs 12 (1984): 87-96. Rpt. in Louie, Between Fact and Fiction: Essays on Post-Mao Chinese Literature and Society. Sydney: Wild Peony, 1989, 38-48.

Wagner, Rudold. Inside the Service Trade: Studies in Contemporary Chinese Prose. Cambridge: Council on East Asian Studies, Harvard University, 1992, 379-430. [deals with “Manager Qiao Takes Over”]

Jidi Majia 吉狄马加

Mai, Mang. “Jidi Majia: Our Selves and Our Others.” Chinese Literature Today 4, 1 (2014): 99-107.

Mair, Denis. “Son of the Nuosu Muse: The Poet Jidi Majia.” Chinese Literature Today 2, 2 (2012).

Jin, Ha 金哈

Gong, Haomin. “Language, Migrancy, and the Literal: Ha Jin’s Translation Literature.”Concentric: Literary and Cultural Studies 40, 1 (March 2014): 147-67.

Jin Songcen 金松岑

Yeh, Catherine Vance. “The Life-Style of Four Wenren in Late Qing Shanghai.” Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies 57, 1 (1997): 419-70. [deals with Wang Tao, Chen Jitong, Zeng Pu, and Jin Songcen]

Jin Yong (or Louis Cha) 金庸

Chang, Hsiao-hung. “‘What Sort of Thing Is Sentiment?’ Gifts, Love Tokens, and Material Evidence in Jin Yong’s Novels.” In Carlos Rojas and Eileen Cheng-yin Chow, eds., Rethinking Chinese Popular Culture: Cannibalizations of the Canon. NY: Routledge, 2009, 235-61.

Chen, Pingyuan. Qiangu wenren xiake meng: Wuxia xiaoshuo leixing yanjiu (Chivalric dreams of the literati: a generic study of martial arts fiction). Beijing: Renmin wenxue, 1992.

—–. “Transcending ‘High’ and ‘Low’ Distinctions in Literature: The Success of Jin Yong and the Future of Martial Arts Novels.” In Ann Huss and Jianmei Liu eds., The Jin Yong Phenomenon: Chinese Martial Arts Fiction and Modern Chinese Literary History. Trs. Mengjiao Jiang and Ann Huss. Youngstown, NY: Cambria Press, 2007, 55-72.

Elegant, Simon. “The Storyteller: What Makes Louis Cha’s Martial Arts Novels So Wildly Popular in Asia?” Far Eastern Economic Review (Sept. 5, 1996): 38-44.

Foster, Paul B. “Jin Yong’s Linghu Chong Faces off against Lu Xun’s Ah Q: Complements to the Construction of National Character.” Twentieth-Century China 30, 1 (Nov. 2004).

Fu, Ping. “Reconfiguring Jianghu on Screen.” In Ann Huss and Jianmei Liu eds., The Jin Yong Phenomenon: Chinese Martial Arts Fiction and Modern Chinese Literary History. Youngstown, NY: Cambria Press, 2007, 271-86.

Hamm, John Christopher. “The Marshes of Mount Liang Beyond the Sea: Jin Yong’s Early Martial Arts Fiction and Post-War Hong Kong.” Modern Chinese Literature and Culture 11, 1 (Spring 1999): 93-124.

—–. “Creating Classic Literature: On the Revision of Jin Yong’s Sword of Loyalty.” In Wang Qiugui, ed., Proceedings of the Interational Conference on Jin Yong’s Novels. Taipei: Yuan-liou, 1999, 425-46.

—–. “Martial Arts Fiction and Jin Yong.” In Joshua Mostow, ed, and Kirk A. Denton, China section, ed., Columbia Companion to Modern East Asian Literatures. NY: Columbia UP, 2003, 509-14. Rpt in Kirk A. Denton, ed., Columbia Companion to Modern Chinese Literature. NY: Columbia University Press, 2016, 274-79.

—–. Paper Swordsmen: Jin Yong and the Modern Chinese Martial Arts Novel. Honolulu: University of Hawai’i Press, 2005.

—–. “The Labyrinth of Identity: Jin Yong’s Song of the Swordsman.” In Ann Huss and Jianmei Liu eds., The Jin Yong Phenomenon: Chinese Martial Arts Fiction and Modern Chinese Literary History. Youngstown, NY: Cambria Press, 2007, 97-119.

—–. “Canonizing the Popular: The Case of Jin Yong.” In Carlos Rojas and Eileen Cheng-yin Chow, eds., Rethinking Chinese Popular Culture: Cannibalizations of the Canon. NY: Routledge, 2009, 75-87.

Huss, Ann and Jianmei Liu, eds. The Jin Yong Phenomenon: Chinese Martial Arts Fiction and Modern Chinese Literary History. Youngstown, NY: Cambria Press, 2007.

Li, Tuo. “The Language of Jin Yong’s Writing: A New Direction in the Development of Modern Chinese.” In Ann Huss and Jianmei Liu eds., The Jin Yong Phenomenon: Chinese Martial Arts Fiction and Modern Chinese Literary History. Tr. John Christopher Hamm. Youngstown, NY: Cambria Press, 2007, 39-53.

Li, Yijian. “‘Rewriting’ Jin Yong’s Novels into the Canon: A Consideration of Jin Yong Novels as Serialized Fiction.” In Ann Huss and Jianmei Liu eds., The Jin Yong Phenomenon: Chinese Martial Arts Fiction and Modern Chinese Literary History. Tr. Carlos Rojas. Youngstown, NY: Cambria Press, 2007, 73-96.

Liu, Jianmei. “Gender Politics in Jin Yong’s Martial Arts Novels.” In Ann Huss and Jianmei Liu eds., The Jin Yong Phenomenon: Chinese Martial Arts Fiction and Modern Chinese Literary History. Trs. Aijun Zhu and Ann Huss. Youngstown, NY: Cambria Press, 2007, 179-200.

Liu, Zaifu. “Jin Yong and Twentieth-Century Chinese Literature.” In Ann Huss and Jianmei Liu eds., The Jin Yong Phenomenon: Chinese Martial Arts Fiction and Modern Chinese Literary History. Trs. Kristof Van den Troost and Ann Huss. Youngstown, NY: Cambria Press, 2007, 23-37.

—–. “Afterword: Several Important Issues Regarding the Jin Yong Phenomenon.” In Ann Huss and Jianmei Liu eds., The Jin Yong Phenomenon: Chinese Martial Arts Fiction and Modern Chinese Literary History. Tr. Aijun Zhu. Youngstown, NY: Cambria Press, 2007, 287-92.

Ma, Kwok-ming. “Hongkong Martial Arts Novels: The Case of Louis Cha.” M.Phil. Thesis. HK: University of Hong Kong, 1995.

Minford, John. “The Deer and the Cauldron–The Adventures of a Chinese Trickster.” East Asian History 5 (1993): 1-100.

—–. “Translator’s Introduction.” In The Deer and the Cauldron: The Adventures of a Chinese Trickster: Two Chapters from a Novel by Louis Cha.Canberra: Institute of Advanced Studies, ANU, 1994.

Rojas, Carlos. “Jin Yong’s Martial Arts Picture Manuals.” In Ann Huss and Jianmei Liu eds., The Jin Yong Phenomenon: Chinese Martial Arts Fiction and Modern Chinese Literary History. Youngstown, NY: Cambria Press, 2007, 241-69.

—–. “Jin Yong and Picturing Nationalism.” In Rojas, The Naked Gaze: Reflections on Chinese Modernity. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Asia Center, 2008, 136-158.

Shen, Shuang. “Translating Jin Yong: The Context, The Translator, and the Texts.” In Ann Huss and Jianmei Liu eds., The Jin Yong Phenomenon: Chinese Martial Arts Fiction and Modern Chinese Literary History. Youngstown, NY: Cambria Press, 2007, 201-18.

Song, Weijie. “Nation-State, Individual Identity, and Historical Memory: Conflicts Between Han and Non-Han Peoples in Jin Yong’s Novels.” In Ann Huss and Jianmei Liu eds., The Jin Yong Phenomenon: Chinese Martial Arts Fiction and Modern Chinese Literary History. Youngstown, NY: Cambria Press, 2007, 155-78.

—–. “Space, Swordsmen, and Utopia: The Dualistic Imagination in Jin Yong’s Narratives.” In Ann Huss and Jianmei Liu eds., The Jin Yong Phenomenon: Chinese Martial Arts Fiction and Modern Chinese Literary History. Youngstown, NY: Cambria Press, 2007, 23-38.

—–. “Jin Yong.” In Thomas Moran and Ye (Dianna) Xu, eds., Chinese Fiction Writers, 1950-2000. Dictionary of Literature Biography, vol. 370. Detroit: Thomson Gale, 2013, 121-33.

—–. “Positions of Sinophone Representation in Jin’s (金庸) Chivalric Topography.” CLCWeb: Comparative Literature and Culture 17, 1 (2015).

Tian, Xiaofei. “The Ship in a Bottle: The Construction of an Imaginary China in Jin Yong’s Fiction.” In Ann Huss and Jianmei Liu eds., The Jin Yong Phenomenon: Chinese Martial Arts Fiction and Modern Chinese Literary History. Youngstown, NY: Cambria Press, 2007, 219-40.

Jin Yucheng 金宇澄

Gao, Yunwen. “Sounding Shanghai: Sinophone Intermediality in Jin Yucheng’s Blossoms.” Concentric: Literary and Cultural Studies 43, 2 (2017): 87-105.

Jing Yinyu 敬隐渔

Findeisen, Raoul. “Le malheureux garçon. Jean-Baptiste Jing Yinyu, pensionnaire de l’Institut franco-chinois de Lyon, traducteur de Romain Rolland.” Gryphe 2 (2001).


K

Kang Youwei 康有为

Fidan, Giray. “The Turk Travelogue: Kang Youwei’s Journey to the Ottoman Empire.” Bilig 76 (Winter 2015): 227-43.

[AbstractKang Youwei is one of the most prominent intellectuals,reformers and politicians of 20th– century-China. Afterhe was expatriated from China he traveled to numerouscountries including the Ottoman Empire. Before he arrived in Istanbul, he was interested in the reform movements taking place in the Ottoman state and society. As a coincidence, he arrived at the capital right after the 1908 revolution and wrote a unique and detailed travelogue about his trip to the Ottoman Capital City. This article aims to examine Kang’s perception of the empire and the events that took place.]

Hsiao, Kung-ch’uan. “Kang Yu-wei and Confucianism.” Monumenta serica 18 (1959): 96-212.

—–. A Modern China and a New World: Kang Yu-wei, Reformer and Utopian, 1858-1927. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1975.

Larson, Jane Leung. “Articulating China’s First Mass Movement: Kang Youwei, Liang Qichao, the Baohuanghui, and the 1905 Anti-American Boycott.” Twentieth-Century China 33, 1 (Nov. 2007).

Lo, Jung-pang, ed. K’ang Yu-wei: a Biography and a Symposium. Tucson: University of Arizona Press, 1967.

Wagner, Rudolf. “The Philologist as Messiah: Kang Youwei’s 1902 Commentary on the Confucian Analects.” In Glen Most ed., Disciplining Classics – Altertumswissenschaft als Beruf. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck and Ruprecht, 2002, 143-168.

Wong, Young-tsu. Beyond Confucian China: The Rival Discourses of Kang Youwei and Zhang Binglin. NY: Routledge, 2010.

[Abstract: Young-tsu Wong throws new light on Kang Youwei and Zhang Binglin, both through research on the sources, nature and import of their ideas and through juxtaposing them. The result is a provocative and stimulating analysis of late Qing-early Republican thought. Never before these two rival thinkers have been studied in any western language, and Wong sees these two men, though distinctly different in personality and thought, as the genuine pioneers of modern Chinese thought. The author highlights the mix of traditional Chinese thought, especially Confucianism and western ideas as well as the personal experiences of the two key thinkers in Modern Chinese History, enabling him to reassess the transition of China’s cultural tradition and its modern fate in a world-wide perspective. This work provides a stimulating and provocative reassessment of two major thinkers in modern Chinese history. As such, it will be welcomed by scholars in the field of modern Chinese history and intellectual thought.]

Wu, Lawrence. “Kang Youwei and the Westernization of Modern Chinese Art.” Orientations 21, 3 (March 1990): 46-53.

Ke Yunlu 柯云路 and Xue Ke 雪珂

Martin, Helmut. “The Drama Tragic Song of Our Time (Shidai de beige): Functions of Literature in the Eighties and its Socio-Political Limitations.” In C. Tung and C. Mackerras, eds., Drama in the People’s Republic of China. Albany: SUNY Press, 1987, 254-81.


L

Lai Ho (or Lai He) 賴和

Chang, Heng-hao. “A Pervasive and Profound ‘Vision of the Times’–A Comparison between Lai Ho’s Guijia [Going Home] and Lu Xun’s Guxiang [My Hometown]. Taiwan Literature: English Translation Series 21 (July 2007): 123-40.

Chen Fangming. Zuoyi Taiwan–zhimindi wenxue yundong shilun (Left Taiwan–discussions of the history of the colonial literature movement). Taipei: Maitian, 1998.

Ch’en, Chien-chung. “In the Name of Taiwan: Lai Ho and the History of Taiwan Literature.” Taiwan Literature, English Translation Series no. 20 (2007): 3-12.

Haddon, Rosemary. “Lai He.” In Dictionary of Literary Biography–Chinese Fiction Writers, 1900-1949. Ed. Thomas Moran. NY: Thomson Gale, 2007, 73-78.

Lin, Jui-ming. “Where There Is Rock, There Is the Seed of Fire: Lu Xun and Lai Ho.” Taiwan Literature, English Translation Series 15 (2004): 185-98.

Yang, Kuei. “Remembering Dr. Lai Ho.” Tr. Mary Treadway. Taiwan Literature, English Translation Series 2 (Dec. 1997): 59-66.

Tu, K. C.. “Foreword: Lai Ho, Wu Cho-liu, and Taiwan Literature.” Taiwan Literature English Translation Series 15 (2004): xix-xxx.

Lai Shengchuan (Stan Lai) 赖声川

Braester, Yomi. “In Search of History Point Zero: Stan Lai’s Drama and Taiwan’s Doubled Identities.” Journal of Contemporary China no. 57 (Nov. 2008): 689-698.

Liu, Joyce C. “Re-staging Cultural Memories in Contemporary Theatre in Taiwan: Wang Qimei, Stanley Lai, and Lin Huaimin.” In Steven Totosy de Zepetnek and Jennifer W. Jay, eds., East Asian Cultural and Historical Perspectives: Histories and Society, Culture and Literatures. Edmonton: Research Institute for Comparative Literature and Cross-Cultural Studies, University of Alberta, 1997, 267-78.

Lan Bozhou 蓝博洲

Lin, Sylvia Li-chun. “Two Texts to a Story: White Terror in Taiwan.” Modern Chinese Literature and Culture 16, 1 (Spring 2004): 36-64.

Yang, Xiaobin. “Telling (Hi)story: Illusory Truth or True Illusion.” Tamkang Review 21, 2 (1990): 127-47.

Lao She 老舍

Andrs, Dusan. “A ‘Spiritual Portrait’ of the Anti-Japanese War in Lao She’s Four Generations under one Roof.” [review of Lao She: Vier Generationen unter einem Dach. ] Archiv Orientalni 67, 3 (1999): 379-84.

Bady, Paul. “Death and the Novel-On Lao She’s ‘Suicide’.” Renditions 10 (1978): 5-20.

—–. Lao She, Lao niu po che: Essai autocritique sur le roman et l’humor. Paris: Presses universitaires de France, 1974.

Bernards, Brian. “From Diasporic Nationalism to Transcolonial Consciousness: Lao She’s Singaporean Satire, Little Po’s Birthday.” Modern Chinese Literature and Culture 26, 1 (Spring 2014): 1-40.

Bickers, Robert. “New Light on Lao She, London and the London Missionary Society.” Modern Chinese Literature 8 (1994): 21-39.

Birch, Cyril. “Lao She: The Humourist in His Humour.” China Quarterly 8 (1961): 45-62.

Brandauer, Frederick P. “Selected Works of Lao She and Mao Tun and Their Relevance for Christian Theology.” Ching Feng 11, 2 (1968): 25-43.

Chan, Stephen. “Split Consciousnes: The Dialectic of Desire in Camel Xiangzi.” Moder Chinese Literature 2, 2 (1986): 171-97.

Chen, Weiming. Pen or Sword: The Wen-Wu Conflict in the Short Stories of Lao She (1899-1966). Ph.D. Diss. Berkeley: Stanford University, 1985.

Chou, Sui-ning Prudence. “Lao She: An Intellectual’s Role and Dilemma in Modern China.” Ph.D. Dissertation. Berkeley: University of California, 1976.

Chow, Rey. “Fateful Attachments: On Collecting, Fidelity, and Lao She.” Critical Inquiry 28, 1 (2001). Rpt. in Michel Hockx and Ivo Smits, eds., Reading East Asian Writing: The Limits of Literary Theory. New York and London: RoutledgeCurzon, 2003, 1-22.

Duke, Michael. “The Urban Poor in Lao She’s Pre-War Short Stories.” Phi Theta Papers 12 (1970): 72-99.

—–. “Images of the Urban Poor in Lao She’ Short Stories.” Journal of the Chinese Language Teachers Association 13, 2 (1978): 137-149.

Faurot, Jeannette. “Lao She’s Philosophy and The Philosophy of Lao Zhang.” Chinoperl Papers 20-22 (1997-99): 159-68.

Galik, Marian. “Lao She’s Looking Westward to Ch’ang-an and Gogol’s The Inspector General.” In Galik, ed., Milestones in Sino-Western Literary Confrontation (1898-1979). Weisbaden: Otto Harrassowitz, 1986, 225-42.

—–. “Xu Dishan’s Chuntao (Spring Peach) and Lao She’s Ye Shi Sanjiao (Also a Triangle): ‘Fraternal Polyandry’ in the Chinese Fashion?” Asian and African Studies [Brataslava] 18, 2 (2009): 95-113.

Grossholtforth, Petra. Chinesen in London: Lao she’s Roman Er Ma. Bochum: Brockmeyer, 1985.

Hillenbrand, Margaret. “Ambivalent Attitudes to Nationalism in the Prewar Fiction of Lao She.” Archiv Orientalni 65 (1997).

Ho, Koon-ki Tommy. “Cat Country: A Dystopian Satire.” Modern Chinese Literature 3 (1987): 71-90.

—–. “From the Absurdist to the Realist: A Reading of Lao She’s Teahouse from a Comparative Perspective.” Oriens Extremus 39, 2 (1996).

Hsia, C. T. “Lao She.” In Hsia, A History of Modern Chinese Fiction. 2nd ed. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1971, 165-88, 366-75.

Hu, King. “Lao She in England.” Tr. Cecelia Y. L. Tsim. Renditions 10 (1978): 46-52.

Huang, Alexander. “Cosmopolitanism and Its Discontents: The Dialectics between the Global and the Local in Lao She’s Fiction.” Modern Language Quarterly 69, 1 (March 2008): 97-118.

[Abstract: Modern Chinese fiction dealing with cultural others can be taken as a lens through which to reread the cosmopolitan theory. At stake in the debate between communitarianism and liberalism are the viability of single cultural membership and its validity. Lao She’s Self-Sacrifice (1934) and Dr. Wen (1936-37) question the viability of global cultural membership. For Lao She, cultural hotchpotch—as suggested by Salman Rushdie—is not an option. These novellas dramatize the dialectic between the global and the local at a crossroads of Chinese nationalism and Western imperialism. Lao She’s representation of Dr. Mao and Dr. Wen also pose challenging questions for his contemporaries and for twenty-first-century readers alike: Can one ever refuse to be defined by the local, either by birth or by acculturation? What are the implications and consequences if one so chooses?]

Hung, Chang-t’ai. “New Wine in Old Bottles.” In Hung, War and Popular Culture: Resistance in Modern China, 1937-1945. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1994, 187-220.

Jameson, Frederic. “Literary Innovation and Modes of Production: A Commentary.” Modern Chinese Literature 1, 1 (1984): 67-72.

Kao, George, ed. Two Writers and the Cultural Revolution: Lao She and Ch’en Jo-hsi. HK: Chinese UP, 1980.

—–. “Lao She in America-Arrival and Departure.” Renditions 10 (1978): 68-77.

Krauter, Uwe. “Opening the Door to a Strange World: Teahouse in Europe.” Chinese Literature 3 (March 1981): 116-23.

Isaacson, Nathaniel. “Lao She’s City of Cats.” In Isaacson, Celestial Empire: The Emergence of Chinese Science Fiction. Middleton, CT: Wesleyan University Press, 2017, 125-45.

Lao She Biography (Pegasos Website, Finland)

Lee, Leo Ou-fan. “Lao She’s ‘Black Li and White Li’: A Reading in Psychological Structure.” In Theodore Huters, ed., Reading the Modern Chnese Short Story. Armonk: M.E. Sharpe, 1990, 3-21.

LeMaster, J. R. “Lao She’s Children Talk About Their Father.” Tamkang Review 32, 2 (Winter 2001): 175-.

Leung, Yin-nan. “Lao She and the Philosophy of Food.” Asian Culture Quarterly 21, 4 (1993): 1-10.

Li, Peter. “Lao She and Chinese Folk Literature.” Chinoperl Papers 19 (1996): 1-20.

Lloyd, Gregory Arthur. The Two-storied Teahouse: Art and Politics in Lao She’s Plays. Ph.d. diss. Berkeley: University of California, 2000.

Louie, Kam. “Constructing Chinese Masculinity for the Modern World: with Particular Reference to Lao She’s The Two Mas.” China Quarterly 164 (2000): 1062-1078.

Lyell, William A. “Lao She.” In Thomas Moran, ed., Dictionary of Literary Biography–Chinese Fiction Writers, 1900-1949. Ed. NY: Thomson Gale, 2007, 79-94.

Meng Guanglai, et al. Lao She yanjiu lunwen ji (Collection of scholarly essays on Lao She). Jinan: Shandong renmin, 1983.

Meserve, Walter and Ruth Meserve. “Lao Sheh: From People’s Artist to an Enemy of the People.” Comparative Drama 8 (1974): 145-46.

Moran, Thomas. “The Reluctant Nihilism of Lao She’s Camel Xiangzi.” In Joshua Mostow, ed, and Kirk A. Denton, China section, ed., Columbia Companion to Modern East Asian Literatures. NY: Columbia UP, 2003, 4452-57. Rpt in Kirk A. Denton, ed., Columbia Companion to Modern Chinese Literature. NY: Columbia University Press, 2016, 211-16.

Munro, S.R. The Function of Satire in the Works of Lao She. Singapore: Chinese Language Centre, Nanyang University, 1977.

Prado-Fonts, Carles. “Beneath Two Red Banners: Lao She as a Manchu Writer in China.” In Shu-mei Shih, Chien-hsin Tsai, and Brian Bernards, eds., Sinophone Studies: A Critical Reader. New York: Columbia University Press, 2013, 353–363.

—–. “The Anxiety of Fiction: Reexamining Lao She’s Early Novels.” Modern Chinese Literature and Culture 26, 2 (Fall 2014): 177-215.

Raphals, Lisa. “Alterity and Alien Contact in Lao She’s Martian Dystopia, Cat Country.” Science Fiction Studies 40, no. 1 (2013): 73–85.

Shih, Vincent, Y.C. “Lao She, A Conformist? An Anatomy of a Wit under Constraint.” In David C. Buxbaum and Frederick W. Mote, eds., Transition and Permanence: Chinese History and Culture. HK: Cathay Press, 1972, 307-19.

Shu Yi 舒乙. Lao She zhi si 老舍之死 (The death of Lao She). Beijing: Guoji wenhua, 1987.

—–. “The Hidden Manchu Literature in Lao She’s Writings.” Trs. Britt Towery, Gu Jingyu, and Sui Gang. Journal of Modern Literature in Chinese. 2, 1 (July 1998): 133-38. Rpt. in Britt Towery. Lao She: China’s Master Storyteller. Waco, TX: The Tao Foundation, 1999, 205-11.

Slupski, Zbigniew. The Evolution of a Modern Chinese Writer: An Analysis of Lao She ‘s Fiction with Biographical and Bibliographical Appendices. Prague: Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences, 1966.

—–. “The Works of Lao She during the First Phase of His Career.” In Jaroslav Prusek, ed. Studies in Modern Chinese Literature. Berlin: Akademie-Verlag, 1964, 77-95.

Song, Weijie. “A Warped Hometown: Lao She and the Beijing Complex.” In Song, Mapping Modern Beijing: Space, Emotion, Literary Topography. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2018, 36-79.

Towery, Britt. Lao She: China’s Master Storyteller. Waco, TX: The Tao Foundation, 1999.

The Tower-Lao She Collection (SMU, Dallas TX) [contains biography, list of Lao She’s works, etc]

Ts’ao Yu. “In Memory of Lao Sheh.” Chinese Literature 11 (1978): 65-79.

Veg, Sebastian. Fictions du pouvoir chinois: Littérature, modernisme et démocratie au début du XXe siècle. Paris: Editions EHESS, 2009. [see in particular chapters 1 and 2]

Vohra, Ranbir. Lao She and the Chinese Revolution. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1974.

Wang, David. “Lao She’s Wartime Fiction.” Modern Chinese Literature 5, 2 (1989): 197-218.

—–. “Radical Laughter in Lao She and His Taiwan Successors.” In Goldblatt, ed. Worlds Apart: Recent Chinese Writing and its Audiences. Armonk: M. E. Sharpe, 1990,44-63.

—–. Fictional Realism in Twentieth-Century China: Mao Dun, Lao She, Shen Congwen. NY: Columbia University Press, 1992.

—–. “Camel Xiangzi (Rickshaw) by Lao She.” In Barbara Stoler Miller, ed., Masterworks of Asian Literature in Comparative Perspective: A Guide for Teaching. Armonk, NY: M. E. Sharpe, 1994, 321-30.

Witchard, Anne. Lao She in London. Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press, 2012.

[Abstract: ‘London is blacker than lacquer’. Lao She remains revered as one of China great modern writers. His life and work have been the subject of volumes of critique, analysis and study. However, the four years the young aspiring writer spent in London between 1924 and 1929 have largely been overlooked. Anne Witchard, a specialist in the modernist milieu of London between the wars, reveals Lao She’s encounter with British high modernism and literature from Dickens to Conrad to Joyce. Lao She arrived from his native Peking to the whirl of London’s West End scene – Bloomsburyites, Vorticists, avant-gardists of every stripe, Ezra Pound and the cabaret at the Cave of the Golden Calf. Immersed in the West End 1920s world of risqué flappers, the tabloid sensation of England’s ‘most infamous Chinaman Brilliant Chang’ and Anna May Wong’s scandalous film Piccadilly, simultaneously Lao She spent time in the notorious and much sensationalised East End Chinatown of Limehouse. Out of his experiences came his great novel of London Chinese life and tribulations – Ma & Son: Two Chinese in London. However, as Witchard reveals, Lao She’s London years affected his writing and ultimately the course of Chinese modernism in far more profound ways.]

Wong, Yoon Wah. “A Chinese Writer’s Vision of Modern Singapore: A Study of Lao She’s Novel Little Po’s Birthday.” In Wong, Essays on Chinese Literature. Singapore: Singapore University Press, 1988, 1-10.

—–. “Lao She’s Obsession with Joseph Conrad’s Stories of the Tropics.” In Wong, Post-Colonial Chinese Literatures in Singapore and Malaysia. Singapore: Dept of Chinese Studies, National University of Singapore, 2002, 127-40.

Xu, Jian. “Retrieving the Working Body in Modern Chinese Fiction: The Question of the Ethical in Representation.” Modern Chinese Literature and Culture 16, 1 (Spring 2004): 115-52. [deals with stories by Lu Xun, Mao Dun, Lao She, and Xiao Hong]

Yi-Tsang, Jung-Sun. L’Humour de Lao She. Paris: You-feng, 1998.

Ying, Ruocheng. “Lao She and His Teahouse.” Westerly 26, 3 (Sept 1981): 89-93. Y

Zhao, Qiguang. “Who is Ruan Ming? A Political Mystery in Lao She’s Camel Xiangxi.” China Information 12, 3 (Winter 97-98): 104-22.

Lao Xiang 老向

Hung, Chang-t’ai. “New Wine in Old Bottles.” In Hung, War and Popular Culture: Resistance in Modern China, 1937-1945. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1994, 187-220.

Li Ang 李昂

Chang, Bi-Yu. “Taiwan Identity Shift and the Struggle for Cultural Hegemony in the 1990s.” In Chin-Chuan Cheng, I-Chun Wang, and Steven Tötösy de Zepetnek. Cultural Discourse in Taiwan. Kaohsiung: National Sun Yatsen U, 2009.

Chang, Hui-Ching. “Learning Speaking Skills from Our Ancient Philosophers: Transformation of Taiwanese Culture as Observed from Popular Books.” Journal of Asian Pacific Communication 11, 2 (2001): 109-33.

Chang, Jui-Shan. “Refashioning Womanhood in 1990s Taiwan: An Analysis of the Taiwanese Edition of ‘Cosmopolitan’ Magazine.” Modern China 30, 3 (2004): 361-97.

—–. “Scripting Extramarital Affairs: Marital Mores, Gender Politics, and Infidelity in Taiwan.” Modern China 25, 1 (1999): 69-99.

Chang, Kathryn Yalan. “Ang Li’s The Butcher’s Wife (Shafu) and Taiwan Ecocriticism.” In Simon C. Estok and Won-Chung Kim, eds., East Asian Ecocriticisms: A Critical Reader. NY: Palgrave MacMillan, 2013.

Chen, Ya-chen. “Qian niang de shou ru xiuting, bieren yenyu buke ting: Li Ang Shafu zhong de xing nuedai xing huanyu yu xing yayi” (I lead my darling girl by holding her hands into her chamber, pay no heed to what others say: sadomasochism, jouissance, sexual Oppression in Li Ang’s The Butcher’s Wife). (with an interview with Li Ang in Taiwan). Dangdai (Con-Temporary) 187 (March 2003).

—–. “Taiwanese Communist Feminist, Xie Xuehong: Li Ang’s Literary Portrait of Xie Xuehong’s Pre-1949 Feminist Activism in Taiwan.” American Journal of Chinese Studies 19, 2 (Oct. 2012).

[Abstract: The article presents an examination into the life and activism of the Taiwanese feminist Xie Xuehong and her literary representation through the works of author Li Ang. A biographical overview of Xie Xuehong’s life is included, particularly in regard to her political life. An overview of the feminist movement in Taiwan is also provided. Focus is then given to Li Ang’s biographical fiction work “Zizhuan no xiaoshuo,” (“Autobiography: A Novel”), and her historical travelogue “Piaoliu zhi” (“A Drifting Journey”), stressing how the author sought to emphasize Xie Xuehong’s place within pre-1949 Taiwanese feminism.]

Chen, Zhongming. “Theorising about New Modes of Representation and Ideology in the Postmodern Age: The Practice of Margaret Atwood, and Li Ang.” Canadian Review of Comparative Literature/Revue Canadienne de Littérature Comparée 21, 3 (Sept. 1994).

Chiang, Shu-chen. Literary Feminism in Taiwan. Ph. D. diss. Rochester: U of Rochester, 1995.

Chien, Ying-ying. “From Utopian to Dystopian World: Two Faces of Feminism in Contemporary Taiwanese Women’s Fiction.” World Literature Today 68, 1 (Winter, 1994): 35-42.

—–. “Women Crossing the Wild Zone: Sexual/Textual Politics in the Fiction of Ding Ling and Li Ang.” Fu Jen Studies 28 (1995): 1-17.

—–. “The Impact of American Feminism on Modern Taiwanese Fiction by Women.” In Earl Miner, Toru Haga, Gerald Gillespie, Margaret Higonnet, and Sumie Jones, eds., Visions in History: Visions of the Other. Tokyo: International Comparative Literature Association, 1995, 631-36.

Chiu, Kuei-fen. “Identity Politics in Contemporary Women’s Novels in Taiwan.” In Peng-hsiang Chen and Whitney Crothers Dilley, eds., Feminism/Femininity in Chinese Literature. Amsterdam: Rodopi, 2002, 67-86.

—–. “Taking Off: A Feminist Approach to Two Contemporary Women’s Novels in Taiwan.” Tamkang Review 23, 1-4 (1992): 709-33.

—–. “Women Writers and Taiwan Literary History.”Chung-wai Literary Monthly 27, 9 (1999): 11-13.

Chung, Ling, Shu-ching Chu, and Michael Geary. “Feminism and Female Taiwan Writers.” In Pang-yuan Chi and David Der-wei Wang, eds., Chinese Literature in the Second Half of a Modern Century: A Critical Survey. Bloomington: Indiana UP, 2000, 146-60.

Dell, Sylvia. Chinesische Gegenwartsliterature asu taiwan: Die Autorin Li Ang: Erzahlprosa und Rezeption bis 1984. Bochum: Brockmeyer, 1988.

Fan, Ming-ju. “From Homogeneity to Heterogeneity: Women’s Literature in Contemporary Taiwan.” The Stockholm Journal of Asian Studies 10 (1999): 215-22.

—–. The Changing Concepts of Love: Fiction by Taiwan Women Writers. PhD Diss. Madison: U of Wisconsin-Madison, 1994.

Gates, Hill. “The Commoditization of Chinese Women.” Signs 14.4 (Summer 1989): 799-832.

Goldblatt, Howard. “Sex and Society: The Fiction of Li Ang.” In Howard Goldblatt, ed. Worlds Apart: Recent Chinese Writing and its Audiences. Armonk: M.E. Sharpe, 150-65.

Haddon, Rosemary. “From Pulp to Politics: Aspects of Topicality in Fiction by Li AngModern Chinese Literature and Culture 13, 1 (Spring 2001): 36-72.

—–. “Li Ang.” In Thomas Moran and Ye (Dianna) Xu, eds., Chinese Fiction Writers, 1950-2000. Dictionary of Literature Biography, vol. 370. Detroit: Thomson Gale, 2013, 134-40.

Hillenbrand, Margaret. “The National Allegory Revisited: Writing Private and Public in Contemporary Taiwan.” positions: east asia cultures critique 14, 3 (2006): 633-62.

The Li Ang Archive (Chung-hsing University, Humanities and Social Science Research Center)

Liao, Chaoyang. “History, Exchange, and the Object Voice: Reading Li Ang’s Recent Fiction.” On-line works of Liao Chaoyang.

—–. “History, Exchange, and the Object Voice: Reading Li Ang’s The Strange Garden and All Sticks Are Welcome in the Censer of Beigang.” in David Der-wei Wang and Carlos Rojas eds., Writing Taiwan: A New Literary History. Durham, NC: Duke UP, 2006, 348-69.

—–. “From Shame to Freedom: Undoing Spectral Identity in Li Ang’s Seeing Ghosts.”In Carlos Rojas and Andrea Bachner, eds., The Oxford Handbook of Modern Chinese Literatures. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2016, 722-45.

Liao, Sebastion Hsien-hao. “Jekyll Is and Hyde Isn’t: Negotiating the Nationalization of Identity in The Mystery Garden and ‘Breakfast at Tiffany’s.'” Journal of Modern Literature in Chinese 5, 1 (2001): 65-92.

Liou, Liang-Ya. “At the Intersection of the Global and the Local: Representations of Male Homosexuality in Fictions by Pai Hsien-yung, Li Ang, Chu Tien-wen and Chi Ta-wei.” Postcolonial Studies 6, 2 (2003): 191-206.

Liu, Joyce C.H. “From Loo Port to Taipei: The World of Women in Lee Ang’s Works.” Fu Jen Studies: Literature and Linguistics 19 (1986): 65-88.

Martin, Helmut. “From Sexual Protest to Feminist Social Criticism: Li Ang’s Works 1967-1987.” in Wong Yoon Wah, ed., Chinese Literature in Southeast Asia. Singapore: Goethe-Institut, 1989, 127-51.

Ng, Sheung-Yuen Daisy. “Feminism in the Chinese Context: Li Ang’s The Butcher’s Wife.” Modern Chinese Literature 4, 1/2 (1988): 177-200.

—–. “Li Ang’s Experiments with the Epistolary Form.” Modern Chinese Literature 3, 1/2 (1987): 91-106.

—–. “The Labyrinth of Meaning: A Reading of Li Ang’s Fiction.” Tamkang Review 18, 1-4 (1987-88): 97-123.

—–. “Of Sound and Fury: Li Ang.” In Lily Xiao-hong Lee, ed., Biographical Dictionary of Chinese Women: Twentieth Century Volume. Armonk, N.Y.: M E Sharpe, 2003, 295-97.

Sterk, Darryl. “The Spirit of Deer Town and the Redemption of Li Ang’s Uncanny Literary Home.” Chinese Literature Today 2, 1 (2011): 24-30.

Wu, Fatima. “City Women: Contemporary Taiwan Women Writers.” World Literature Today 76, 2 (2002): 135.

—–. “Taipei People / Taipei jen.” World Literature Today 75, 1 (2001): 102-03.

—–. “A Place of One’s Own: Stories of Self in China, Taiwan, Hong Kong, and Singapore.” World Literature Today 74, 3 (2000): 582.

Wu Yanna 吳燕娜 (Yenna Wu). “Baoli, xingbie yu zhutixing: Li Ang de ‘Shafu’ he Tan Zhongdao de ‘Canghai zhi yisu'” 暴力、性別與主體性: 李昂的《殺夫》和譚中道的 滄海之一粟. In Taiwan jin wushinian xiandai xiaoshuo lunwenji 台灣近五十年現代小說論文集. Ed. Chai Jen-nien 蔡振念 et al. Kaohsiung: National Sun Yat-sen University, 2007. 55-99.

Wu, Yenna, ed. Li Ang’s Visionary Challenges to Gender, Sex, and Politics. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 2014. [MCLC Resource Center review by Chia-lan Sharon Wang]

[Abstract: Li Ang’s Visionary Challenges to Gender, Sex, and Politics is the first collection of critical essays in English on Li Ang and some of her most celebrated works. Contributing historians examine her vital roles in the Taiwanese women’s movement and political arenas, as well as the social influence of her publications on extramarital affairs. Contributing literary scholars investigate the feminist controversy over her 1983 award-winning novel, Shafu (Killing the Husband; translated as The Butcher’s Wife); offer alternative interpretative strategies such as looking into figurations of “biopower” and relationship dynamics; dissect the subtle political significance in her magnificent novel Miyuan (The labyrinthine garden; 1991) and explosive political fiction, Beigang xianglu renren cha (Everyone sticks incense into the Beigang censer; 1997) from the perspective of gender and national identity; scrutinize the multiple discursive levels in her superb novel Qishi yinyuan zhi Taiwan/Zhongguo qingren (Seven prelives of affective affinity: Taiwan/China lovers; 2009); and analyze the “(dis)embodied subversion” accomplished by her fantastic Kandejian de gui (Visible ghosts; 2004).]

—–. “Li Ang’s Gendered Dissent in ‘The Devil in a Chastity Belt.'” Frontiers of Literary Study in China 8, 2 (June 2014): 253-76.

[Abstract: Through a close reading, this article explores a few aspects of gendered dissent in Li Ang’s story, “The Devil in a Chastity Belt,” which reveals the ambivalence and irony of a woman’s participation in the Taiwanese opposition movement. Instead of writing a stereotypical work of political fiction for the opposition movement that she supports, Li Ang interrogates the problematic intersection of gender and politics, while reclaiming some of the neglected aspects of oppositional history. While recognizing the inevitability of historical contingency, she nevertheless questions the politically-motivated choice of asceticism, heroism, and sacrifice over individual and familial well-being. Li juxtaposes seemingly trivial and disorderly details of ordinary life against the apparently important and grandiose arena of national politics, creating tension through their interaction and contention. She employs images—including the Devil, the female body, and sensory feelings—to perform gendered dissent. While the lyrical and trivial discourse gradually disrupts the political and didactic, the story’s open-ended conclusion inspires complex interpretations of the enigmatic symbol: the Devil wearing a chastity belt.]

—–. “Female Literary Talent and Gender-related Trauma in Li Ang’s ‘No-sky Ghost.’”  American Journal of Chinese Studies 22, 1 (April 2015): 59-76.

Yeh, Michelle. “Shapes of Darkness: Symbols in Li Ang’s Dark Night.” In Michael S. Duke, ed., Modern Chinese Women Writers: Critical Appraisals. NY: M. E. Sharpe, Inc., 1989, 78-95.

Yue, Gang. “Embodied Spaces of Home: Xiao Hong, Wang Anyi, and Li Ang.” In The Mouth that Begs: Hunger, Cannibalism, and the Politics of Eating in Modern China. Durham: Duke University Press, 1999, 293-330.

Zhu, Aijun. “Li Ang: Sexualizing National Politics.” In Feminism and Global Chineseness: The Cultural Production of Controversial Women Authors. Youngstown, N.Y.: Cambria, 2007, 175-228.

Li Baifeng 李白凤

Li, Pao-ching. “What Song Is This?” In Hualing Nieh, ed., Literature of the Hundred Flowers, Volume II: Poetry and Fiction. NY: Columbia UP, 1981, 172-78.

Li Bihua (Lilian Lee) 李碧华

Chen, Ya-chen, ed. Ba wang bie ji: tongzhi yuedu yu kua wenhua duihua (Farewell My Concubine: Same-Sex Readings and Cross-Cultural Dialogues). Chia-i, Taiwan: Nanhua daxue, 2004. [Nan Hua University Press’s Official Website of the Book]

Huss, Ann L. “Qingshe: A Story Retold.” Chinese Culture 38, 1 (1997): 75-94. (modern retelling of the “Legend of the Green Snake”)

Luo, Liang. “Writing Green Snake, Dancing White Snake, and the Cultural Revolution as Memory and Imagination–centered on Yan Geling’s Baishe.” Frontiers of Literary Studies in China 11, 1 (2017): 7-37.

[Abstract: Following Kenneth King’s pioneering transmedial synthetic writings on post‐modern dance practices and Kimerer L. LaMothe’s call for dance to be treated seriously in religious and philosophical discourses, I examine Yan Geling’s novella Baishe (White Snake, 1998), in relation to Lilian Lee’s novel Qingshe (Green Snake, 1986–93), with a focus on how dancing and writing function literally, metaphorically, dialectically, and reciprocally, in these narratives. In my textual and contextual analyses of Yan’s White Snake text, I borrow Daria Halprin’s therapeutic model for accessing life experiences through the body in motion. I argue that, through a creative use of writing and dancing as key metaphors for identity formation and transformation, Yan’s text, in the context of contemporary China, offers innovative counter‐narratives of gender, writing, and the body. Yan’s White Snake is considered in the following three contexts in this paper: firstly, the expressiveness of the female body in the White Snake story; secondly, the tradition and significance of writing women in Chinese literary history; and thirdly, the development of dance as a profession in the PRC, with a real‐life snake dancer at the center. These three different frameworks weave an intricate tapestry that reveals the dialectics of writing and dancing, and language and the body, throughout the latter half of twentieth‐century China. Furthermore, Yan’s text foregrounds the Cultural Revolution as an important chronotope for experimentation with a range of complex gender identities in relation to the expressive and symbolic powers of dancing and writing.]

Li Boyuan 李伯元

Lancashire, Douglas. Li Po-yuan. Boston: Twayne, 1981.

Li Chuli 李初棃

Galik, Marian. “Feng Nai-ch’ao, Li Ch’u-li and their Leftis Theory of Art and Literature.” In Galik, The Genesis of Modern Chinese Liteary Criticism (1917-1930). London: Curzon Press, 1980, 308-20.

Li Cunbao 李存葆

Li, Peter. “War and Modernity in Chinese Military Fiction.” Society 34, 5 (July 1997): 77-89. [deals in part with Li Cunbao’s Wreath at the Foot of the Mountain and Xu Huaizhong’s Anecdotes on the Western Front]

Li Dazhao 李大钊

Huang, Sung-k’ang. Li Ta-chao and the Impact of Marxism on Modern Chinese Thinking. The Hague: Mouton, 1965.

—–. “The Ultimate Realization of the Confucian Ideal: Universal Harmony as Seen by China’s Revolutionary Thinker Li Dazhao (1889-1927).” Ultimate Reality and Meaning 9, 3 (1986).

Liu, Guisheng. “A Critical Analysis of the Political Thought of Li Dazhao during the Period of the 1911 Revolution.” Tr. Marilyn Levine. Chinese Studies in History (Summer 1989): 64-80.

Meisner, Maurice. Li Ta-chao and the Origins of Chinese Marxism. New York: Atheneum, 1970.

Pozzana, Claudia. “Spring, Temporality, and History in Li Dazhao.” positions: east asia cultures critique 3, 2 (1995): 283-305.

Li Guowen 李国文

Chou, Li-po. “Veiled Enmity.” In Hualing Nieh, ed., Literature of the Hundred Flowers, Volume II: Poetry and Fiction. NY: Columbia UP, 1981, 406-10.

Li Guoxiu (Lee Kuo-shiu or Hugh K. S. Lee) 李國修

Weinstein, John B. “Stay or Go: Li Guoxiu’s Ambiguous Answer to the Taiwan Question.” In Charles Laughlin, ed., Contested Modernity in Chinese Literature. NY: Palgrave Macmillan, 2005, 141-55.

Li Jian

Louie, Kam. “Literary Double-Think in Post-Mao China: The Case of Li Jian.” In Louie, Between Fact and Fiction: Essays on Post-Mao Chinese Literature and Society. Sydney: Wild Peony, 1989, 21-37.

Li Jiantong 李建彤

Holm, David. “The Strange Case of Liu Zhidan.” In Jonathan Unger, ed. Using the Past to Serve the Present: Historiography and Politics in Contemporary China. Armonk: M.E. Sharpe, 1993, 104-23.

Li Jianwu 李健吾

Fu, Poshek. “Resistance: Li Jianwu and the Theater of Commitment.” In Fu, Passivity, Resistance, and Collaboration: Intellectual Choices in Occupied Shanghai, 1937-1945. Stanford: SUP, 1993, 68-109.

Li Jieren 李劼人

Ng, Kenny K. K. Monumental Fictions: Geopoetic, Li Jieren, and Historical Imagination in Twentieth-Century China. Ph.d diss. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University, 2004.

—–. “Temporality and Polyphony in Li Jieren’s The Great Wave.” In Tao Dongfeng, Yang Xiaobin, Rosemary Roberts, and Yang Ling, eds. Chinese Revolution and Chinese Literature. Cambridge: University of Cambridge Press, 2009, 197-224.

—–. Lost Geopoetic Horizon of Li Jieren: The Crisis of Writing Chengdu in Revolutionary China. Leiden: Brill, 2015. [MCLC Resource Center review by Yuehtsen Juliette Chung]

[Abstract: Engaged with the paradigms of cultural geography, local history, spatial politics, and everyday life, The Lost Geopoetic Horizon of Li Jieren unveils a Sichuan writer’s lifelong quest: an independent historical fiction writing project on Chengdu from the turn of the century through China’s 1911 Revolution. Kenny Kwok-kwan Ng’s study illuminates the crisis of writing home in a globalized age by rescuing Li Jieren’s repeatedly revised but never finished river-novel series written from Republican to Communist China, struggling to liberate local memory from the national cum revolutionary currents. The book undercuts official historiography and rewrites Chinese literary history from the ground up by highlighting Li’s resilient geopoetics of writing that decenters the nation by adopting the place-based view of a distant province.]

Li Jinfa 李金发

Liu, David Jason. “Chinese ‘Symbolist’ Verse in the 1920’s: Li Chin-fa and Mu Mu-t’ien.” Tamkang Review. 12, 3 (1981): 27-53.

Mi, Jiayan. Self-Fashioning and Reflexive Modernity in Modern Chinese Poetry. Lewiston, NY: Edwin Mellen, 2004.

[Abstract: This study explores diverse modes of self-fashioning in the discursive formation of Chinese modernity between 1919 and 1949 in modern Chinese poetry. By focusing on four representative poets of modern Chinese poetry before 1949—Guo Moruo, Li Jinfa, Dai Wangshu, and Mu Dan, the study offers fresh, insightful analysis of the dynamic trajectory of the historical complexity of fashioning a new modern self-subjectivity with relation to the nation-state. Theoretically informed by the varied perspectives of modernity, the self, the body, and memory, the author for the first time reveals how the corporeal body emerges as a site of agency, trauma, and libidinal investment for engaging with the configuration of a multi-layered self, gender, and nationhood in modern China. This work will make several significant contributions to enhancing readers’ understanding of the cultural and psychological complexity of modern China. This work will be of interest to teachers, students and scholars of modern Chinese literature and culture as well as comparative literature.]

Tu, Kuo-Ch’ing. “Symbolist Imagery in Li Jinfa’s Weiyu.” Journal of Oriental Studies 25, 2 (1987): 187-96.

—–. “The Introduction of French Symbolism into Modern Chinese Poetry.” Tamkang Review 10, 3&4 (1980): 343-67.

—–. “Li Chin-fa and Kamara Ariake: The First Symbolist Poets in China and Japan.” in Essays in Commemoration of the Golden Jubilee of the Fung Ping Shan Library. University of HK, 1982.

Li Li

Yeh, Michelle. “The Divided Self and the Search for Redemption: A Study of Li Li’s Fiction.” In Hsin-sheng C. Kao, ed., Nativism Overseas: Contemporary Chinese Women Writers. Albany: SUNY Press, 1993, 187-206.

Li Peifu 李佩甫

Shu, Yunzhong. “Pastoral Aspirations, Responsibilities and Strategies: A Novelist’s Solution for the Moral Crisis in China.” Frontiers of Literary Studies in China 10, 2 (2016): 169-83.

[Abstract: Since the late 1970s China has implemented sweeping economic reforms… At the same time, it has not officially adjusted its previous moral code. As a result, the country is now faced with a widespread moral crisis characterized by greed and anomie. To offer a remedy for this crisis in his novel The Door of the Sheep (1999), Li Peifu, a noted writer from Henan Province, creates a village leader intent on maintaining his authoritative moral position as a shepherd by restraining his corporeal desires and exercising his authority on his flock and for his flock. In a subsequent novel entitled Gold House (2000), Li highlights the pervasive moral disorientation in a village where nobody assumes a pastoral position. The present article analyzes these two novels in connection with the sociopolitical environment of contemporary China. Special attention will be paid to Li’s interpretation of human selfishness as the root cause of the moral crisis and his attempt to offer a politically feasible and morally effective solution.]

Li Qiao 李乔

Hillenbrand, Margaret. “Trauma and the Politics of Identity: Form and Function in the Fictional Narratives of the February 28th Incident.” Modern Chinese Literature and Culture 17, 2 (Fall 2005): 49-89. [deals in part with “The Tale of Mt. Taimu”]

Lin, Pei-yin. “Remaking ‘Taiwan’: Literary Representations of the 2.28 Incident by Lin Yaode and Li Qiao.” In Ann Heylen and Scott Sommers, eds., Becoming Taiwan: From Colonialism to Democracy. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz Verlag, 2010, 63-79.

Scruggs, Bert M. “Li Qiao.” In Thomas Moran and Ye (Dianna) Xu, eds., Chinese Fiction Writers, 1950-2000. Dictionary of Literature Biography, vol. 370. Detroit: Thomson Gale, 2013, 141-48.

Storm, Carsten. “Historicity and Idenity in Li Qiao’s Wintry Night.” In Carsten Storm and Mark Harrison, eds., The Margins of Becoming: Identity and Culture in Taiwan. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, 2007, 101-16.

Li Rui 李锐

Coers, Donald. “An Interview with the Chinese Writer Li Rui.” The Texas Review 11, 1/2 (Spring/Summer 190): 18-25.

Guptak, Suman. “Li Rui, Mo Yan, Yan Lianke, and Lin Bai: Four Contemporary Chinese Writers Interviewed.” Wasafiri 23, 3 (2008): 28-36.

Shu, Yunzhong. “Tell It Like It Was: Li Rui’s Historicist Depiction of Revolution.” Korean Journal of Chinese Language and Literature 2 (2012): 191-210.

Li Xintian 李心田

Dolezelova-Velingerova, Milena. “Li Xintian’s Novel The Bright Red Star: The Making of a Revolutionary Hero.” In Wolfgang Kubin and Rudolf Wagner, eds., Essays in Modern Chinese Literature and LIterary Criticism. Bochum: Brokmeyer, 1982, 150-67.

Li Yongping 李永平

Chang, Sung-sheng Yvonne. Modernism and the Nativist Resistance: Contemporary Chinese Fiction from Taiwan. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1993.

Chen, Lingchei Letty. “Retribution: The Jiling Chronicles.” MCLC Resource Center (2006).

Chen, Yaling. “Occupying the Literary ‘Heartland.'” Taiwan Panorama 23, 7 (1998): 100-07.

Chiu, Kuei-Fen. “Empire of the Chinese Sign: The Question of Chinese Diasporic Imagination in Transnational Literary Production.” The Journal of Asian Studies 67, 2 (2008): 593-620.

Groppe, Alison. Not Made in China: Inventing Local Identities in Contemporary Malaysian Chinese Fiction (Li Yongping, Huang Jinshu, Li Tianbao, Li Zishu, Singapore). Ph. D. diss. Cambridge: Harvard University, 2006.

Lau, Joseph, S.M. ” The Tropics Mytho-poetized: The Extraterritorial Writing of Li Yung-p’ing in the Context of the Hsiang-t’u Movement.” Tamkang Review 12, 1 (1981): 1-26.

Li Yongping. Contemporary Chinese Writers (Cambridge: MIT).

Liang, Min Min. “Interview with Li Yongping.” Tr. by Min-min Liang. Contemporary Chinese Writers. Cambridge: MIT)

Ng, Kim-chew. “Minor Sinophone Literature: Diasporic Modernity’s Incomplete Journey.” In Jing Tsu and David Der-wei Wang, eds., Global Chinese Literature: Critical Essays. Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill, 2010.

Rojas, Carlos. “Of Motherlands and Maternities: Spectal Topographies in Li Yongping’s Haidong Qing.” In David Wang and Joyce Liu, eds., Writing Taiwan: Strategies of Representation. Durham: Duke UP, forthcoming.

—–. “Li Yongping.” In Edward Davis, ed., Encyclopedia of Contemporary Chinese Culture. London: Taylor and Francis, 2005, 460.

—–. “Paternities and Expatriotism: Li Yongping’s Zhu Ling Manyou Xianjing and the Politics of Rupture.” Tamkang Review 29, 2 (Winter 1998): 22-44.

—–. “Li Yongping and Spectral Cartography.” In David Der-wei Wang and Carlos Rojas eds., Writing Taiwan: A New Literary History. Durham, NC: Duke UP, 2006, 324-47. Rtp. in Rojas, The Naked Gaze: Reflections on Chinese Modernity. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Asia Center, 2008, 187-212.

Sun, Ziping. “ An Interview with Li Yongping.” Contemporary Chinese Writers (Cambridge, MIT).

Tong, Tee Kim. “Li Yongping.” In Thomas Moran and Ye (Dianna) Xu, eds., Chinese Fiction Writers, 1950-2000. Dictionary of Literature Biography, vol. 370. Detroit: Thomson Gale, 2013, 149-56.

Wang, David. “Imaginary Nostalgia: Shen Congwen, Song Zelai, Mo Yan, and Li Yongping.” In Ellen Widmer and David Wang, eds., From May Fourth to June Fourth: Fiction and Film in Twentiety-Century China. Cambridge: Harvard UP, 1993, 107-132.

Li Zehou 李泽厚

Cauvel, Jane. “The Transformative Power of Art: Li Zehou’s Aesthetic Theory.” Philosophy East and West 49, 2 (April 1999): 150-173.

Chan, Sylvia. “Li Zehou’s Theory of Ethics: A Synthesis of Marxism and Confucianism?” New Zealand Journal of East Asian Studies 2, 1 (1994): 50-65.

Chong, Woei Lien. “Combining Kant with Marx: The Philosophical Anthropology of Li Zehou,” Philosophy East and West (April 1999): 120–149.

—–. “History as the Realization of Beauty: Li Zehou’s Aesthetic Marxism.” In Chong, Woei Lien, ed., “Li Zehou,” special theme issue of Contemporary Chinese Thought 31, 2 (Winter 1999/2000): 3–19.

—–. “Li Zehou.” In W.M. Theodore de Bary and Richard Lufrano, eds, Sources of Chinese Tradition. 2nd ed. NY: Columbia UP, 2002, vol. 2, chapter 39, 579–581.

—–, ed. “Li Zehou.” Special theme issue of Contemporary Chinese Thought 31, 2 (Winter 1999/2000).

—–. “Mankind and Nature in Chinese Thought: Li Zehou on the Traditional Roots of Maoist Voluntarism.” China Information 9, 2/3 (Autumn/Winter 1996): 138–175.

—–. “Philosophy in An Age of Crisis. Three Thinkers in Post-Cultural Revolution China: Li Zehou, Liu Xiaobo and Liu Xiaofeng.” In Woei Lien Chong ed., China’s Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution: Master Narratives and Post-Mao Counternarratives. Boulder, CO: Rowman and Littlefield, 2002, 215-254.

Gu, Xin. “Hegelianism and Chinese Intellectual Discourse: A Study of Li Zehou.” Journal of Contemporary China no. 8 (Winter/Spring 1995): 1–27.

—–. “Subjectivity, Modernity, and Chinese Hegelian Marxism: A Study of Li Zehou’s Philosophical Ideas from a Comparative Perspective.” Philosophy East and West 46, 2 (April 1996): 205–45.

Lin, Min. “The Search for Modernity: Chinese Intellectual Discourse and Society, 1978-1988–The Case of Li Zehou.” China Quarterly 4 (1992): 969-98.

Lin, Min and Maria Galikowski. “Li Zehou and His Enlightenment Philosophy.” In Min Lin and Maria Galikowski, The Search for Modernity: Chinese Intellectuals and Cultural Discourse in the Post-Mao Era. NY: St. Martin’s Press, 1999, 39-70.

Peterson, Kent M. “A Dialog with Li Zehou. The Sensate, the Individual, My Choice. A Translation of Contemporary Chinese Thinker Liu Xiaobo.” Chinese Studies in Philosophy 25, 4 (Summer 1994): 4-73.

Pohl, Karl-Heinz. “Zu Beiträgen Li Zehous in der Debatte um Tradition und Identität in den 80er Jahren in der Volksrepublik China.” (On Li Zehou’s contributions to the 1980s debate on tradition and identity in the People’s Republic of China). Pp. 41–56 in Sinologische Traditionen im Spiegel neuer Forschung (Sinological traditions in the light of new research), edited by Ralf Moritz. Leipzig: Universitätsverlag, 1993.

Rošker, Jana S. “Li Zehou’s View on Chinese Modernization and the Precarious Relationship Between Marx and Confucius.” Problemos (2016).

Li Zhun 李准

Chen, Tan-cen. “Li Chun’s Short Stories.” Chinese Literature 10 (Oct. 1964): 90-96.

Van Fleit Hang, Krista. “Creativity and Containment in the Transformations of Li Shuangshuang.” In Van Fleit Hang, Literature the People Love: Reading Chinese Texts from the Early Maoist Period (1949-1966). NY: Palgrave Macmillan, 2013, 57-90. [MCLC Resource Center review by Richard King]

Li Ziyun 李子雲

Zhong, Xueping. “Shanghai Literature and Beyond: An Interview with Li Ziyun.” Modern Chinese Literature 9, 1 (Spring 1995): 101-12.

Liang Bin 梁斌

Chen, Xiaoming. “Personal Recollection and the Historicization of Literature: Keep the Red Flag Flying as a Case Study of the Complexity of Revolutionary Literature.” In Tao Dongfeng, Yang Xiaobin, Rosemary Roberts, and Yang Ling, eds. Chinese Revolution and Chinese Literature. Cambridge: University of Cambridge Press, 2009, 225-44.

Liang Bingjun 梁秉钧 (Leung Ping-kwan, see also Ye Si)

Abbas, Ackbar. “Introduction.” City at the End of Time. Trs. Gordon T. Osing and Leung Ping-kwan. HK: Twilight Books, 1992.

Chow, Rey. “Things, Common/Places, Passages of the Port City: On Hong Kong and Hong Kong Author Leung Ping-kwan.” differences 5 (fall 1993): 179-204. Rpt. in Shu-mei Shih and Chien-hsin Tsai, eds. Sinophone Studies: A Critical Reader. NY: Columbia University Press, 2013, 207-26.

—–. “Consumption and Eccentric Writing: Notes on Two Hong Kong Authors.” Communal/Portal 7, 1 (1999): 45-58.

—–. “Thinking with Food, Writing Off Center: Notes on Two Hong Kong Authors.” In Jing Tsu and David Der-wei Wang, eds., Global Chinese Literature: Critical Essays. Leiden: Brill, 2010, 133-55.

“Interview with Leung Ping-kwan.” In “Tasting Asia: Twelve Poems” [Chinese original and English Tr.] Tr. by the author. Modern Chinese Literature and Culture 17, 1 (Spring 2005): 8-31. [clicking the link will download a pdf file of the translations and interview]

Liang Hanyi 梁寒衣

Sieber, Patricia. “Liang Hanyi” In Sieber, ed. Red Is Not the Only Color: Contemporary Chinese Fiction on Love and Sex between Women, Collected Stories. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield, 2001, 190-91.

Liang Qichao 梁启超

Andolfatto, Lorenzo. “Making Sense of Incompleteness: Approximations of Utopia in Liang Qichao’s Xin Zhongguo Weilai Ji and Chen Tianhua’s Shizi Hou.” Ming Qing Studies (2015): 15-44.

Bai, Limin. “Children and the Survival of China: Liang Qichao on Education Before the 1898 Reform.” Late Imperial China 22, 2 (2001) 124-155.

Bing, Sang. “Japan and Liang Qichao’s Research in the Field of National Learning.” Sino-Japanese Studies 12, 1 (Nov. 1999): 5-24.

Chang, Hao. Liang Chi-chao and Intellectual Transition in China, 1890-1907. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1971.

Chen, Jianhua. “The Late Qing Poetry Revolution: Liang Qichao, Huang Zunxian, and Chinese Literary Modernity.” In Joshua Mostow, ed, and Kirk A. Denton, China section, ed., Columbia Companion to Modern East Asian Literatures. NY: Columbia UP, 2003, 333-40. Rpt in Kirk A. Denton, ed., Columbia Companion to Modern Chinese Literature. NY: Columbia University Press, 2016, 89-96.

Davies, Gloria. “Liang Qichao in Australia: A Sojourn of No Significance?” East Asian History 21 (June 2001): 65-110.

Des Forges, Alexander. “The Uses of Fiction: Liang Qichao and His Contemporaries.” In Joshua Mostow, ed, and Kirk A. Denton, China section, ed., Columbia Companion to Modern East Asian Literatures. NY: Columbia UP, 2003, 341-47. Rpt in Kirk A. Denton, ed., Columbia Companion to Modern Chinese Literature. NY: Columbia University Press, 2016, 97-103.

Fogel, Joshua A., ed. The Role of Japan in Liang Qichao’s Introduction of Modern Western Civilization to China. Berkeley: University of California, Institute of East Asian Studies, Center for Chinese Studies, 2004.

Galik, Marian. “Liang Ch’i-ch’ao and Wang Kuo-wei: The First Impact of Modern Foreign Ideas on Chinese Literary World.” In Galik, ed., Milestones in Sino-Western Literary Confrontation (1898-1979). Weisbaden: Otto Harrassowitz, 1986, 7-18.

Gao, Yunwen. “Nationalism, Ethnicity, and Colonial Modernity in Liang Qichao’s Ban Dingyuan Conquering the Western Region 班定遠平西域.” Ming Qing Studies (2015): 159-174.

Huang, K’o-wu. “Liang Qichao and Immanuel Kant.” Trs. Minghui Hu and Joshua Fogel. In Joshua Fogel, ed., The Role of Japan in Liang Qichao’s Introduction of Modern Western Civilization to China. Berkeley: China Research Monograph, University of California, 2004.

Huang, Philip C. Liang Chi-chao and Modern Chinese Liberalism. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1972.

—–. “Liang Ch’i-ch’ao: The Idea of the New Citizen and the Influence of Meiji Japan.” In David Buxbaum and F. Mote eds., Transition and Permanence: Chinese History and Culture. HK: Cathay, 1972, 71-102.

Kurtz, Joachim. “Translating the Vocation of Man: Liang Qichao (1873-1929), J. F. Fichte, and the Body Politic in Early Republican China.” In Martin Burke and Melvin Richter, eds., Why Concepts Matter: Translating Social and Political Thought. Leiden: Brill, 2012, 153-75.

Larson, Jane Leung. “Articulating China’s First Mass Movement: Kang Youwei, Liang Qichao, the Baohuanghui, and the 1905 Anti-American Boycott.” Twentieth-Century China 33, 1 (Nov. 2007).

Lee, Mabel. “Liang Ch’i-Ch’ao (1873-1929) and the Literary Revolution of Late Ch’ing.” In A.R. Davis, ed., Search for identity: modern literature and the creative arts in Asia: papers presented to the 28 International Congress of Orientalists. Sydney: Angus, 1975, 203-224.

Lee, Theresa Man Ling. “Liang Qichao and the Meaning of Citizenship: Then and Now.” History of Political Thought 28, 2 (2007): 305-27.

Levenson, Joseph. Liang Ch’i-ch’ao and the Mind of Modern China. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1953.

Martin, Helmut. “A Transitional Concept of Chinese Literature 1897-1917: Liang Qichao on Poetry Reform, Historical Drama and the Political Novel.” Oriens Extremus 20, 2 (1973): 175-217.

Tang, Xiaobing. Global Space and the Nationalist Discourse of Modernity: The Historical Thinking of Liang Qichao. Stanford: Stanford UP, 1996.

Tsui, Jean. “Political Modernity and Its Musical Dissociation: A Study of Guomin and Geming in Liang Qichao’s Historical Biographies.” Frontiers of Literary Study in China 8, 2 (June 2014): 302-30.

[Abstract: After the Sino-Japanese War (1894–95), leading late Qing intellectuals such as Liang Qichao introduced modern political concepts in a highly affective fashion, making the passionate interest in and adoption of western-imported political concepts a hallmark of Chinese modernity. What are these highly personalized affective experiences like? What have given rise to them? How can the study of these experiences broaden our understanding of modernity, and myriad modernizing experiences, in China and other similar cultural contexts? More importantly, how can the use of affect and emotion as analytical categories offer us better insights into some of the most radical intellectual and political transformations that have taken place in China? To answer these questions, perhaps we need to look elsewhere than the semantic content of language. This article focuses on the incipient moments of this affective trend in late Qing China and studies the formation of discursive “text” as the production of sensational “object.” It examines musical and visual appeals Liang Qichao generated for two recently translated political concepts, “national citizen” (guomin) and “revolution” (geming), in historical biographies published in New Citizen Journal in 1902. By exemplifying that Liang’s semantic text was intended to be circulated as an audio text and pictorial text, and that modern concepts had been received as literary as well as auditory and visual experiences, I argue that Chinese modernity often teeters in a state of aesthetic ambivalence. It is displaced and suspended from discursive meanings of the constructed discourse resulting from cross cultural exchanges and consolidated by power relations on both the local and the international levels.]

Vittinghoff, Natascha. “Unity vs. Uniformity: Liang Qichao and the Invention of a “New Journalism” for China.” Late Imperial China 23, 1 (2002): 91-143.

Wang, Ban. “Geopolitics, Moral Reform, and Poetic Internationalism: Liang Qichao’s The Future of New China.” Frontiers of Literary Studies in China 6, 1 (2012): 2-18.

[Abstract: Liang Qichao’s novel The Future of New China views culture and commerce in international contexts under the rubric of datong. While the novel begins with a scene of cultural exchange and commerce, it soon centers on the foreign education and travel of two young protagonists, who are to become the founding fathers of a constitutional nation-state. The urgency of nation building plays out in the two young men over the political, moral or populist means of achieving the nation. How does nation-state building relate to the initial datong cosmopolitanism? This paper suggests that Liang’s nation contains international dimensions. The new Chinese nation is situated in a geopolitical network of nation-states, but it also aspires to self-determination and equality with other nations. The nation is to be built by resorting to a moral reform that contains the idea of tianxia (all under heaven). In his Discourse on the New Citizen, Liang calls for personal outlooks based on culture and morality rather than institutions or actual politics. The novel analyzes China’s debates on reform and revolution; the present paper traces the connection between this moral quality of a nation and internationalism. I contend that Liang’s nation-building projects an international type of aspiration toward tianxia.]

—–. “Morality, Aesthetics, and World Literature in Liang Qichao.” Chinese Literature Today 5, 1 (2015): 93-101.

Wong, Lawrence Wang-chi. “‘The Sole Purpose is to Express My Political Views’: Liang Qichao and the Translation and Writing of Political Novels in the Late Qing.” In David Pollard, ed., Translation and Creation: Readings of Western Literature in Early Modern China. Amsterdan, Philadelphia: J. Benjamins, 1998, 105-26.

Zarrow, Peter. “Liang Qichao and the Notion of Civil Society in Republican China.” In Joshua Fogel and Peter G. Zarrow, eds., Imagining the People: Chinese Intellectuals and the Concept of Citizenship, 1890-1920. Armonk, NY: M.E. Sharpe, 1997, 232-57.

Liang Shiqiu 梁实秋

Bai, Liping. “Babbitt’s Impact in China: The Case of Liang Shiqiu.” Humanitas 17, 1/2 (2004): 46-68.

Galik, Marian. “Liang Shih-ch’iu and Chinese New Humanism.” In Galik, The Genesis of Modern Chinese Literary Criticism, 1917-1930. London: Curzon Press, 1980, 285-307.

Leung, Gaylork K.L. “The Eye of a Storm: The Familiar Essays by Liang Shih-Ch’iu D uring the Anti-Japanese War Period.” In La litterature chinoise au temps de la Guerre de resistance contre le Japon, pp. 67-82. Paris: Fondation Singer-Polignac, 1982.

Liang, Kan. “Hu Shi and Liang Shiqiu: Liberalism and Others.” Chinese Studies in History 39, 1 (Fall 2005): 3-24.

Song, Weijie. “Emotional Topography, Food Memory, and Bittersweet Aftertaste: Liang Shiqiu and the Lingering Flavor of Home.” Journal of Oriental Studies 45, no. 1/2 (Dec. 2012): 89-105.

Trail, Ann Corley. “Liang Shih-ch’iu’s Ma Ke-pai [Macbeth] and Li-er Wang [King Lear]: The Role of the Intended Audience in Translation.” Tamkang Review 11, 1 (Fall 1980): 65-77.

Liang Shuming 梁漱溟

Alitto, Guy. The Last Confucian: Liang Shu-ming and the Chinese Dilemma of Modernity. 2nd ed. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1986.

An, Yanming. “Liang Shuming and Henri Bergson on Intuition: Cultural Context and the Evolution of Terms.” Philosophy East and West 47, 3 (1997): 337-62.

Chi, Wen-shun. “Liang Shu-ming and Chinese Communism.” The China Quarterly 41 (1970): 64-82.

Ip, Hung-Yok. “Liang Shuming and the Idea of Democracy in Modern China.” Modern China 17 (Oct. 1991): 469-508.

Lu Xinyu. 2010. “Rural Reconstruction, the Nation-State and China’s Modernity Problem: Reflections on Liang Shuming’s Rural Reconstruction Theory and Its Practice.” In Cao Tian Yu, Zhong Xueping, and Liao Kebin, eds., Culture and Social Transformations in Reform Era China. Leiden: Brill, 235–256.

Meynard, Thierry. The Religious Philosophy of Liang Shuming: The Hidden Buddhist. Leiden: Brill, 2011.

Wesolowski, Zbigniew. “Understanding the Foreign (the West) as a Remedy for Regaining One’s Own Cultural Identity (China): Liang Shuming’s (1893-1988) Cultural Thought.” Monumenta Serica 53 (2005): 361-99.

Liang Xiaosheng 梁晓声

Lin, Min and Maria Galikowski. “Liang Xiaosheng’s Moral Critique of China’s Modernization Process.” In Min Lin and Maria Galikowski, The Search for Modernity: Chinese Intellectuals and Cultural Discourse in the Post-Mao Era. NY: St. Martin’s Press, 1999, 123-42.

Qin, Liyan. “The Sublime and the Profane: A Comparative Analysis of Two Fictional Narratives about Sent-down Youth.” In Joseph Esherick, Paul Pickowicz, Andrew Walder, eds., The Chinese Cultural Revolution as History. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2006, 240-66. [compares Liang Xiaosheng’s Snowstorm Tonight and Wang Xiaobo’s The Golden Age]

Scruggs, Bert M. “Landscapes and Sublime Memories: Revisiting Liang Xiaosheng’s ‘A Land of Wonder and Mystery.'” Frontiers of Literary Studies in China 8, 4 (2014): 513-31.

Yang, Suying. “Gender Construction in the Novels of Zhang Kangkang and Liang Xiaosheng.” In Kwok-kan Tam and Terry Siu-han Yip, eds., Gender, Discourse and the Self in Literature: Issues in Mainland China, Taiwan and Hong Kong: HK: The Chinese University Press, 2009, 109-24.

Liao Yiwu 廖亦武

Day, Michael. “Introduction to Liao Yiwu.” Digital Archive for Chinese Studies (DACHS). Leiden University.

Lin Bai 林白

Guptak, Suman. “Li Rui, Mo Yan, Yan Lianke, and Lin Bai: Four Contemporary Chinese Writers Interviewed.” Wasafiri 23, 3 (2008): 28-36.

Pozzi, Silvia. “Individualized Writing: Women Writers Blooming in China. The Art of Flying and Lin Bai.” Annali dell’Università degli Studi di Napoli L’Orientale 59 (1999): 251-72.

—–. “Leaving Taboos behind: Notes on Two Novels by Chen Ran and Lin Bai.” Annali dell’Università degli Studi di Napoli L’Orientale 64 (2004): 237-45.

Sang, Tze-lan. “At the Juncture of Censure and Mass Voyeurism: Narratives of Female Homoerotic Desire in Post-Mao China.” GLQ: A Journal of Lesbian and Gay Studies 8, 4 (2002) 523-552. [deals largely withSelf at War]

Wang, Lingzhen. “Reproducing the Self: Consumption, Imaginary, and Identity in Chinese Women’s Autobiographical Practice in the 1990ss.” In Charles Laughlin, ed., Contested Modernity in Chinese Literature. NY: Palgrave Macmillan, 2005, 173-92. [deals primarily with Chen Ran’s Private Life and Lin Bai’s Self at War]

Lin Huaimin 林懷民

Liu, Joyce C. “Re-staging Cultural Memories in Contemporary Theatre in Taiwan: Wang Qimei, Stanley Lai, and Lin Huaimin.” In Steven Totosy de Zepetnek and Jennifer W. Jay, eds., East Asian Cultural and Historical Perspectives: Histories and Society, Culture and Literatures. Edmonton: Research Institute for Comparative Literature and Cross-Cultural Studies, University of Alberta, 1997, 267-78.

Lin Huiyin 林徽因

Prado-Fonts, Carles. “Fragmented Encounters, Social Slippages: Lin Huiyin’s ‘In Ninety-Nine Degree Heat.'” Lectora: Revista de Dones i Textualitat 16 (2010): 125-141.

Shih, Shu-mei. “Gendered Negotiations with the Local: Lin Huiyin and Ling Shuhua.” In Shi, The Lure of the Modern: Writing Modernism in Semicolonial China, 1917-1937. Berkeley: UC Press, 2001, 204-30.

Song, Weijie. “The Aesthetic versus the Political: Lin Huiyin and Modern Beijing.” Chinese Literature: Essays, Articles, Reviews 36 (2014): 61-91.

—–. “The Aesthetic versus the Political: Lin Huiyin and the City.” In Song, Mapping Modern Beijing: Space, Emotion, Literary Topography. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2018, 119-53.

Lin Shu 林紓

Cheng, Chen-to. “The Translator Who Knew No English–Lin Shu.” Renditions 5 (Autumn 1975): 26-31.

Cheung, Martha. “The Discourse of Occidentalism? Wei Yi and Lin Shu’s Treatment of Religious Material in Their Translation of Uncle Tom’s Cabin.” In David Pollard, ed., Translation and Creation: Readings of Western Literature in Early Modern China. Amsterdan, Philadelphia: J. Benjamins, 1998, 127-50.

Compton, Robert. A Study of the Translations of Lin Shu. Ph. D. diss. Stanford University, 1971.

Feng Qi, ed. Lin Shu pingzhuan ji zuopin xuan (A critical biography of Lin Shu and his selected works). Beijing: Chinese Literature and History Press, 1998.

Gao, Wanlong. Recasting Lin Shu: A Cultural Approach to Literary Translation. Ph. D. diss. Griffith University, 2003.

—–. “Lin Shu’s Choice and Response in Translation from a Cultural Perspective.” Journal of Specialised Translation 13 (2010).

Hanan, Patrick. “A Study in Acculturation–The First Novels Translated into Chinese.” Chinese Literature: Essays, Articles and Reviews 23 (2002): 55-80.

Hill, Michael Gibbs. “National Classicism: Lin Shu as Textbook Writer and Anthologist, 1908-1924.” Twentieth-Century China 31, 1 (Nov. 2007).

—–. Lin Shu Inc.: Translation and The Making of Modern Chinese Culture. NY: Oxford, 2013. (paperback 2015) [MCLC Resource Center Review by Denise Gimpel]

[Abstract: How could a writer who knew no foreign languages call himself a translator? How, too, did he become a major commercial success, churning out nearly two hundred translations over twenty years? Lin Shu, Inc. crosses the fields of literary studies, intellectual history, and print culture, offering new ways to understand the stakes of translation in China and beyond. With rich detail and lively prose, Hill shows how Lin Shu (1852-1924) rose from obscurity to become China’s leading translator of Western fiction at the beginning of the twentieth century. Well before Ezra Pound’s and Bertolt Brecht’s “inventions” of China revolutionized poetry and theater, Lin Shu and his assistants–who did, in fact, know languages like English and French–had already given many Chinese readers their first taste of fiction from the United States, France, and England. After passing through Lin Shu’s “factory of writing,” classic novels like Uncle Tom’s Cabin and Oliver Twist spoke with new meaning for audiences concerned with the tumultuous social and political change facing China. Leveraging his success as a translator of foreign books, Lin Shu quickly became an authority on traditional Chinese culture who upheld the classical language as a cornerstone of Chinese national identity. Eventually, younger intellectuals–who had grown up reading his translations–turned on Lin Shu and tarred him as a symbol of backward conservatism. Ultimately, Lin’s defeat and downfall became just as significant as his rise to fame in defining the work of the intellectual in modern China.]

Hu, Ying. “The Translator Transfigured: Lin Shu and the Cultural Logic of Writing in the Late Qing.” positions 3, 1 (Spring 1995).

Huang, Alexander C. Y. “Lin Shu, Invisible Translation and Politics.” Perspectives: Studies in Translatology 14, 1 (June 2006): 55-65.

[Abstract: Why do translations frequently operate as allegorical extensions of what the original literally says? When the translator or re-writer, as the case may be, is only proficient in his native language yet purports to “translate” foreign materials, the roots of allegorical or emblematic readings become a different problem. As the interlocutors of the dead, these “translators” manipulate the invisible text with their collaborators and their imagination. Two cases in point are the late Qing advocates of Western cultural values represented by Shakespeare, and the popular 1904 rendition of Charles and Mary Lamb’s Tales from Shakespeare (1807) by the prolific Chinesec translator and rewriter Lin Shu. This article argues that in their translations of the invisible foreign texts either through mediation or through ideological reframing, the “West” and “China” functioned as two discursive modes through which two sets of values are articulated]

Hung, Eva. “The Introduction of Dickens in China (1906-60): A Case Study in Target Culture Reception.” Perspectives: Studies in Translatology 4, 1 (1996): 29-41.

Jin, Wen. “Sentimentalism’s Translational Journeys: Bitter Societyand Lin Shu’s Translation of Uncle Tom’s Cabin.” Modern Chinese Literature and Culture 26, 1 (Spring 2014): 105-140.

Lee, Leo Ou-fan. The Romantic Generation of Modern Chinese Writers. Cambridge: Harvard UP, 1973. (Contains a chapter on Lin.)

Qian, Zhongshu (Ch’ien Chung-shu). “Lin Ch’in-nan Revisited.” Tr. Geoge Kao. Renditions no. 5 (Autumn 1975): 8-22.

Schonebaum, Andrew. “Vectors of Contagion and Tuberculosis in Modern Chinese Literature.” Modern Chinese Literature and Culture 23, 1 (Spring 2011): 17-46.

Wong, Laurence. “Lin Shu’s Story-retelling as Shown in His Chinese Translation of La Dame aux camellias. Babel 44, 3 (1998), 208-233.

Xue Suizhi and Zhang Juncai, eds. Lin Shu yanjiu ziliao (Research materials on Lin Shu). Fuzhou: Fujian renmin, 1982.

Yang, Lihua. “Translator’s Subjectivity in Lin Shu’s Translations.” Cross-Cultural Communication 9, 2 (2013).

[Abstract: Lin Shu translated many foreign works for Chinese readers, but he had to cooperate with his oral interpreters in his translation process because he knew nothing about foreign languages. Translators and reviewers often criticized that what Lin Shu did was to utter his own voice and that he was not a translator but a second-hand story teller. A review of existing studies on Lin Shu’s translation shows that they are mostly value judgments of correctness or adequacy of the translations using traditional perspective linguistic approach, which emphasizes the ‘faithfulness to the original’ principle. In the static text-centered studies, translator’s subjectivity has been almost completely neglected. This paper tries to analyze translator’s subjectivity in Lin’s translation from four aspects: selection of the original, translation purpose, and textual form and translation strategies. It comes to the conclusion that it is due to Lin’s subjectivity that his translations possessed a wide readership and became a great success in the literary translation history of China.]

Zheng, Zhenduo (Cheng Chen-to). “A Contemporary Appraisal of Lin Shu.” Tr. Diana Yu. Renditions 5 (Autumn 1975): 26-29.

Lin Yaode 林耀德

Lin, Pei-yin. “Remaking ‘Taiwan’: Literary Representations of the 2.28 Incident by Lin Yaode and Li Qiao.” In Ann Heylen and Scott Sommers, eds., Becoming Taiwan: From Colonialism to Democracy. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz Verlag, 2010, 63-79.

Lin Yutang 林语堂

Anderson, A. J., ed. Lin Yutang: The Best of an Old Friend. New York: Mason/Charter 1976.

Brandauer, Frederick. “Lin Yutang’s Widow and the Problem of Adaptation.” Journal of the Chinese Language Teachers Association 20, 2 (1985): 1-14.

Chan, Wing-Tsit. “Lin Yutang, Critic and Interpreter.” College English 8, 4 (Jan., 1947): 163-169.

Fu, Yi-chin. “Lin Yutang: A Bundle of Contrasts.” Fu Jen Studies 21 (1988): 29-44.

Laughlin, Charles. The Literature of Leisure and Chinese Modernity. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 2008.

Lin, Tai-yi 林太乙. Lin Yutang zhuan 林语堂传 (Biography of Lin Yutang). Beijing: Zhongguo xiqu, 1993.

Lin Yutang Memorial Library (Taipei, Taiwan) [includes an extensive chronology of his life, with pictures, as well as bibliographies of his works]

Liu, Jianmei. “Lin Yutang: Zhuangzi Travels West.” In Liu, Zhuangzi and Modern Chinese Literature. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2016, 106-25.

Liu, Shi-yee. Straddling East and West: Lin Yutang, A Modern Literatus. Ed. Maxwell K. Hearn. NY: Metropolitan Museum of Art.

[Abstract: In the winter of 2005 the Department of Asian Art [MET] received an important group of gifts and promised gifts from the family of the noted author Lin Yutang (1895–1976). Consisting of forty-three modern Chinese paintings, calligraphies, and prints, this donation, together with the earlier gift of nineteenth- and twentieth-century paintings from Robert H. Ellsworth, significantly enhances the Museum’s ability to present China’s traditional literati arts of the mid-twentieth-century.]

Qian, Jun (Suoqiao). Lin Yutang: Negotiating Modernity Between East and West. Ph.D. diss. Berkeley: University of California, 1996.

—–.”Lin Yutang’s Masterpiece.” Center for Cross-Cultural Studies Newsletter 4.

—–. Liberal Cosmopolitanism: Lin Yutang and Middling Chinese Modernity. Leiden: Brill, 2011.

[Abstract: Chinese modernity discourses have been dominated by nationalism and revolutionary radicalism in much of the 20th century, but liberal cosmopolitanism has always been an important force in modern Chinese intellectuality, though a much neglected topic in modern Chinese studies. This book is a cross-cultural critique on the problem of the liberal cosmopolitan in modern Chinese intellectuality in light of Lin Yutang’s literary and cultural practices across China and America. It includes comparative reference to other discourses of major literary and intellectual figures such as Zhang Zhidong, Liang Qichao, Gu Hongming, Hu Shi, Lu Xun, Zhou Zuoren, Pearl S. Buck, Agnes Smedley and Edgar Snow. It also demonstrates that a liberal cosmopolitan road, which suggests a middling Chinese modernity, is both possible and desirable]

—–. “Representing China: Lin Yutang vs. American ‘China Hands’ in the 1940s.” Journal of American-East Asian Relations 17, 2 (2010): 99-117.

[Abstract: In the 1930s and 1940s, American representations of China were divided between pro-Nationalist groups, notably Henry Luce’s media enterprise, and a host of “China Hands” accused of being pro-Communist. Though these “China Hands” came from diff erent professions – journalists (Edgar Snow, Theodore White), academics (Owen Lattimore, John Fairbank), political activists (Agnes Smedley) – they formed a distinct group of American liberal cosmopolitan intellectuals. They achieved their cultural capital through their writings on China as “China experts.” Unlike their predecessors, they were Progressive liberals who allied themselves with the cause of China’s modernization. But their vision ran against that of a Chinese cosmopolitan intellectual – Lin Yutang. With the initial support of Pearl Buck, Lin became the most well-known liberal intellectual from China and the self-styled cultural and political spokesman on U.S.-China relations in the 1940s America. Lin’s debate with the “China Hands” over American representation of China spelled the end of his “American success.” By revisiting this debate, I do not want to re-invoke the issue of “Who Lost China?” Instead, this article maps out a critical terrain for understanding and questioning liberal cosmopolitan diff erence over American representations of China.]

Shen, Shuang. Cosmopolitan Publics: Anglophone Print Culture in Semi-Colonial Shanghai. Piscataway, NJ: Rutgers Univesity Press, 2009.

[Abstract: Early twentieth-century China paired the local community to the world–a place and time when English dominated urban-centered higher and secondary education and Chinese-edited English-language magazines surfaced as a new form of translingual practice. Cosmopolitan Publics focuses on China’s “cosmopolitans”–Western-educated intellectuals who returned to Shanghai in the late 1920s to publish in English and who, ultimately, became both cultural translators and citizens of the wider world. Shuang Shen highlights their work in publications such as The China Critic and T’ien Hsia, providing readers with a broader understanding of the role and function of cultural mixing, translation, and multilingualism in China’s cultural modernity. Decades later, as nationalist biases and political restrictions emerged within China, the influence of the cosmopolitans was neglected and the significance of cosmopolitan practice was underplayed. Shen’s encompassing study revisits and presents the experience of Chinese modernity as far more heterogeneous, emergent, and transnational than it has been characterized until now.]

So, Richard Jean. “Collaboration and Translation: Lin Yutang and the Archive of Asian American Fiction,” Modern Fiction Studies 56, 1 (2010): 40-62.

Sohigian, Diran. The Life and Times of Lin Yutang. Ph.D. diss. NY: Columbia University, 1991.

—–. “Contagion of Laughter: The Rise of the Humor Phenomenon in Shanghai in the 1930s.” positions: east asia cultures critique 15, 1 (Spring 2007): 137-63. [Project Muse link]

—–. “Confucius and the Lady in Question: Power Politics, Cultural Production and the Performance of Confucius Saw Nanzi in China in 1929.” Twentieth-Century China 36, 1 (Jan. 2011): 23-43.

Song, Weijie. “Ancient Capital, Vermillion Gate, and Complex Confusions: Imaging Xi’an City in Lin Yutang’s The Vermillion Gate” (Gudu, Zhumen, fenfan de kunhuo: Lin Yutang Zhumen de Xi’an xiangxiang). Guoji hanxue jikan 2 (2008): 1-13. Reprinted in Xi’an City: Urban Imagination and Historical Memory. Ed. Chen Pingyuan, David Der-wei Wang, and Chen Xuechao. Beijing: Peking University Press, 2009, 266-277.

—–. “A Comparative Imperial Capital: Lin Yutang, Princess Der Ling, Victor Segalen, and the Views from Near and Far.” In Song, Mapping Modern Beijing: Space, Emotion, Literary Topography. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2018, 154-98.

Ling Shuhua 凌叔华

Cheng, Eileen J. “Virtue in Silence: Voice and Femininity in Ling Shuhua’s Boudoir Fiction.” Nannü: Men, Women and Gender in China 9, 2 (Oc. 2007): 330-70.

[Abstract: New Culture intellectuals avidly promoted new narratives and models of femininity as the cornerstone of a new culture; the gender discourse they advocated, however, continued to be refracted through traditional notions of femininity and writing. This paper examines the means by which one woman writer, Ling Shuhua, attempted to navigate the contradictions of this discourse, to forge her identity as a modern woman writer. The shifting nature of Ling Shuhua’s literary negotiations is particularly salient when her portrayals of traditional femininity and use of voice in Temple of Flowers (1928) are contextualized against her lesser-known works—her early stories published in 1924 in Chenbao and her later fictionalized autobiography in English, Ancient Melodies (1953). Unlike her lesser-known works, which are deeply sympathetic to the plight of boudoir women and critical of New Culture discourse, the stories in Temple of Flowers are often framed with a sense of ambiguity in relation to both feminist and New Culture agendas. While these disparities may reflect a resourcefulness on Ling Shuhua’s part in her bid to carve out public writing spaces, they also suggest the kinds of negotiations and self-effacing gestures that her literary endeavors may have entailed.]

Chow, Rey. “Virtuous Transactions: A Reading of Three Stories by Ling Shuhua” Modern Chinese Literature 4, 1/2 (Spring/Fall 1988): 71-85.

Cuadrado, Clara. “Portraits of a Lady: The Fictional World of Ling Shuhua.” In A. Palandri, ed. Women Writers of 20-Century China. Eugene: Asian Studies Publications, University of Oregon, 1982, 41-62.

Dooling, Amy. “Ling Shuhua.” In Dictionary of Literary Biography–Chinese Fiction Writers, 1900-1949. Ed. Thomas Moran. NY: Thomson Gale, 2007, 95-103.

Holoch, Donald. “Everyday Feudalism: The Subversive Stories of Ling Shuhua.” In Anna Gerstlacher et al. eds, Women and Literature in China. Bochum: Studienverlag Brockmeyeer, 1985, 379-93,

Hong, Jeesoon. Gendered Modernism of Republican China: Lu Yin, Ling Shuhua, and Zhang Ailing, 1920-1949. Ph. D. diss. Cambridge: University of Cambridge, 2003.

—–. “The Chinese Gentlewoman in the Public Gaze: Ling Shuhua in Twentieth Century’s China and Britain.” In Daria Berg and Chloe Starr, eds., The Quest for Gentility in China: Negotiations beyond Gender and Class. London: Routledge, 2007,

—–. “Stereotypiang and the Translation of Subjectivity: The Image of ‘the Little Girl’ in Ling Shuhua’s Chinese and English Translations.” Translation Quarterly 51/52 (Summer 2009): 70-99.

Lang-Tan, Goat Koei. “Women in Love: Two Short Stories of Ling Shuhua (1900-1990) compared to Katherine Mansfield’s (1888-1923) ‘Psychology’ (1921).” In Gálik, Márian, ed., Chinese Literature And European Context. Bratislava: Rowaco ltd. & Institute of Asian and African Studies of the Slovak Academy of Sciences, 1994, 31-142.

—–. “The European Literature of The Décadence and The so-called Modernist Chinese Short Stories from the Twenties and Thirties: Interliterary and Intraliterary Studies of Arthur Schnitzler (1862-1931), Shi Zhechun (1905- ) and Ling Shuhua (1900-1990).” In Gálik, Marián, ed., Interliterary and Intraliterary Aspects of The May Fourth Movement 1919 in China. Proceeding of the International Sinological Symposium, Smolenice Castle, March 13-17. Bratislava: Veda Publishing House of the Slovak Academy of Science, 1989,139-154.

Laurence, Patrica. “The China Letters: Vanessa Bell, Julian Bell and Ling Shuhua.” South Carolina Review (Spring 1997): 122-131.

—–. Lily Briscoe’s Chinese Eyes Bloomsbury, Modernism, and China. Columbia: University of South Carolina Press, 2003.

[Abstract: Lily Briscoe’s Chinese Eyes traces the romance of Julian Bell, nephew of Virginia Woolf, and Ling Shuhua, a writer and painter Bell met while teaching at Wuhan University in China in 1935. Relying on a wide selection of previously unpublished writings, Patricia Laurence places Ling, often referred to as the Chinese Katherine Mansfield, squarely in the Bloomsbury constellation. In doing so, she counters East-West polarities and suggests forms of understanding to inaugurate a new kind of cultural criticism and literary description.]

Lieberman, Sally Taylor. The Mother and Narative Politics in Modern China. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 1998, 141-45.

McDougall, Bonnie. “Dominance and Disappearance in May Fourth: A Post-Feminist Review of Fiction by Mao Dun and Ling Shuhua.” In Raoul Findeisen and Robert Gassmann, eds., Autumn Floods: Essays in Honour of Marian Galik. Bern: Peter Lang, 1997, 283-306.

—–. “Disappearing Women and Disappearing Men in May Fourth Narrative: A Post-Feminist Survey of Short Stories by Mao Dun, Bing Xin, Ling Shuhua and Shen Congwen.” In McDougall, Fictional Authors, Imaginary Audiences: Modern Chinese Literature in the Twentieth Century. HK: Chinese University Press, 2003, 133-70.

Ng, Janet. “Writing in Her Father’s World: The Feminine Autobiographical Strategies of Ling Shuhua.” Prose Studies 16, 3 (1993): 235-50.

Shih, Shu-mei. “Gendered Negotiations with the Local: Lin Huiyin and Ling Shuhua.” In Shi, The Lure of the Modern: Writing Modernism in Semicolonial China, 1917-1937. Berkeley: UC Press, 2001, 204-30.

Yu, Clara. “Portrait by a Lady: The Fictional World of Ling Shuhua.” In Angela Jung Pallandri, ed., Women Writers of 20th-Century China. Eugene: University of Oregon Press, 1982, 41-62.

Liu Baiyu (Pai-yu) 刘白羽

Chen, Tan-chen. “Liu Pai-yu’s Writings.” Chinese Literature 3 (1963): 88-94.

Laughlin, Charles. “Incongruous Lyricism: Liu Baiyu, Yang Shuo and sanwen in Chinese Socialist Culture.” In Martin Woesler, ed., The Modern Chinese Literary Essay: Defining the Chinese Self in the 20th Century. Bochum: Bochum UP, 2000, 115-29.

Liu Bannong (Liu Fu) 刘半农 / 刘复

Hockx, Michel. “Liu Bannong and the Forms of New Poetry.” Journal of Modern Literature in Chinese 3, 2 (Jan. 2000): 83-117.

Liu Binyan 刘宾雁

Chou Yu-sun. “Liu Pin-yen and Wang Jo-wang.” Issues and Studies 23, 5 (May 1987): 48-62.

Beja, Jean-Philippe. “Dissidence ou loyaute? Tradition et modernite dans le comportement politique de Liu Binyan.” In La LittÈrature chinoise contemporaine, tradition et modernitÈ: colloque d’Aix-en-Provence, le 8 juin 1988. Aix-en-Provence: Publications de l’UniversitÈ de Provence, 1989, 7-10.

—–, ed. Liu Binyan: Le cauchemar des mandarins rouges. Paris: Gallimard, 1989.

Blank, Carolin and Christa Gescher. Gesellschaftskritik in der Volksrepublik China: Der Journalist und Schriftsteller Liu Binyan. Bochum: Brockmeyer, 1990.

Dolezalova, Anna. “Liu Binyan’s Comeback to the Contemporary Chinese Literary Scene.” Asian and African Studies 20 (1984): 81-100.

Li, Hsi-fan. “An Adverse Trend in Creative Activity Sparked by ‘The Inside News at the Newspaper.'” In Hualing Nieh, ed., Literature of the Hundred Flowers, Volume II: Poetry and Fiction. NY: Columbia UP, 1981, 465-68.

Teng, Jenny Tu-li. “Liu Pin-yen: The Politics of Reportage Literature in Mainland China.” Issues and Studies 22, 9 (1986): 28-49.

Wagner, Rudolf G. “Liu Binyan oder Der Autor als Wandelnde Nische” (Liu Binyan or: The Author as a Walking Niche). In W. Kubin (ed.), Moderne Chinesische Literatur. Frankfurt: Suhrkamp, l985, 430-446.

—–. “Liu Binyan and the Texie.” Modern Chinese Literature 2, 1 (Spring1986): 65-98.

—–. Inside the Service Trade: Studies in Contemporary Chinese Prose. Cambridge: Council on East Asian Studies, Harvard University, 1992, 193-226. [deals with “At the Building Site of the Bridges and “Inside News of Our Paper”]

Wen-I Pao editorial group. “Liu Pin-yen’s Hostility toward Socialism and the Party.” In Hualing Nieh, ed., Literature of the Hundred Flowers, Volume II: Poetry and Fiction. NY: Columbia UP, 1981, 469-72.

Yeh, Chih-ying and Chou Yusun. “The Locus of Social Change in Mainland China as Reflected in the Reportage of Liu Pinyen.” Issues and Studies 25, 8 (1989): 118-37; also In Bih-jaw Lin, ed. Post-Mao Sociopolitical Changes in Mainland China: The Literary Perspective. Taibei: Institute of International Relations, National Chengchi University, 1991, 71-88.

Liu Cixin 刘慈欣

Fan, Yilun. “The Identity of a Technological Elite: The Tension between Poetry and Technology in Liu Cixin’s ‘The Poetry Cloud’ (Shi yun).” Frontiers of Literary Studies in China 9, 3 (2015): 417-35.

[Abstract: This article explores Chinese science fiction writer Liu Cixin’s 刘慈欣 novelette “The Poetry Cloud” (Shi yun, 1997) by contextualizing it within the debate between scientism and humanism in 1990s China, an event that has been downplayed in its significance in shaping Liu’s ideas. The first section of this article will investigate how the narrative framework of science fiction represents and refreshes the symbolic meaning of poetry in the abovementioned context. Secondly, by analyzing the three main characters, Yiyi, Big-tooth, and Li Bai, with a focus on their perceptions of poetry, the next section will discuss the different opinions they represent with regard to the debate. Finally, by studying Liu’s work in the context of Martin Heidegger’s reflections upon technology, the last section examines his solution to the tension between scientism and humanism in the programming of a poetry cloud that marries poetic imagination with technological means. This article argues that the story demonstrates how Liu, a technological elite, vacillates between technological determinism and humanism, and tries to provide a possible solution to their inherent contradictions.]

Li, Hua. “The Political Imagination in Liu Cixin’s Critical Utopia: China 2185.Science Fiction Studies 42, 3 (Nov. 2015): 519–541.

—–. “A Cautionary View of Rhetoric about China’s Imagined Future in Liu Cixin’s Alternate History ‘The Western Ocean’.” Frontiers of Literary Studies in China 10, 2 (2016): 184-203.

[Abstract: This article examines Liu Cixin’s “The Western Ocean” (Xiyang), a story in which Liu satirizes Zheng He’s voyages into the Indian Ocean and presents an alternate history of China from the fifteenth century to the present. The combination of China’s imagined future and the historical memory of its past provides a political and social commentary on the Chinese narrative of “peaceful rise.” “The Western Ocean” is also a good example of how the subgenre of alternate history can become a tool for Chinese writers to tactfully express their concerns and criticism of contemporary world politics while strict restrictions on the media and internet, as well as self-censorship among PRC intellectuals in general, still prevail in the country.]

Song, Mingwei. “Variations on Utopia in Contemporary Chinese Science Fiction.” Science Fiction Studies 40 (2013): 86-102.

[Abstract: This essay focuses on the variations of utopian narrative in contemporary Chinese sf, with a view toward appreciating the genre’s historical development since the late Qing. Through analyzing the writings of three writers, Han Song, Wang Jinkang, and Liu Cixin, this essay examines three themes that characterize China’s current new wave of science fiction: China’s rise, the myth of development, and posthumanity. Deeply entangled with the politics of a changing China, science fiction today both strengthens and complicates the utopian vision of a new and powerful China: it mingles nationalism with utopianism/dystopianism, sharpens social criticism with an acute awareness of China’s potential for further reform, and wraps political consciousness in scientific discourse about the powers of technology and the technologies of power.]

Thieret, Adrian. “Society and Utopia in Liu Cixin.” China Perspectives 1 (2015): 33-40.

[Abstract: This article examines utopianism in contemporary China through the short stories “Taking Care of God” and “Taking Care of Humans” by best-selling science fiction author Liu Cixin. It argues that these stories constitute an ethical resistance to the shortcomings of the capitalist world order into which China has merged during the reform period. Read as a continuation of the modern Chinese utopian tradition as well as a reaction to contemporary trends, these stories offer an articulation of hope that a more just social order can yet be achieved despite the seemingly intractable problems facing the world today.]

Liu Daren 劉大任

Field, Stephen. “Injustice and Insanity in Liu Ta-jen’s The Cuckoo Cries Tears of Blood.” Tamkang Review 21, 3 (1991): 225-37.

Larson, Wendy. “Writing and the Writer: The Works of Liu Daren.” Proceedings of the 1986 Summer Workshop for Gifted Teachers of Chinese and Russian. Eugene: University of Oregon, 1987, 59-64.

Liu E 刘鹗

Dolezelova-Velingerova, Milena, ed. The Chinese Novel at the Turn of the Century. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1980, 38-75.

Dolezelova-Velingerova, Milena and Tao Tao Liu Sanders. “Liu E, Lao Can youji.” In Dolezelova-Velingerova ed., Selective Guide to Chinese Literature 1900-1949: Volume 1, The Novel. Leiden: Brill, 1988, 122-23.

Fang, Chao-ying. “Liu E.” In Arthur Hummel, ed., Eminent Chinese of the Ch’ing Period (1644-1912). Washington: US Government Printing Office, 1943, 516-18.

Holoch, Donald. “The Travels of Laocan: Allegorical Narrative.” In M. Dolezelova-Velingerova, ed., The Chinese Novel at the Turn of the Century. Toronto: UTP, 1980, 129-49.

Hsia, C.T. “The Travels of Lao Ts’an: An Exploration of Its Art and Meaning.” Tsinghua Journal of Chinese Studies 7, 2 (1969): 40-65.

—–. “Liu E’s The Travels of Lao Can.” In Barbara Stoler Miller, ed., Masterworks of Asian Literature in Comparative Perspective: A Guide for Teaching. Armonk, NY: Sharpe, 1994, 299-308.

Kuhner, Hans. “Tears of Strength of Tears of Weakness: Lao Can youji and the Aporias of Political and Moral Commitment in Late Imperial China.” In Wolfgang Kubin, ed., Symbols of Anguish: In Search of Melancholy in China. Bern: Peter Lang, 2001, 263-88.

Kwong, Luke S. K. “Self and Society in Modern China: Liu E (1857-1909) and Laocan youji.” T’oung Pao LXXXVII, 4-5 (2001): 360-92.

Lin, Shuen-fu. “The Last Classic Chinese Novel: Vision and Design in The Travels of Lao Can.” Journal of the American Oriental Society 121, 4 (Oct/Dec 2001): 549- 64.

Lu, Xun. A Brief History of Chinese Fiction. Beijing: Foreing Langauges Press, 1959, 361-63.

Lupke, Christopher. “Liu E.” In Dictionary of Literary Biography–Chinese Fiction Writers, 1900-1949. Ed. Thomas Moran. NY: Thomson Gale, 2007, 104-15.

Ma, Youyuan. “Liu E.” In William Nienhauser ed., The Indiana Companion to Traditional Chinese Literature. Bloomington: Indiana UP, 1984, 380-83.

Sargent, Stuart. “Lao-Ts’an and Fictive Thinking.” Journal of Chinese Language Teachers Association 12, 3 (1977): 215-220.

Wang, David Der-Wei. Fin de Siecle Splendor: Repressed Modernities of Late Qing Fiction, 1849-1911. Stanford: Stanford UP, 1997, 34-39; 145-55; 174-82.

—–. “Crime or Punishment? On the Forensic Discourse of Modern Chinese Literature.” In Wen-hsin Yeh ed., Beoming Chinese: Passages to Modernity and Beyond. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2000, 260-97.

Wang Xuejun. Liu E yu Lao Can youji (Liu E and Travels of Lao Can). Shenyang: Liaoning jiaoyu, 1992.

Wei Shaochang 魏绍昌, ed. Lao Can youji ziliao 老残游记资料  (Materials on the Travels of Lao Can). Beijing: Zhonghua shuju, 1962.

Wong, Timothy. “The Name of ‘Lao Ts’an’ in Liu E’s Fiction.” Journal of the American Oriental Society 109, 1 (Jan-March 1989): 103-06.

—–. “Liu E in the Fang-shih Tradition.” Journal of the American Oriental Society 112, 2 (1992): 302-06.

—–. “Notes on the Textual History of the Lao Ts’an Yu-Chi.” T’oung Pao 69, 1-3 (1983): 23-32.

—–. “The Facts of Fiction: Liu E’s Commentary to the Travels of Lao Can.” In Marie Chan et al. eds, Excursions in Chinese Culture: Festscrift in Honor of William R. Schultz. HK: Chinese University of HK, 2002, 159-72.

Liu Heng 刘恒

Choy, Howard Y. F. “Gastrotext: Food and the Body in the Fictions of Mo Yan, Su Tong, and Liu Heng.” In Choy, Remapping the Past: Fictions of History in Deng’s China, 1979-1997. Leiden: Brill, 2008, 214-77.

Huot, Marie-Claire. “Liu Heng’s Fuxi Fuxi: What About Nuwa?” In Lu Tonglin, ed. Gender and Sexuality in Twentieth-Century Chinese Literature and Society. Albany: SUNY Press, 1993, 85-106.

Linder, Birgit. “Alienation and the Motif of the Unlived Life in Liu Heng’s Fiction.” Journal of Modern Literature in Chinese 2, 2 (January. 1999): 119-48.

Moran, Thomas. “Liu Heng.” In Thomas Moran and Ye (Dianna) Xu, eds., Chinese Fiction Writers, 1950-2000. Dictionary of Literature Biography, vol. 370. Detroit: Thomson Gale, 2013, 157-71.

Visser, Robin. “Privacy and its Ill Effects in Post-Mao Urban Fiction.” In Bonnie S. McDougall and Anders Hansson, eds. Chinese Concepts of Privacy. Leiden: Brill, 2002,171-194. [deals with texts by Chen Ran and Liu Heng, with bits on Sun Ganlu, Qiu Huadong, and Zhu Wen]

Liu Hongbin 刘洪彬

Clark, Candida. “The Republic of Poetry: Liu Hongbin.” openDemocracy (March 4, 2004).

Hawkes, David. “An Iron Circle: The Poetry of Liu Hongbin.” MCLC Resource Center Publication (June 2007).

Kociejowski, Marius. “Three Chinese Characters: Liu Hongbin, Word Conjurer, Smugglers of Nightmares.” In God’s Zoo. Manchester, UK: Carcanet Press, 2014.

Leftwich, Charles. “Words–The Liberating Prison.” Human Rights in China [downloadable pdf version]

Porter, Peter. “Introduction: A Day Within Days, by Liu Hongbin. MCLC Resource Center Publication (June 2007).

Liu Kexiang 劉克襄

Kaldis, Nick. “Birdwatching with Liu Kexiang.” CypherJournal [a brief essay on Liu, as well as translations of Liu’s poems “Choice,” Formosa,” “Guandu Life,” and “Black-faced Spoonbill”]

—–. “Steward of the Ineffable: ‘Anxiety-Reflex’ in/as the Nature Writing of Liu Kexiang (Or: Nature Writing against Academic Colonization).” In Christopher Lupke ed., New Perspectives on Contemporary Chinese Poetry. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2007, 85-103.

Lee, Yu-lin. “Becoming Animal: Liu Kexiang’s Writing Apprenticeship on Birds.” In Chia-ju Chang and Scott Slovic, eds., Ecocriticism in Taiwan: Identity, Environment, and the Arts. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 2016, 155-62.

Liang, Sun-chieh. “Animal Contact in Liu Ka-hsiang’s ‘He-lien-mo-mo the Humpback Whale.'” Tamkang Review 42, 2 (2012): 33-58.

[Abstract: This paper begins with a discussion of the scientifically damaging role that anthropomorphism has played in Western scientific thought, and turns to explore the ambivalent attitude that Liu Ka-shiang has always had toward science and literature. To Liu, the problematic of the representation of the animal pushes the ambivalence to its extreme, which leads to his constant anxiety. On the one hand, he has to represent what he sees, or what comes in contact with his naked eyes, and on the other hand, he knows very well the hegemonic power of seeing that shapes our worldview; it controls, manipulates, and forms the being of the object (live or not) under observation, and even such a physical experience as the sense of touch is under its control. In ”He-lien-mo-mo the Humpback Whale”, Liu shows not only the power and horror of seeing, but more importantly, the life force of the genuine contact with the animal. Initiated by the physical touch, this animal contact, this contact with the other (animal) essentially embedded in the very being of each living creature, is the crucial point that defines the relationship between the human and the animal.]

Liu Na’ou 刘呐鸥

Braester, Yomi. “Shanghai’s Economy of Spectacle: The Shanghai Race Club in Liu Na’ou’s and Mu Shiying’s Stories.” Modern Chinese Literature 9, 1 (1995): 39-58.

Lee, Leo Ou-fan. “Face, Body, and the City: The Fiction of Liu Na’ou and Mu Shiying.” In Lee, Shanghai Modern: The Flowering of a New Urban Culture in China, 1930-1945. Cambridge: Harvard UP, 1999, 190-231.

Liu, Jianmei. “Shanghai Variations on ‘Revolution Plus Love.'” Modern Chinese Literature and Culture 14, 1 (Spring 2002): 51-92. [deals with texts by Shi Zhecun, Liu Na’ou, Mu Shiying, Zhang Ziping, and Ye Lingfeng]

Mak, Anthony Wan-hoi. The School of New Sensibilities in the 1930s: A Study of Liu Na’ou and Mu Shiying’s Fiction. Ph.D. diss. University of Toronto, 1995.

Peng, Hsiao-yen. “Colonialism and the Predicament of Identity: Liu Na’ou and Yang Kui as Men of the World.” In Ping-hui Liao and David Der-wei Wang, eds., Taiwan Under Japanese Colonial Rule, 1885-1945: History, Culture, Memory. New York: Columbia University Press, 2006, 210-47.

—–. “A Dandy, Traveler, and Woman Watcher: Liu Na’ou from Taiwan.” In Peng, Dandyism and Transcultural Modernity: The Dandy, the Flaneur, and the Translator in 1930s Shanghai, Tokyo, and Paris. NY: Routledge, 2010.

Shih, Shu-mei. “Gender, Race, and Semicolonialism: Liu Na’ou’s Urban Shanghai Landscape.” Journal of Asian Studies 35, 4 (1996): 934-56. Rpt in Shi, The Lure of the Modern: Writing Modernism in Semicolonial China, 1917-1937. Berkeley: UC Press, 2001, 276-301.

Zhang, Ling. “Rhythmic Movement, the City Symphony and Transcultural Transmediality: Liu Na’ou and the Man Who Has a Camera.” Journal of Chinese Cinemas 9, 1 (2015): 42-61.

[Abstract: This article explores how the creative career, protean experiments and theoretical writings of Taiwanese/Shanghainese/Japanese writer, translator, filmmaker and critic Liu Na’ou (1905-1940) were enriched by the interpenetration of his transcultural and transmedial aspirations. Through close reading of Liu’s amateur “city film,” The Man Who Has a Camera (1933), paying explicit homage to Soviet filmmaker Dziga Vertov’s “city symphony” film The Man With a Movie Camera (1929), I investigate how it embodies and encompasses the notions of reinvention and transculturation. Furthermore, through Liu’s film criticism, especially on sound aesthetic and rhythmicity, I examine how camera movement and body movement, rhythm and musicality communicate and become entangled with the concept of transmediality. These complications also mediate Liu’s ambiguous cultural identity as a colonial subject and transnational practitioner. I suggest how these intertwined concepts and practices created new aesthetic possibilities in 1930s Shanghai and contributed to—as well as constrained—a distinctively cosmopolitan vision.]

Liu Ping

Kinkley, Jeffrey C. “Dirt Plus Soap Equals Pay Dirt: Liu Ping’s Dossier on Smuggling.” In Kinkley, Corruption and Realism in Late Socialist China. Palo Alto: Stanford UP, 2007, 125-143. [Publisher’s blurb]

Liu Qingbang 刘庆邦

Qin, Ling. “Liu Qingbang and His Creative Short Stories.” Chinese Literature (Spring 1999): 25-29.

Liu Shahe 流沙河

Sha, Ou. “A Critique of ‘A Family of Plants.'” In Hualing Nieh, ed., Literature of the Hundred Flowers, Volume II: Poetry and Fiction. NY: Columbia UP, 1981, 105-114.

Liu Shaotang 刘紹堂

Chou, Ho. “Against a Nihilistic View of Socialist Literature: An Exchange of Views with Comrade Liu Shao-t’ang.” Nieh, Hualing, ed. Literature of the Hundred Flowers: Criticism and Polemics. New York: Columbia University Press, 1981, 161-169.

Sun, Li. “Liu Shaotang and his Writings.” Chinese Literature 5 (1982): 89-91.

Liu Shipei 刘师培

Kurtz, Joacim. “Disciplining the National Essence: Liu Shipei and the Reinvention of Ancient China’s Intellectual History.” In Jing Tsu and Benjamin Elman, eds., Science and Technology in Modern China, 1880-1940s. Leiden: Brill, 2014, 67-91.

Kwok, D.W.Y. “Anarchism and Traditionalims: Liu Shih-p’ei.” Journal of the Institute of Chinese Studies 4, 2 (1971): 523-37.

Scheider, Lawrence. “National Essence and the New Intelligentsia.” In C. Furth ed., The Limits of Change. Cambridge: Harvard UP, 1976, 57-89.

Wang, Xiaoling. “Liu Shipei et son concept de contrat social chinois.” Etudes Chinoises 17, 1/2 (Spring/Fall 1998): 155-190.

Zhu, Yu. “The Vision of New China Suggested by the Politics of Language: Liu Shipei’s Interpretation of the ‘Rectification of Names’ and Its Utopian Moment.” Frontiers of Literary Studies in China 8, 3 (Sept. 2014): 468-91.

[Abstract: This paper focuses on the “rectification of names” (正 名), an important and recurrent motif in the writings produced by Liu Shipei 劉師培 (1884–1919) before he betrayed the anti-Qing revolution. On the one hand, Liu has argued that the Chinese signifying system should be modified in response to the challenges posed by the West. On the other hand, he also understood that, within the prevailing imperialist world order, China’s acceptance of this universal law entailed the acceptance of an inferior position vis-à-vis the dominant world powers. Liu’s interpretation of the “rectification of names” was aimed at overcoming the boundaries between the West and China, and ultimately led him to support a radical anarchist revolution. Therefore, Liu Shipei’s approach to the “rectification of names” is representative of the way in which late Qing intellectuals responded to the great clashes between the traditional and the modern, the West and the East. One might argue that the discourse surrounding the “rectification of names” brought about a moment of “origin,”—that is to say, a moment of reconstructing the relationship between names and things—the scope of which was not limited to China. In this context, the political utopia conceptualized by Liu Shipei can be regarded as one explicit form of the “rectification of names.” Thus, the different ways in which Liu Shipei, Zhang Taiyan 章太炎 (1868–1936; also known as Zhang Binglin 章炳麟), and Lu Xun approach the problem of language suggest their different visions of the future of China.]

Liu Suola 刘索拉

Olesen, Alexa. “Liu Sola, Making Worlds Collide.” Virtual China (electronic site, no longer extant).

—–. “Liu Sola Lifts Heavy Souls with Two New CDs.” Virtual China (electronic site, no longer extant).

Pan, Keyin. “Red China Blues Woman.” Beijing Scene 5, 2 (1999).

Zhang, Zhen. “The World Map of Haunting Dreams: Reading Post-1989 Chinese Women’s Diaspora Writings.” In Mayfair Mei Hui Yang, ed. Spaces of Their Own: Women’s Public Sphere in Transnational China. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1999, 308-35. [deals with disporic writings of Liu Suola, Zha Jianying, Hong Ying, and You You]

Liu Xiaobo 刘晓波

Barme, Geremie [Bai Jieming]. “Zhongguo ren de jiefang zai ziwo juexing: yu gexing pai pinglun jia Liu Xiaobo yi xitan” (The liberation of the Chinese people lies in self-awakening: a conversation with the individualist critic Liu Xiaobo). Jiushi niandai 3 (1987): 61-65.

—–. “Confession, Redemption, and Death: Liu Xiaobo and the Protest Movement of 1989.” In George Hicks, ed., The Broken Mirror: China After Tiananmen. Essex: Longman, 1990.

Beja, Jean-Philippe, Fu Hualing, and Eva Pils, eds. Liu Xiaobo, Charter 08 and the Challenge of Political Reform in China. HK: Hong Kong University Press, 2012.

[Abstract:In December 2008 some 350 Chinese intellectuals published a manifesto calling for reform of the Chinese constitution and an end to one-party rule. Known as “Charter 08”, the manifesto has since been signed by more than 10,000 people. One of its authors, Liu Xiaobo, was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 2010 but has remained in prison since 2009 for subversive crimes. This collection – the first of its kind in English – examines the trial of Liu Xiaobo, the significance and impact of Charter 08, and the prospects for reform in China. The collection includes contributions from legal and political experts from around the world, a detailed account of Liu’s trial by his defence lawyers, and a passionate – and ultimately optimistic – account of resistance, repression and political change by the human rights lawyer Teng Biao.]

Chong, Woei Lien. “Philosophy in An Age of Crisis. Three Thinkers in Post-Cultural Revolution China: Li Zehou, Liu Xiaobo and Liu Xiaofeng.” In Woei Lien Chong ed., China’s Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution: Master Narratives and Post-Mao Counternarratives. Boulder, CO: Rowman and Littlefield, 2002, 215-254.

—–. “The Tragic Duality of Man: Liu Xiaobo on Western Philosophy from Kant to Sartre.” In A. J. Saich and K. W. Radtke, eds., China’s Modernisation: Westernisation and Acculturation. Stuttgart: Steiner Verlag, Münchener Ost-Asiatische Studien, 1993, 67, 111–163. [available as a pdf download with permission of the author, the editors, and Steiner Verlag]

Gu, Xin. “The Irrationalistic View of Aesthetic Freedom and the Philosophical Sources of Social Discontent of Liu Xiaobo.” Issues and Studies 31, 1 (Jan. 1996): 89–119.

Martin, Helmut. “Warum China in eine Phase der Stagnation geraten ist: Die Intellektuellenschelte des Dr. Liu Xiaobo.” (Why China has landed in a phase of stagnation: Dr. Liu Xiaobo’s fulminations against the intellectuals). In China. Wege in die Welt: Festschrift für Wolfgang Franke zum 80. Geburtstag (China. Going out into the world: festive volume for Wolfgang Franke on the occasion of his 80th birthday), eds. Bernd Eberstein and Brunhild Staiger. Hamburg: Institut fuer Asienkunde, 1992, 103–124.

Sautman, Barry and Yan Hairong. “The ‘Right Dissident’: Liu Xiaobo and the 2010 Nobel Peace Prize.” positions: east asia cultures critique 19, 2 (Fall 2010): 581-613.

Solomon, Jon. “The Sovereign Police and Knowledgeable Bodies: Liu Xiaobo’s Exilic Critique of Politics and Knowledge.” positions: east asia cultures critique 10, 2 (fall 2002): 399-430.

Liu Xiaofeng 刘小枫

Chong, Woei Lien. “Philosophy in An Age of Crisis. Three Thinkers in Post-Cultural Revolution China: Li Zehou, Liu Xiaobo and Liu Xiaofeng.” In Woei Lien Chong ed., China’s Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution: Master Narratives and Post-Mao Counternarratives. Boulder, CO: Rowman & Littlefield, 2002, 215-254.

Lin, Min and Maria Galikowski. “Individual Salvation and Ultimate Concerns: Liu Xiaofeng’s Pursuit of Transcendent Human Universality.” In Min Lin and Maria Galikowski, The Search for Modernity: Chinese Intellectuals and Cultural Discourse in the Post-Mao Era. NY: St. Martin’s Press, 1999, 143-58.

Liu Xinglong 刘醒龙

Feng, Xiaodong. “Liu Xinglong: From Country Boy to Witty Story Teller.” Tr. Wang Ying. Chinese Literature (Summer 1993): 63-66.

Liu Xinwu 刘心武

Chao, Pien. “Liu Hsin-wu’s Short Stories.” Chinese Literature 1 (1979): 89-93.

Chen, Huiying. “The Three Lius of Jinsong: Liu Zaifu, Liu Xinwu, Liu Zhanqiu.” Tr. Li Guoqing. Chinese Literature (Autumn 1989): 178-87.

Kam, Louie. “Youth and Education in the Short Stories of Liu Xinwu.” Westerly 26, 3 (1981): 115-19. Rpt. in Louie, Between Fact and Fiction: Essays on Post-Mao Chinese Literature and Society. Sydney: Wild Peony, 1989, 14-20.

Liu Yazi 柳亚子

Liu Yazi website. Sponsored by Wujiang tushuguan [in Chinese]

Yang, Zhiyi. “The Tower of Going Astray: The Paradox of Liu Yazi’s Lyric Classicism.” Modern Chinese Literature and Culture 28, 1  (Spring 2016): 174-221.

—–. “Classical Poetry in Modern Politics: Liu Yazi’s PR Campaign for Mao Zedong.” Asian and African Studies 22, 2 (2013): 208–226.

Liu Yichang 刘以鬯

Hsu, Amanda Yuk-kwan. “Reading Hong Kong Literature from the Periphery of Modern Chinese Literature: Liu Yichang Studies as an Example.” Journal of Modern Literature in Chinese 10, 1 (Summer 2010).

Larson, Wendy. “Liu Yichang’s Jiutu: Literature, Gender and Fantasy in Contemporary Hongkong.” Modern Chinese Literature 7, 1 (1993): 89-104.

Lo, Kwai-cheung. “Liu Yichang and the Temporalities of Capitalist Modernity.” Journal of Modern Literature in Chinese 10, 1 (Summer 2010).

Liu Zaifu 刘再复

Admussen, Nick. “Drift Aesthetics Come Home: Liu Zaifu’s Hong Kong Oeuvre in Mainland China.” Korea Journal of Chinese Language and Literature 2 (2012): 129-48.

Chen, Huiying. “The Three Lius of Jinsong: Liu Zaifu, Liu Xinwu, Liu Zhanqiu.” Tr. Li Guoqing. Chinese Literature (Autumn 1989): 178-87.

Gao Xingjian and Liu Zaifu. “Leaving the Twentieth Century Behind: A Conversation between Gao Xingjian and Liu Zaifu.” Tr. Caroline Mason. China Perspectives 3 (2008): 118-22.

Lee, Mabel. “Walking Out of Other People’s Prisons: Liu Zaifu and Gao Xingjian on Chinese Literature in the 1990s.” Asian and African Studies 5 (1996): 98-112.

Liu, Kang. “Politics, Critical Paradigms: Reflections on Modern Chinese Literature Studies.” Modern China 19, 1 (1993): 13-40.

Williams, Philip F. “The Rage for Postism and a Chinese Scholar’s Dissent.” Academic Questions 12, 1 (Winter 1998-99): 43-53. [discusses Liu Zaifu and various debates over modern Chinese literary theory].

Liu Zhenyun 刘震云

Liu Zhenyun’s Blog (Sina.com)

Yue, Gang. “Monument Revisited: Zheng Yi and Liu Zhenyun.” In The Mouth that Begs: Hunger, Cannibalism, and the Politics of Eating in Modern China. Durham: Duke University Press, 1999, 228-62.

Lizilizilizi 李子梨子栗子

Tian, Xiaofei. “Muffled Dialect Spoken by Green Fruit: An Alternative History of Modern Chinese Poetry.” Modern Chinese Literature and Culture 21, 1 (Spring 2009): 1-45.

Long Yingzong 龍瑛宗

Tu, Kuo-ch’ing. “Foreword to the Special Issue on Lung Ying-tsung.” Taiwan Literature: English Language Series 28 (2011): vii-xvi.

Lü Bicheng 呂碧城

Fong, Grace S. “Alternative Modernities, or a Classical Woman of Modern China: The Challenging Trajectory of Lü Bicheng’s (1883-1943) Life and Song Lyrics.” Nan Nu: Men, Women, and Gender in China 6, 1 (2004).

—–. “Between the Literata and the New Woman: Lü Bicheng as Cultural Entrepreneur.” In Christopher Rea and Nicolai Volland, eds., The Business of Culture: Cultural Entrepreneurs in China and Southeast Asia, 1900-65. Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press, 2015, 35-61.

Wu, Shengqing. “‘Old Learning’ and the Refeminization of Modern Space in the Lyric Poetry of Lü Bicheng.” Modern Chinese Literature and Culture 16, 2 (Fall 2004): 1-75.

Lu Heruo 吕赫若

Tarumi, Chie. “Listenting to Voices from the Netherworld: Lu Heruo and the Kuso-Realism Debate.” Tr. Bert Scruggs. In Ping-hui Liao nad David Der-wei Wang, eds., Taiwan under Japanese Colonial Rule, 1895-1945. NY: Columbia UP, 2006, 262-76.

Lu Ling 路翎

Denton, Kirk A. “Lu Ling’s Literary Art: Myth and Symbol in Hungry Guo Su’e.” Modern Chinese Literature 2, 2 (1986): 197-209.

—–. “Lu Ling’s Children of the Rich: The Role of Mind in Social Transformation.” Modern Chinese Literature 5, 2 (1989): 269-92.

—–. The Problematic of Self in Modern Chinese Literature: Hu Feng and Lu Ling. Stanford: Stanford UP, 1998.

—–. “Lu Ling.” In Dictionary of Literary Biography–Chinese Fiction Writers, 1900-1949. Ed. Thomas Moran. NY: Thomson Gale, 2007, 116-28.

Liu, Kang. “The Language of Desire in the Novels of Lu Ling, D.H.Lawrence, and Thomas Mann.” Comparative Literature in China, 15.2 (1992): 57-74.

—–. “Mixed Style in Lu Ling’s Novel Children of the Rich: Family Chronicle and Bildungsroman.” Modern Chinese Literature 7, 1 (1993): 61-87.

—–. “The Language of Desire, Class, Subjectivity in Lu Ling’s Fiction.” In Lu Tonglin, ed. Gender and Sexuality in Twentieth-Century Chinese Literature and Society. Albany: SUNY Press, 1993, 67-84.

—–. “Revolution and Desire in Lu Ling’s Fiction: Modern Chinese Literature in the 1940s.” Chinese Culture 34, 3 (1993): 39-57.

—–. “Desire and Class Consciousness: The Fictional Worlds of Lu Ling, D. H. Lawrence, and Thomas Mann.” In Proceedings of the ICLA ‘1991 Tokyo Congress, Vol. 1. Ziva Ben Porat and Hanna Wirth-Nesher, eds., Tokyo: University of Tokyo Press, 1994:218-235.

Lyell, William. “Lu Ling’s Wartime Novel: Hungry Guo Su’e.” In La litterature chinoise au temps de la Geurre de resistance contre le Japon. Paris: Editions de la Fondation Singer-Polignac, 1982, 267-80.

Shu, Yunzhong. “Different Modes of Intellectual Intervention: Lu Ling’s Short Stories.” In Shu, Buglers on the Home Front: The Wartime Practice of the Qiyue School. Albany: SUNY Press, 2000, 107-28.

—–. “Manifestations of Self-Transcendence: Lu Ling’s Children of Wealth.” In Shu, Buglers on the Home Front: The Wartime Practice of the Qiyue School. Albany: SUNY Press, 2000, 1289-52.

Song, Mingwei. “The Journey to Interiority: Subjectivism and the Lyrical Self.” In Song, Young China: National Rejuvenation and the Bildungsroman, 1900-1959. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Asia Center, 2015, 237-85.

Wang, David Der-wei. “Three Hungry Women.” Boundary 2. Special Issue ed. Rey Chow. 25, 2 (Fall 1998): 47-76.

Lu Tianming 陆天明

Kinkley, Jeffrey C. “Modernity and Apocalypse in Chinese Novels from the End of the Twentieth Century.” In Charles Laughlin, ed., Contested Modernities in Chinese Literature. NY: Palgrave Macmillan, 2005, 101-20. [deals with Wang Lixiong’s Yellow Peril, Lu Tianming’s Heaven Above, Zhang Ping’s Choice, and Mo Yan’s Liquorland].

—–. “The Trendsetter: Lu Tianming’s Heaven Above.” In Kinkley, Corruption and Realism in Late Socialist China. Palo Alto: Stanford UP, 2007, 22-46. [Publisher’s blurb]

Lu Wenfu 陆文夫

Wu, Tiachang. “Lu Wenfu and his Fiction.” In Yang Bian, ed., The Time is Not Ripe: Contemporary China’s Best Writers and Their Stories. Beijing: FLP, 1991, 149-54.

Lu Xinhua 卢新华

Galik, Marian. “Lu Hsin-hua and Others: the Odyssey of ‘Cultural Revolution.'” In Galik, ed., Milestones in Sino-Western Literary Confrontation (1898-1979). Weisbaden: Otto Harrassowitz, 1986, 243-54.

Yang, Min and Don Kuiken. “‘Scar’: A Social Metaphor for Working Through Revolution Trauma.” Frontiers of Literary Studies in China 10, 2 (2016): 318-42.

[Abstract: This article examines the social and psychological function of the “scar” metaphor at the turn from the late 1970s to the early 1980s. We propose that the widely employed scar metaphor, which was first created in the scar literature movement of the late 1970s and early 1980s, enabled Chinese readers to “work through” the blend of psychological and ideological disquietude that lingered after the Cultural Revolution. We will first clarify how the scar metaphor facilitated this process of “working through,” using as an example Lu Xinhua’s “The Scar” (Shanghen). We will then describe how the scar metaphor became dispersed throughout Chinese popular culture and enabled a broad spectrum of Chinese readers to participate in a similar process. At both levels of analysis, we will argue that the scar metaphor simultaneously provides a literary space for working through personal trauma and related anxieties about the ideological transition during this socio-political change.]

Lu Xun 鲁迅

(see Lu Xun Studies Bibliography)

Lu Yin (黄)庐隐

Feng, Jin. “Sentimental Autobiographies: Feng Yuanjun, Lu Yin and the New Woman.” In Feng, The New Woman in Early Twentieth-Century Chinese Fiction. West Lafayette, IN: Purdue University Press, 2004, 126-148.

Fiss, Geraldine. “Feminine and Masculine Dimensions of Feminist Thought and Transcultural Modernism in Republican China.” Frontiers of Literary Studies in China 8, 1 (March 2014): 101-24.

[Abstract: This study examines critical essays and imaginative fiction by three key writers of the Republican period: Mao Dun, Ba Jin and Lu Yin. I argue that, while Mao Dun and Ba Jin fuse elements of classical Chinese and modern Western sources so as to create strong heroines and a critique of “new men” for the purpose of revolutionary cultural and national reform, Lu Yin foregrounds an inward examination of the self, multiple narrative points of view and a dialogical perspective which fuses her protagonists’ interior consciousness with external reality as well as other characters’ streams of feeling and thought. My reading of Lu Yin’s texts reveals that she not only succeeds in bringing communion and solace to her readers but also creates “moments of being,” markedly similar to Virginia Woolf’s modernist aesthetics and Walter Benjamin’s mosaic-like “moments of recognition,” which allow her characters to perceive “wholeness” from fragmentary flashes of understanding. These intense moments of awareness enhance Lu Yin’s dialogic imagination and enable her to create discursive feminine narratives that convey the full complexity of women’s consciousness while simultaneously resisting the male realist literary discourse and strengthening her feminist-activist agenda in the national public sphere.]

Hong, Jeesoon. Gendered Modernism of Republican China: Lu Yin, Ling Shuhua, and Zhang Ailing, 1920-1949. Ph. D. diss. Cambridge: University of Cambridge, 2003.

Junkers, Elke. Leben und Werk der chinesichen Schrifstellerin Lu Yin (ca. 1899-1934) amhand ihrer Autobiographie. Munich: Minerva Publications, 1984.

Larson, Wendy. “Female Subjectivity and Gender Relations: The Early Stories of Lu Yin and Bing Xin.” In X. Tang and L. Kang, eds. Politics, Ideology, and Literary Discourse in Modern China: Theoretical Interventions and Cultural Critique. Durham: Duke UP, 1993, 124-46.

Liu, Jianmei. “Feminizing Politics: Reading Bai Wei and Lu Yin.” Journal of Modern Literature in Chinese 5, 2 (2002): 55-80.

Torgeson, Kristina M. “Lu Yin.” In Dictionary of Literary Biography–Chinese Fiction Writers, 1900-1949. Ed. Thomas Moran. NY: Thomson Gale, 2007, 151-63.

Xiao Feng. Lu Yin zhuan (Biography of Lu Yin). Beijing: Beijing shifan daxue, 1982.

Luo Fu 洛夫

Balcom, John. “To the Heart of Exile: The Poetic Odyssey of Luo Fu.” In Christopher Lupke ed., New Perspectives on Contemporary Chinese Poetry, New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2007, 65-84.

—–. “Lo Fu.” Poetry International Web–China.

Luo Guangbin and Yang Yiyan 罗广斌、杨益言

Button, Peter. “Exemplarity in Luo Guangbin and Yang Yiyan’s Hongyan: From White Terror to ‘Red Classic.'” In Button, Configurations of the Real in Chinese Literary and Aesthetic Modernity. Leiden: Brill, 2009. [MCLC Resource Center Publications review by Thomas Moran]

Chao, Yang. “The Red Crag: A Modern Epic.” Chinese Literatire 5 (May 1965): 89-97.

Luomen (Lomen) 羅門

Lin, Julia C. “Lomen: A Romantic ‘Modernist.'” In Lin, Essays on Contemporary Chinese Poetry. Athens, OH: Ohio University Press, 1985, 52-75.

Luo Qing 罗青

Allen, Joseph Roe, III. “Lo Ch’ing’s Poetics of Integration: New Configurations of the Literati Tradition.” Modern Chinese Literature 2, 2 (1986): 143-69.

—–. “The Postmodern (?) Misquote in the Poetry and Painting of Lo Ch’ing.” World Literature Today 65 (1991): 421-426.

Manfredi, Paul. “Between Word and Image: Luo Qing and the Visual-Verbal Self-Portrait.” Chinese Literature Today 2, 1 (2011): 50-59.

Marijnissen, Silvia. “‘Made Things’: Serial Form in Modern Poetry from Taiwan.” Modern Chinese Literature and Culture 13, 2 (Fall 2001): 172-206.


M

Ma Guoming (John Ma Kwok Ming)

Chow, Rey. “Consumption and Eccentric Writing: Notes on Two Hong Kong Authors.” Communal/Portal 7, 1 (1999): 45-58.

—–. “Thinking with Food, Writing Off Center: Notes on Two Hong Kong Authors.” In Jing Tsu and David Der-wei Wang, eds., Global Chinese Literature: Critical Essays. Leiden: Brill, 2010, 133-55.

Ma Jian 马建

Kong, Belinda. “The Biopolitical Square: Ma Jian’s Beijing Coma.” In Tiananmen Fictions Outside the Square: The Chinese Literary Diaspora and the Politics of Global Culture. Philadelphia, PA: Temple UP, 2012, 184-236.

Kong, Shuyu. “Ma Jian and Gao Xingjian: Intellectual Nomadism and Exilic Consciousness in Sinophone Literature.” Canadian Review Of Comparative Literature/Revue Canadienne De Littérature Comparée 41, 2 (2014): 126-146.

Loh, Lucienne. “The Epic Spirit In Ma Jian’s Beijing Coma and the ‘New’ China as Twenty-First-Century Empire.” Textual Practice 27, 3 (2013): 379-397.

Pesaro, Nicoletta. “Authorship, Ideology, and Translation: the Case of Ma Jian.” In Pesaro, ed., The Ways of Translation: Constraints and Liberties of Translating Chinese. Venezia: Libreria Editrice Cafoscarina, 2013, 161-174.

Ma Lihua 马丽华

Yue, Gang. “Echoes from the Himalayas: The Quest of Ma Lihua, a Chinese Intellectual in Tibet.” Journal of Contemporary China 13, 38 (Feb. 2004): 69-88. Rpt. in In Jie Lu, ed., China’s Literary and Cultural Scene at the Turn of the 21st Century. NY: Routledge, 2008, 119-38.

[Abstract: A long-time Han resident and a prominent writer in Tibet, Ma Lihua embodies a myriad of contradictions and dilemmas of Han Chinese intellectuals in Tibet. Her deep love of Tibetans and their rich culture coexists with her old-fashioned revolutionary idealism. Her cultural relativism enables her to understand the traditions and conditions of Tibet while her very work is part of the Chinese cultural mission to incorporate Tibet into the nation-state of the PRC. With a view to the political and social environment in which she writes, this essay provides a descriptive and sympathetic reading of her work on modern Tibetan literature and her encounters with, and reflections upon, modern Tibetan society.

Ma Yuan 马原

Cai, Rong. “Ma Yuan.” In Thomas Moran and Ye (Dianna) Xu, eds., Chinese Fiction Writers, 1950-2000. Dictionary of Literature Biography, vol. 370. Detroit: Thomson Gale, 2013, 172-78.

Causer, Frances. “Daedalus Goes to Tibet, But What Exactly Is He Doing There? A Reading of the Chinese Avant-Garde Writer Ma Yuan’s Novella Fabrication.” Bulletin of Seikei University 29, 5 (July 1997): 1-57.

Yang, Xiaobin. “Narratatorial Parabasis and Mise-en-Abyme: Ma Yuan as a Model.” In Yang, The Chinese Postmodern: Trauma and Irony in Chinese Avant-garde Fiction. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2002, 153-67.

Zhao, Henry Y.H. “Ma Yuan the Chinese Fabricator.” World Literature Today (Spring 1995): 312-16.

Mang Ke 芒克

Larson, Wendy. “The Spirit of the Countryside: Mang Ke’s Wild Things and Wang Xiaobo’s The Golden Years.” In Larson, From Ah Q to Lei Feng: Freud and Revolutionary Spirit in 20th Century China. Stanford: Stanford UP, 2009, 115-54.

Mao Dun 茅盾

Abbas, M. A. and Tak-wai Wong. “Mao Tun’s ‘Spring Silkworm’: Rhetoric and Ideology.” In Ying-hsiung Chou, ed., The Chinese Text: Studies in Comparative Literature. HK: The Chinese University of Hong Kong, 1986, 191-207.

Anderson, Marston. “Mao Dun, Zhang Tianyi, and the Social Impediments to Realism.” In Anderson, The Limits of Realism: Chinese Fiction in the Revolutionary Period. Berkeley: UCP, 1990, 119-79.

Berninghausen, John. “The Central Contradiction in Mao Dun’s [Mao Tun] Earliest Fiction.” In Merle Goldman, ed., Modern Chinese Literature in the May Fourth Era. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1977, 233-59.

—–. “Mao Dun’s Fiction, 1927-1936: The Standpoint and Style of His Realism.” Ph.D. Dissertation. Stanford: Stanford University, 1979.

Bichler, Lorenz. “Conjectures on Mao Dun’s Silence as a Novelist after 1949.” In Raoul Findeisen and Robert Gassmann, eds., Autumn Floods: Essays in Honour of Marian Galik. Bern: Peter Lang, 1997, 195-206.

Chan, Chingkiu Stephen. “Eros as Revolution: The Libidinal Dimension of Despair in Mao Dun’s Rainbow.” Journal of Oriental Studies 24, 1 (1986): 37-53.

Chan, Roy Bing. “Realism’s Hysterical Bodies: Narrative and Oneiric Counternarrative in Mao Dun’s Fiction.” In Chan, The Edge of Knowing: Dreams, History, and Realism in Modern Chinese Literature. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 74-107.

Chen, Jianhua. “Mao Dun’s Rainbow: A Modern Epic and Bildungsroman Novel in 20th-Century China.” In Paolo Amalfitano and Loretta Innocenti, eds., L’Oriente Storia di una figura nelle arti occidentali (1700-2000) [The Orient: History of a Figure in Western Arts (1700-2000)] (Second Volume). Rome: Bulzoni Editore, 2007, 57-77.

—–. “An Archaeology of Repressed Popularity: Zhou Shoujuan, Mao Dun, and their 1920s Literary Polemics.” In Carlos Rojas and Eileen Cheng-yin Chow, eds., Rethinking Chinese Popular Culture: Cannibalizations of the Canon. NY: Routledge, 2009, 91-114.

Chen, Susan Wolf. “Mao Tun the Translator.” Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies 48 (1988): 71-94.

—–. “The Personal Element in Mao Tun’s Early Fiction.” Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies, 43 (1983): 187-213.

Chen, Yu-shih. “False Harmony: Mao Dun on Women and Family.” Modern Chinese Literature 7, 1 (1993): 131-52.

—–. Realism and Allegory in the Early Fiction of Mao Dun. Bloomington: IUP, 1986.

—–. “Image of the Fallen Woman and the Making of the Chinese Proletarian Consciousness: Mao Dun’s Shuizao xing (1936).” In Marian Galik, ed., Interliterary and Intraliterary Aspects of the May Fourth Movement 1919 in China. Bratislava: Veda, 1990, 155-66.

—–. “Mao Dun [Mao Tun] and the Use of Political Allegory in Fiction: A Case Study of His ‘Autumn in Kuling.'” In Merle Goldman, ed., Modern Chinese Literature in the May Fourth Era. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1977, 261-80.

—–. “Mao Tun and The Wild Roses: A Study of the Psychology of Revolutionary Commitment.” China Quarterly 78 (1979): 291-323.

Chung, Hilary. “Questing the Goddess: Mao Dun and the New Woman.” In Findeison and Gassmann, eds., Autumn Floods: Essays in Honour of Marian Galik. Bern: Peter Lang, 1997.

—–. “Mao Dun, the Modern Novel, and the Representation of Women.” In Joshua Mostow, ed, and Kirk A. Denton, China section, ed., Columbia Companion to Modern East Asian Literatures. NY: Columbia UP, 2003, 405-410. Rpt in Kirk A. Denton, ed., Columbia Companion to Modern Chinese Literature. NY: Columbia University Press, 2016, 163-68.

Du, Ying. “Pursuing the Special Agent—Adaptation of Mao Dun’s Fushi and the Politics of Representing Espionage.” Modern Chinese Literature and Culture 29, 2 (Fall 2017): 159-205.

Fan, Jun. “Mao Dun, Master Craftsmen of Modern Chinese Literature.” Tr. Niu Jin. In Mao, Dun. The Vixen. Beijing: Panda Books, 1987, 255-66.

Feng, Jin. “The Temptation and Salvation of the Male Intellectual: Mao Dun’s Women Revolutionaries.” In Feng, The New Woman in Early Twentieth-Century Chinese Fiction. West Lafayette, IN: Purdue University Press, 2004, 101-125.

Fiss, Geraldine. “Feminine and Masculine Dimensions of Feminist Thought and Transcultural Modernism in Republican China.” Frontiers of Literary Studies in China 8, 1 (March 2014): 101-24.

[Abstract: This study examines critical essays and imaginative fiction by three key writers of the Republican period: Mao Dun, Ba Jin and Lu Yin. I argue that, while Mao Dun and Ba Jin fuse elements of classical Chinese and modern Western sources so as to create strong heroines and a critique of “new men” for the purpose of revolutionary cultural and national reform, Lu Yin foregrounds an inward examination of the self, multiple narrative points of view and a dialogical perspective which fuses her protagonists’ interior consciousness with external reality as well as other characters’ streams of feeling and thought. My reading of Lu Yin’s texts reveals that she not only succeeds in bringing communion and solace to her readers but also creates “moments of being,” markedly similar to Virginia Woolf’s modernist aesthetics and Walter Benjamin’s mosaic-like “moments of recognition,” which allow her characters to perceive “wholeness” from fragmentary flashes of understanding. These intense moments of awareness enhance Lu Yin’s dialogic imagination and enable her to create discursive feminine narratives that convey the full complexity of women’s consciousness while simultaneously resisting the male realist literary discourse and strengthening her feminist-activist agenda in the national public sphere.]

Feuerwerker, Yi-tsi Mei. “”The Dialectics of Struggle: Ideology and Realism in Mao Dun’s ‘Algae.'” In Theodore Huters, ed., Reading the Modern Chinese Short Story. Armonk, NY: M.E. Sharpe, 1990, 51-73.

Galik, Marian. Mao Tun and Modern Chinese Literary Criticism. Wiesbaden: Franz Steiner Verlag, 1969.

—–. “Autobiography in Flux: On Two Problematic Spots in Mao Dun’s Self-Portraits.” In Christina Neder et al. eds., China in Seinen Biographischen Dimension: Gedenkscrift fur Helmut Martin. Weisbaden: Harrossowitz Verlag, 2001, 105-12.

—–. “From Chuang-tzu to Lenin: Mao Tun’s Intellectual Development.” Asian and African Studies 3 (1967): 98-110.

—–. “The Names and Pseudonyms Used by Mao Tun.” Archiv Orientalni 31 (1968): 80-108.

—–. “Studies in Modern Chinese Literary Criticism: I. Mao Tun, 1919-1920.” Asian and Afican Studies 3 (1967): 113-40.

—–. “Studies in Modern Chinese Literary Criticism: II. Mao Tun on Men of Letters, Character and Functions of Literature (1921-1922).” Asian and African Studies 4 (1968): 30-43.

——. “Mao Tun’s Midnight: Creative Confrontation with Zola, Tolstoy, Wertherism and Nordic Mythology.” In Galik, ed., Milestones in Sino-Western Literary Confrontation (1898-1979). Weisbaden: Otto Harrassowitz, 1986, 73-100.

—–. “Mao Tun’s Struggle for a Realistic and Marxist Theory of Literature.” In Galik, The Genesis of Modern Chinese Literary Criticism, 1917-1930. London: Curzon Press, 1980, 191-213.

—–. “Mao Dun and Me.” Asian and African Studies [Brataslava] 4, 2 (1995): 113-36.

—–. “Mao Dun and Nietsche: From the Beginning to the End (1917-1979).” Asian and African Studies [Brataslava] 8, 2 (1999): 117-47.

Gruner, F. “Der Roman Tzu-yeh von Mao Tun–ein bedeutendes realistisches Werk der neuen chinesischen Literatur.” Asian and African Studies (Bratislava) 11 (1975): 57-72.

Hsia, C.T. “Mao Tun (1896- ).” In C.T. Hsia A History of Modern Chinese Fiction. 2nd ed. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1971, 140-64, 350-59.

Hull, David. “Value in What is Saved and What is Lost: Textology in Mao Dun’s Eclipse.Frontiers of Literary Studies in China 10, 2 (2016): 204-33.

[Abstract: Mao Dun’s seminal trilogy Eclipse was written in 1927–1928, directly after the failed Nanchang uprising. The trilogy is exceptional at least in part because it contains the author’s frustration and inner conflict that came from trying to understand this devastating loss. In 1954, while he served as the Minister of Culture for the People’s Republic of China, Mao Dun made fundamental and sweeping edits to all three novels. He made changes in an effort to suit the changed political situation, to make his narrative voice more consistent, to make his characters more stereotypical, and in some cases, to tone down the more explicit sensuality of the original texts. However, through an analysis of these alterations, this paper shows that the edited edition is a diminished work.]

—–. Narrative in Mao Dun’s Eclipse Trilogy: A Conflicted Mao Dun. Ph. D. diss. Los Angeles: University of California, LA, 2012.

Huters, Theodore. “Mao Dun’s Fushi: The Politics of the Self.” Modern Chinese Literature 5, 2 (1989): 242-68.

Idema, Wilt. “Mao Dun and Speenhoff, or how a fallen woman from Rotterdam started a new life in Shanghai.” In Lloyd Haft, ed., Words from the West: Western Texts in Chinese Literary Context: essays to honor Erid Zurcher on his sixty-fifth birthday. Leiden: CNWS Publications, 1993, 35-47.

Kral, Oldrich. “Researches into Mao Dun’s Aesthetics.” Acta Universitatis Carolinae- Philologica. 2 (1965): 75-90.

Lau, Joseph S.M. “Naturalism in Modern Chinese Fiction.” Literature East and West 12 (1968): 149-58.

Laughlin, Charles. “Mao Dun.” In Dictionary of Literary Biography–Chinese Fiction Writers, 1900-1949. Ed. Thomas Moran. NY: Thomson Gale, 2007, 164-77.

Leung, Yiu-nam. “High Finance in Emile Zola and Mao Tun.” In Masayuki Akiyama and Yiu-nam Leung, eds., Crosscurrents in the literatures of Asia and the West: Essays in Honor of A. Owen Aldridge. Newark: University of Delaware Press; London; Cranbury, NJ: Associated University Presses, 1997, 145-62.

Lin, Sylvia Li-chun. “Unwelcome Heroines: Mao Dun and Yu Dafu’s Creations of a New Chinese Woman.” Journal of Modern Literature in Chinese 1, 2 (Jan. 1998): 71-94.

Mao Dun Biography (Pegasos Website, Findland)

McDougall, Bonnie S. “The Search for Synthesis: T’ien Han and Mao Tun in 1920.” In A.R. Davis, ed., Search for Identity: Modern Literature and the Creative Arts in Asia. Sydney: Angus and Robertson, 1974, 225-54.

—–. “Dominance and Disappearance in May Fourth: A Post-Feminist Review of Fiction by Mao Dun and Ling Shuhua.” In Raoul Findeisen and Robert Gassmann, eds., Autumn Floods: Essays in Honour of Marian Galik. Bern: Peter Lang, 1997, 283-306.

—–. “Disappearing Women and Disappearing Men in May Fourth Narrative: A Post-Feminist Survey of Short Stories by Mao Dun, Bing Xin, Ling Shuhua and Shen Congwen.” In McDougall, Fictional Authors, Imaginary Audiences: Modern Chinese Literature in the Twentieth Century. HK: Chinese University Press, 2003, 133-70.

Prusek, Jaroslav. “Mao Tun.” In Three Sketches of Chinese Literature. Prague: Academia, 1969. Rpt. in The Lyrical and the Epic: Studies of Modern Chinese Literature. Bloomington: IUP,

Shen, Gloria. “A Theoretical Approach to Naturalism and the Modern Chinese Novel: Mao Tun as Critic and Novelist.” Tamkang Review 25, 2 (Winter 1994): 37-66.

Shih, Vincent Y.C. “Mao Tun: The Critic (Part I).” China Quarterly 19 (1964): 84-98.

—–. “Mao Tun: The Critic (Part II).” China Quarterly 20 (1964): 128-62.

Song, Mingwei. “Writing Youth into History: Mao Dun’s Early Novels.” In Song, Young China: National Rejuvenation and the Bildungsroman, 1900-1959. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Asia Center, 2015, 150-86.

Stapleton, Kristin. “Hu Lanqi: Rebellious Woman, Revolutionary Soldier, Discarded Heroine, and Triumphant Survivor.” In Kenneth J. Hammond and Kristin Stapleton, eds., The Human Tradition in Modern China. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield, 2008, 157-76. [Mao Dun’s novel Rainbow allegedly based on Hu Lanqi’s life]

Wang, David Der-wei. “Mao Tun and Naturalism: A Case of ‘Misreading’ in Modern Chinese Literary Criticism.” Monumenta Serica 37 (1986-87): 169-95.

—–. Fictional Realism in 20th-Century China: Mao Dun, Lao She, Shen Congwen. NY: Columbia UP, 1992. [chapters 2 and 3 deal with Mao Dun]

Wong, Tak-wai and M. A. Abbas. “Mao Tun’s ‘Spring Silkworms’: Rhetoric and Ideology.” In Ying-hsiung Chou, ed., The Chinese Text: Studies in Comparative Literature. HK: CUP, 1986, 191-207.

Xu, Jian. “Retrieving the Working Body in Modern Chinese Fiction: The Question of the Ethical in Representation.” Modern Chinese Literature and Culture 16, 1 (Spring 2004): 115-52. [deals with stories by Lu Xun, Mao Dun, Lao She, and Xiao Hong]

Yang, Richard H. “Midnight: Mao Tun’s Political Novel.” Review of National Literatures 4 (1975): 60-75. Rpt. in Paul K.T. Sih, ed., China’s Literary Image. Jamaica, NY: St. John’s University, 1975. .

Mao Zedong 毛泽东

Denton, Kirk A. “Literature and Politics: Mao Zedong’s ‘Talks at the Yan’an Forum on Art and Literature’.” In Joshua S. Mostow, ed., The Columbia Companion to Modern East Asia Literature. New York: Columbia UP, 2003. 463-69. Rpt. in Denton, ed., Columbia Companion to Modern Chinese Literature. NY: Columbia UP, 2016: 224-30.

Fu, Qilin. ‘The Reception of Mao’s “Talks at the Yan’an Forum on Literature and Art” in English-language Scholarship’. CLCWeb: Comparative Literature and Culture 17, 1 (2015).

Ingalls, Jeremy. Dragon in Ambush: The Art of War in the Poems of Mao Zedong. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 2-13. [MCLC Resource Center review by Paul Manfredi]

Jin Chongji 金冲及, ed. Mao Zedong zhuan 毛泽东传 (Biography of Mao Zedong). Beijing: Zhongyang wenxian, 1996. [an important state-sponsored biography]

Kondo, Tatsuya. “The Transmission of the Yenan Talks to Chungking and Hu Feng: Caught Between the Struggle for Democracy in the Great Rear Area and Maoism.” Acta Asiatica 72 (1997): 81-105.

Li Xin 黎辛 (1995). ‘Guanyu Yan’an wenyi zuotanhui de zhaokai, jianghua de xiezuo, fabioa he canji huiyi de ren” 关于‘延安文艺座谈会’的召开, 〈讲话〉的写作、发表和参加会议的人 (The ‘Yan’an Forum on Literature and Art,’ the Writing and Publication of the ‘Talks’ and Forum Participants’). Xin wenxue shiliao 2 (1995): 203-210.

McDougall, Bonnie, tr./ed. Mao Zedong’s “Talks at the Yan’an Conference on Literature and Art”: A Translation of the 1943 Text with Commentary. Ann Arbor: Center for Chinese Studies, University of Michigan, 1980. 

Shaoshan Mao Zedong tushuguan (Shaoshan Mao Zedong Library) [with searchable database of the Mao Zedong wenji (Beijing: Renmin, 1993-)]

Wang, Minmin. “The Yenan Forum on Literature and Art.” In Ray Heisey, ed., Chinese Perspectives in Rhetoric and Communication. Stanford: Ablex, 2000, 179-95.

Zhang, Chunhou and E. Edwin Vaughan. Mao Zedong as Poet and Revolutionary Leader: Social and Historical Perspective. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 2002.

Mei Niang 梅娘

Guo, Li. “Writing Women in Northeast China: Melancholis Narrative in Mei Niang’s Novellas.” Frontiers of Literary Studies in China 8, 1 (March 2014): 52-77.

[Abstract: Mei Niang (1920–2013), the pen name of Sun Jiarui, is a female fiction writer, translator, and editor of Funü zazhi (Ladies’ journal). In the semi-colonial Northeast China, Mei Niang’s exploration of melancholic narratives shore up manifold levels of socio-historical discourses that are constructive of women’s subjectivity. Melancholic narrative functions as an inverted mirror of both the author’s cultural displacement from her diasporic experience, and her portrayal of colonial domination of local elites by the Japanese in Northeast China. Also, the author’s depiction of feminine melancholia revokes the modernist ideology of love and its constitutive male-centered discourses, dismantles the social disenfranchisement of women by feudal authority, social prejudices, and the eroding urban materialism. Stylistically, Mei Niang’s second-person texts reinforce the feminine authority in enunciation, and by articulating women’s emotions and afflictions, transmogrify the melancholic narrative into a mode of self-narration and self-empowerment.]

Smith, Norman. Resisting Manchukuo: Chinese Women Writers and the Japanese Occupation.

Meng Chao 孟超

Greene, Maggie. “A Ghostly Bodhisattva and the Price of Vengeance: Meng Chao, Li Huiniang, and the Politics of Drama, 1959-1979.” Modern Chinese Literature and Culture 24, 1 (Spring 2012): 149-99.

Wagner, Rudolf. The Contemporary Chinese Historical Drama. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1990, 306-12. [deals with Li Huiniang]

Meng Jinghui 孟京辉

Conceison, Claire. “China’s Experimental Mainstream: The Badass Theatre of Meng Jinghui.” The Drama Review 58, 1 (March 2014): 64-88.

Ferrari, Rossella. “Anarchy in the PRC: Meng Jinghui and His Adaptation of Dario Fo’s Accidental Death of an Anarchist.” Modern Chinese Literature and Culture 17, 2 (2005): 1-48

—–. Pop Goes the Avant-garde: Meng Jinghui and Contemporary Chinese Avant-garde Theatre. PhD diss. London: SOAS, 2007.

An Interview with Meng Jinghui.” China Radio International-English (March 14, 2007).

—–. Pop Goes the Avant-garde: Experimental Theater in Contemporary China. London, NY, Calcutta: Seagull Books, 2012.

[Abstract: The first comprehensive review of the history and development of avant-garde drama and theater in the PRC since 1976. Drawing on a range of critical perspectives in the fields of comparative literature, theater, performance, and culture studies, the book explores key artistic movements and phenomena that have emerged in China’s major cultural centers in the last several decades. It surveys the work of China’s most influential dramatists, directors and performance groups, with a special focus on Beijing-based playwright, director and filmmaker Meng Jinghui—the former enfant terrible of Beijing theater, who is now one of Asia’s foremost theater personalities. Through an extensive critique of theories of modernism and the avant-garde, the author reassesses the meanings, functions and socio-historical significance of this work in non-Western contexts by proposing a new theoretical construct—the pop avant-garde—and exploring new ways to understand and conceptualize aesthetic practices beyond Euro-American cultures and critical discourses.]

Li, Xia. “Faust Made in China: Meng Jinghui and Shen Lin’s Irreverent Socio-Cultural Deconstruction of Goethe’s Iconic Masterpiece.” Neohelicon 37, 2 (2010): 509-535.

Nie, Jing. “Staging Spatial Conflicts and Affect in Emotional Postsocialism: Meng Jinghui’s Theater.” The China Review 11, 1 (2011).

[Abstract: Examining two plays directed by Meng Jinghui, Gossip Street and Rhinoceros in Love, this essay argues that Meng has successfully enacted the beauty of “lived experience” and “an uprising of the body” in the two plays, to represent, resist, critique, and parody the issues of postsocialist China, such as the homogenous power of globalization, consumerism, materialism, and emotional capitalism. By treating the offstage space as an organic component of the overall theatrical space, Meng not only extends the sphere of representation of space in theater from the static and limited performing stage to the porous open space that the audience inhabits but also makes the stage an alternative space on the boundaries aiming to transform the offstage space. Meng’s innovative, in-depth exploration and activation of the complicated relationships between languages and their parole, lived experience and commodity, and body and affect and their spatial manifestations inside and outside of the theater have effectively engaged the audience intellectually and emotionally while maintaining their awareness of the illusionary nature of the theater and of the realistic world outside.]

Meng Yao 孟瑤

Edel Marie Lancashire. The Novels of Meng Yao. M.A. Thesis. University of Melbourne, Australia, 1969.

—–. “The Novels of Meng Yao.” AUMLA, Journal of the Australasian Universities Language & Literature Association 34,
(Nov. 1970): 212-240.

—–. “”Meng Yao: A Tribute.” Research Unit on Taiwanese Culture and Literature (Ruhr University Bochum) [online publication]

—–. “Women and Education–the Chinese Experience as Portrayed in the Novel Before Dawn (Limingqian) by Meng Yao.” Taiwan Papers 3 (June 2002).

Mian Mian 棉棉

Hillenbrand, Margaret. “Murakami Haruki in Greater China: Creative Responses and the Quest for Cosmopolitanism.” Journal of Asian Studies 68, 3 (2009): 715-747. [deals in part with Mian Mian’s fiction]

Jones, Gary. “The Vampire Chronicles.” The Observer Magazine (23 May 1999).

Lu, Hongwei. “Body-Writing: Cruel Youth, Urban Linglei, and Special Economic Zone Syndrome in Mian Mian’s Candy.” Chinese Literature Today (Winter/Spring 2011): 40-47.

MianMian.com (Mian Mian’s personal website)

Shao Yanjun. “A Study of the Phenomenon of ‘Pretty Women’s Writing’: Weihui, Mianmian, Chunshu.” Wasafiri 55 (2008): 13-18.

Mo Yan 莫言

Andro, Chantal. “La valorisation de l’enfance dans l’oeuvre de Mo Yan.” In Andro, Annie Curien, and Cecile Sakai, eds., Tour et detours: Ecritures autobiographiques dans les litteratures chinoises and japonaises au XXe siecle. Publications Universitaires Denis Diderot, 1998, 191-230.

Braester, Yomi. “Mo Yan and Red Sorghum.” In Joshua Mostow, ed, and Kirk A. Denton, China section, ed., Columbia Companion to Modern East Asian Literatures. NY: Columbia UP, 2003, 541-45. Rpt as “Mo Yan.” In Kirk A. Denton, ed., Columbia Companion to Modern Chinese Literature. NY: Columbia University Press, 2016, 307-12.

Cai, Rong. “Problematizing the Foreign Other: Mother, Father, and the Bastard in Mo Yan’s Large Breasts and Full Hips.” Modern China 29, 1 (Jan. 2003): 108-37.

Cao, Shunqing and Miaomiao Wang. “Variation Study in Western and Chinese Comparative Literature.” In Angelic Duran and Yuhan Huang, eds., Mo Yan in Context: Nobel Laureate and Global Storyeller. West Lafayette: Purdue University Press, 2014, 183-94.

Chan, Shelley W. “From Fatherland to Motherland: On Mo Yan’s Red Sorghum and Big Breasts and Full Hips.” World Literature Today 74, 3 (Summer 2000): 495-500.

—–. A Subversive Voice in China: The Fictional World of Mo Yan. Amherst, NY: Cambria Press, 2011.

[Abstract: This book provides the most comprehensive exposition of Mo Yan’s fiction in any language. . . . Chan delves into Mo Yan’s entire collection of literary works, considering novels as well as short stories and novellas. In this analysis, Mo Yan’s works are dealt with in a diachronic fashion–Chan discusses the development of Mo Yan’s style throughout his career by considering themes that he has addressed in a variety of narratives over time. This provides the reader with valuable insight into understanding how individual narratives fit into the entire collection of Mo Yan’s body of literary work. Scholars will also welcome the book’s extensive reference to secondary scholarship and theory, which not only skillfully deals with the Chinese scholarship on Mo Yan but also thoroughly covers the English-language sources.]

Chen-Andro, Chantal. “Le Sorgho rouge de Mo Yan.” In La Litterature chinoise contemporaine, tradition et modernite: colloque d’Aix-en-Provence, le 8 juin 1988. Aix-en-Provence: Publications de l’Universite de Provence, 1989, 11-13.

Chen, Jianguo. “The Logic of the Phantasm: Haunting and Spectrality in Contemporary Chinese Literary Imagination.” Modern Chinese Literature and Culture 14, 1 (Spring 2002): 231-65. [deals with texts by Mo Yan, Chen Cun, and Yu Hua]

Chen, Maiping. “The Intertextual Reading of Chinese Literature with Mo Yan’s Works as Examples.” Chinese Literature Today 5, 1 (Jan. 2015): 34-36.

Chen, Thomas. “The Censorship of Mo Yan’s 天堂蒜墓之歌 (The Garlic Ballads).” In Angelic Duran and Yuhan Huang, eds., Mo Yan in Context: Nobel Laureate and Global Storyeller. West Lafayette: Purdue University Press, 2014, 37-50.

Chou, Ying-hsiung. “Romance of the Red Sorghum Family.” Modern Chinese Literature 5, 1 (1989): 33-42.

Choy, Howard Y. F. “Banditry and Bastardy: Mo Yan’s Family Romances in Shandong.” In Choy, Remapping the Past: Fictions of History in Deng’s China, 1979-1997. Leiden: Brill, 2008, 44-63.

—–. “Gastrotext: Food and the Body in the Fictions of Mo Yan, Su Tong, and Liu Heng.” In Choy, Remapping the Past: Fictions of History in Deng’s China, 1979-1997. Leiden: Brill, 2008, 188-201.

Davis-Undiano, Robert Con. “A Westerner’s Reflection on Mo Yan.” Chinese Literature Today 3, 1/2 (2013): 21-25.

Du, Lanlan. “Abortion in Faulkner’s The Wild Palms and Mo Yan’s 蛙 (Frog).” In Angelic Duran and Yuhan Huang, eds., Mo Yan in Context: Nobel Laureate and Global Storyeller. West Lafayette: Purdue University Press, 2014, 63-76.

Duke, Michael. “Past, Present, and Future in Mo Yan’s Fiction of the 1980s.” In Ellen Widmer and David Wang, eds., From May Fourth to June Fourth: Fiction and Film in Twentiety-Century China. Cambridge: Harvard UP, 1993, 295-326.

Duran, Angelica, and Yuhan Huang, eds. Mo Yan in Context: Nobel Laureate and Global Storyteller. West Lafayette: Purdue University Press, 2014.

—–. “Selected Bibliography of and about Mo Yan’s Work in Chinese and English.” In Angelic Duran and Yuhan Huang, eds., Mo Yan in Context: Nobel Laureate and Global Storyeller. West Lafayette: Purdue University Press, 2014, 21-26.

Dutrait, Noel. “L’Ecriture moderniste de Mo Yan dans Le Pays de l’acool.” In Annie Curien, ed., Ecrire au present: Debats litteraires franco-chinois. Paris: Editions de la Maison des sciences de l’homme, 2004, 231-40.

Fang, Jincai. The Crisis of Emasculation and the Restoration of Patriarchy in the Fiction of Chinese Contemporary Male Writers Zhang Xianliang, Mo Yan, and Jia Pingwa. Ph.D. Diss. Vancouver: University of British Columbia, 2004.

Feuerwerker, Yi-tsi Mei. “The Post-Modern ‘Search for Roots’ in Han Shaogong, Mo Yan, and Wang Anyi.” In Feuerwerker, Ideology, Power, Text: Self-Representation and the Peasant “Other” in Modern Chinese Literature. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1998, 188-238.

Goldblatt, Howard. “Forbidden Food: ‘The Saturnicon’ of Mo Yan.” World Literature Today 74, 3 (Summer 2000): 477-86.

—–. “Mo Yan in Translation: One Voice among Many.” Chinese Literature Today 3, 1/2 (2013): 8-9.

—–. “A Mutually Rewarding yet Uneasy and Sometimes Fragile Relationship between Author and Translator.” In Angelic Duran and Yuhan Huang, eds., Mo Yan in Context: Nobel Laureate and Global Storyeller. West Lafayette: Purdue University Press, 2014, 23-36.

Guptak, Suman. “Li Rui, Mo Yan, Yan Lianke, and Lin Bai: Four Contemporary Chinese Writers Interviewed.” Wasafiri 23, 3 (2008): 28-36.

He, Chengzhou. “Rural Chineseness, Mo Yan’s Work, and World Literature.” In Angelic Duran and Yuhan Huang, eds., Mo Yan in Context: Nobel Laureate and Global Storyeller. West Lafayette: Purdue University Press, 2014, 77-91.

Horiguchi, Noriko J. “Representations of ‘China’ and ‘Japan’ in Mo Yan’s, Hayashi’s and Naruse’s Texts.” In Angelic Duran and Yuhan Huang, eds., Mo Yan in Context: Nobel Laureate and Global Storyeller. West Lafayette: Purdue University Press, 2014, 51-62.

Huang, Alexander C. Y. “Mo Yan as Humorist.” 83, 4 (2009): 32-35.

Huang, Alexa and Angelica Duran. “Mo Yan’s Work and the Politics of Literary Humor.” In Angelica Duran and Huhan Huang, eds., Mo Yan in Context: Nobel Laureate and Global Storyteller. West Lafayette: Purdue University Press, 2014, 153-166.

Huang, Yiju. “A Buddhist Perspective: Trauma and Reincarnation in Mo Yan’s Life and Death Are Wearing Me Out. Modern Chinese Literature and Culture 28, 2  (Fall 2016): 285-312.

Inge, Thomas M. “Mo Yan and William Faulkner: Influence and Confluence.” The Faulkner Journal 6, 1 (1990): 15-24.

—–. “Mo Yan Through Western Eyes.” World Literature Today 74, 3 (Summer 2000): 501-06.

Kinkley, Jeffrey C. “Modernity and Apocalypse in Chinese Novels from the End of the Twentieth Century.” In Charles Laughlin, ed., Contested Modernities in Chinese Literature. NY: Palgrave Macmillan, 2005, 101-20.

[Abstract: deals with Wang Lixiong’s Yellow Peril, Lu Tianming’s Heaven Above, Zhang Ping’s Choice, and Mo Yan’s Liquorland]

Klein, Lucas. “A Dissonance of Discourses: Literary Theory, Ideology, and Translation in Mo Yan and Chinese Literary Studies.” Comparative Literature Studies 53, 1 (2016): 170-97.

[Abstract: Mo Yan’s 2012 Nobel Prize for Literature quickly turned into the most controversial international literary prize of recent memory. The controversy took place largely in English, and largely on the American Internet, where as much as Mo Yan was honored as being an important literary voice from a country whose contemporary cultural products are often neglected, he was criticized for supporting the Chinese Communist Party and its government. Defenders have pointed out that the politics in his fiction are neither as simple nor as straightforward as his party membership might otherwise indicate, but critics have said he writes a “daft hilarity” in a “diseased language,” calling his works in translation “superior to the original in their aesthetic unity and sureness.” Taking a detailed look at the controversy and debate, I examine the theoretical assumptions and stakes at work in the reading of Mo Yan and his Nobel, with attention to their ideological underpinnings, followed with a discussion on the importance of considering translation and the relationship between literary reading and politics. I close with a look toward a broadly applicable model of internationalist reading I call translational.]

Knight, Sabina. “Defiance and Fatalism in Roots-Seeking and Avant-Garde Fiction.” In Knight,The Heart of Time: Moral Agency in Twentieth-Century Chinese Fiction. Cambridge: Harvard University Asia Center, 2006, 191-221. [treats Mo’s “White Dog and the Swing,” Red Sorghum, and Thirteen Steps]

—–. “Mo Yan’s Delicate Balancing Act.The National Interest 124 (Mar/Apr 2013): 69-80.

[Abstract: Since winning the 2012 Nobel Prize in Literature, China’s Mo Yan has become a scapegoat for the sins of the regime in which he must survive. Such judgments neglect much that can be learned from his work. By operating in a “gray zone,” Mo voices subtle political criticisms that would risk reprisal if presented overtly. The key to understanding him is to seek out the underlying meaning in his probing stories of individual resilience in the face of the relentless forces of instinct, sexuality and history. [treats Life and Death Are Wearing Me Out, among other works.]

—–. “The Realpolitik of Mo Yan’s Fiction.” In Angelica Duran and Yuhan Huang, eds., Mo Yan in Context: Nobel Laureate and Global Storyteller. West Lafayette: Purdue University Press, 2014. 93-106.

Kong, Haili. “The Spirit of ‘Native-Soil’ in the Fictional World of Duanmu Hongliang and Mo Yan.” China Information 11, 4 (Spring 1997): 58-67.

Li, Tonglu. “Trauma, Play, Memory: Life and Death Are Wearing Me Out and Mo Yan’s Strategies for Writing History as Story.” Frontiers of Literary Study in China 9, 2 (2015): 235-58.

[Abstract: Commonly acclaimed for its black humor, Life and Death Are Wearing Me Out uses the Buddhist concept of reincarnation to follow two families during the second half of the 20th century. The novel exemplifies the strategies through which Mo Yan transforms the violent and absurd events of recent Chinese history into personal memory of historical trauma. It focuses less, however, on those events per se than on the traumatic effects they create on the individual victims, and on the ways through which personal trauma caused by historical atrocities is addressed and healed. This article analyzes three layers of the novel: the evolving mechanisms of violence that condition the formation of personal trauma; the theatrical manifestation of the state-endorsed violence, and its loss in the post-revolutionary era; and the rationalization of the tragicomic past through the dialectic of remembering and forgetting. Built one on the other, these layers constitute the very dynamic stage on which the individuals interact with the violent and absurd world to negotiate the meaning of their lives, make sense of historical trauma, and insist on driving historical change.]

Li, Xia. “Li Yidou’s Credo: Intellectuals in the Post-Mao Literary and Cultural Landscape.” Interlitteraria 1 (2009): 50-68.

Liu, Yiran. “The Writer Mo Yan as I Knew Him.” Chinese Literature (Winter 1989): 32-42.

Lu, Tonglin. “Red Sorghum: Limits of Transgression.” In X. Tang and L. Kang, eds. Politics, Ideology, and Literary Discourse in Modern China: Theoretical Interventions and Cultural Critique. Durham: Duke UP, 1993, 188-208. Rpt. in Lu Tonglin, Misogyny, Cultural Nihilism and Oppositional Politics: Contemporary Chinese Experimental Fiction. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1995, 51-74.

Mitchell, Donald and Angelica Duran. “A Textbook Case of Comparative Cultural Studies.” In Angelic Duran and Yuhan Huang, eds., Mo Yan in Context: Nobel Laureate and Global Storyeller. West Lafayette: Purdue University Press, 2014, 195-213.

Ng, Kenny K.K. “Critical Realism and Peasant Ideology: The Garlic Ballads by Mo Yan.” Chinese Culture 39, 1 (1998): 109-46.

—–. “Metafiction, Cannibalism, and Political Allegory: Wineland by Mo Yan.” Journal of Modern Literature in Chinese 1, 2 (Jan. 1998): 121-48.

Ngai, Ling Tun. “Anal Anarchy: A Reading of Mo Yan’s ‘The Plagues of Red Locusts’.” Modern Chinese Literature 10, 1/2 (Spring/Fall 1998): 7-24.

Riemenschnitter, Andrea. “A Gun Is Not a Woman: Local Subjectivity in Mo Yan’s Novel Tanxiang xing.” Frontiers of Literary Studies in China 7, 4 (2013): 590-616.

—–. “Mo Yan.” In Thomas Moran and Ye (Dianna) Xu, eds., Chinese Fiction Writers, 1950-2000. Dictionary of Literature Biography, vol. 370. Detroit: Thomson Gale, 2013, 179-94.

Rojas, Carlos. “Mo Yan through a Dog’s Eyes.” Public Books (Feb. 2014).

Stuckey, G. Andrew. “Memory or Fantasy? Honggaoliang’s Narrator.” Modern Chinese Literature and Culture 18, 2 (Fall 2006): 131-62.

Tao, Yue. “The New Chineseness: Great Leap Forward or Backward?” IIAS Newsletter 37 (June 2005): 7.

Tsen, Darwin H. “After the Commune: Postsocialist Collectivity, the Commodity, and Mo Yan’s People.” Modern Chinese Literature and Culture 29, 1 (Spring 2017): 95-135.

Wang, Chi-ying Alice. “Mo Yan’s The Garlic Ballads and Life and Death Are Wearing Me Out in the Context of Religious and Chinese Literary Conventions.” In Angelic Duran and Yuhan Huang, eds., Mo Yan in Context: Nobel Laureate and Global Storyeller. West Lafayette: Purdue University Press, 2014, 123-38.

Wang, David Der-wei. “Imaginary Nostalgia: Shen Congwen, Song Zelai, Mo Yan, and Li Yongping.” In Ellen Widmer and David Wang, eds., From May Fourth to June Fourth: Fiction and Film in Twentieth-Century China. Cambridge: Harvard UP, 1993, 107-132.

—–. “The Literary World of Mo Yan.” World Literature Today 74, 3 (Summer 2000): 487-94.

Wang, Jinghui. “Religious Elements in Mo Yan’s and Yan Lianke’s Works.” In Angelic Duran and Yuhan Huang, eds., Mo Yan in Context: Nobel Laureate and Global Storyeller. West Lafayette: Purdue University Press, 2014, 139-52.

Wang, Ning. “Cosmopolitanism and the Internationalization of Chinese Literature.” In Angelic Duran and Yuhan Huang, eds., Mo Yan in Context: Nobel Laureate and Global Storyeller. West Lafayette: Purdue University Press, 2014, 167-82.

Wickeri, Janice. “Introduction.” In Mo Yan, Explosions and Other Stories. HK: Renditions Paperback, 1991, v-xii.

Wu, Yenna. “Pitfalls of the Postcolonialist Rubric in the Study of Modern Chinese Fiction Featuring Cannibalism: From Lu Xun’s ‘Diary of a Madman’ to Mo Yan’s Boozeland.” Tamkang Review 30, 3 (Spring 2000): 51-88.

Xiao, Hui Faye. “Cross-Cultural Nostalgia and Visual Consumption: On the Literary Adaptation and Japanese Reception of Huo Jianqi’s 2003 Film Nuan.” Concentric: Literary and Cultural Studies 31, 2 (2005): 227-248. Reprinted in Rebecca Housel, ed., From Camera Lens to Critical Lens: A Collection of Best Essays on Film Adaptation. Newcastle: Cambridge Scholars Press, 2006, 142-59.

Yang, Fenggang. “Soul Searching in Contemporary Chinese Literature and Society.” In Angelic Duran and Yuhan Huang, eds., Mo Yan in Context: Nobel Laureate and Global Storyeller. West Lafayette: Purdue University Press, 2014, 215-20.

Yang, Xiaobin. “The Republic of Wine: An Extravaganza of Decline.” Positions 6, 1 (1998): 7-31. Rpt. in In Yang, The Chinese Postmodern: Trauma and Irony in Chinese Avant-garde Fiction. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2002, 207-29.

Yang Yang 杨杨, ed. Mo Yan yanjiu ziliao 莫言研究资料 (Research materials on Mo Yan). Tianjin: Tianjin renmin, 2005.

Yue, Gang. “From Cannibalism to Carnivorism: Mo Yan’s Liquorland.” In Yue, The Mouth that Begs: Hunger, Cannibalism, and the Politics of Eating in Modern China. Durham: Duke University Press, 1999, 262-88.

Zhang, Qinghua. “The Nobel Prize, Mo Yan, and Contemporary Chinese Literature in China.” Chinese Literature Today 3, 1/2 (2013); 17-20.

Zhang, Xudong. “Demonic Realism and the Socialist Market Economy: Language Game, Natural History, and Social Alleogory in Mo Yan’s The Republic of Wine.” In Zhang, Postsocialism and Cultural Politics: China in the Last Decade of the Twentieth Century. Durham: Duke UP, 2008, 240-65.

Zhang, Yinde. “The Fiction of Living Beings.” China Perspectives 3 (2010): 124-32.

—–. “The (Bio)political Novel: Some Reflections on Frogs by Mo Yan.” Tr. by Jonathan Hall. China Perspectives 4 (2011): 53-61.

—–. Mo Yan, le lieu de la fiction. Paris: Seuil, 2014. [China Perspectives review by Fanny Fontaine]

Zhong, Xueping. “Zazhong gaoliang and the Male Search for Masculinity.” In Zhong, Masculinity Besieged? Issues of Modernity and Male Subjectivity in Chinese Literature of the Late Twentieth Century. Durham: Duke UP, 2000, 119-49.

Zhu Binzhong 朱宾忠, ed. Kuayue shikong de duihua–Fukena yu Mo Yan bijiao yanjiu 跨越时空的对话-福克纳与莫言比较研究 (Dialogue transcending the boundaries of time and space: Faulkner and Mo Yan comparative research). Wuhan: Wuhan daxue, 2006.

Zhu, Ling. “A Brave New World? On the Construction of ‘Masculinity’ and ‘Femininity’ in The Red Sorghum Family.” In Tonglin Lu, ed., Gender and Sexuality in Twentieth-Century Chinese Literature and Society. Albany: SUNY Press, 1993, 121-34.

Mou Sen 牟森

Salter, Denis. “China’s Theatre of Dissent: A Conversation with Mou Sen and Wu Wenguang.” Asian Theatre Journal 13, 2 (1996): 218-22.

Mou Zongsan 牟宗三

Angle, Stephen C. “Mou Zongsan and his Nineteen Lectures on Chinese Philosophy.” Unpublished paper made available by the author.

Berthrong, John. “The Problem of Mind: Mou Tsung-san’s Critique of Chu Hsi.” Journal of Chinese Religion 10 (1982): 367-394.

Billioud, Sébastien. “Mou Zongsan’s Problem with the Heideggerian Interpretation of Kant.” Journal of Chinese Philosophy 33, 2 (June 2006): 225-247.

—–. Thinking through Confucian Modernity: A Study of Mou Zongsan’s Moral Metaphysics. Leiden and Boston: Brill, 2011.

Bresciani, Umberto. Reinventing Confucianism: The New Confucian Movement. Taipei: Taipei Ricci Institute for Chinese Studies, 2001.

Bunnin, Nicholas. “God’s Knowledge and Ours: Kant and Mou Zongsan on Intellectual Intuition.” Journal of Chinese Philosophy 35, 4 (December 2008): 613-624.

Chan, N. Serina. “What is Confucian and New about the Thought of Mou Zongsan?” in New Confucianism: A Critical Examination, ed. John Makeham (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2003), 131-164.

—–. The Thought of Mou Zongsan. Leiden: Brill, 2011.

Chan, Wing-Cheuk. “Mou Zongsan on Zen Buddhism.” Dao: A Journal of Comparative Philosophy 5, 1 (2005) : 73-88.

—–. “Mou Zongsan’s Transformation of Kant’s Philosophy.” Journal of Chinese Philosophy 33, 1 (March 2006): 125-139.

—–. “Mou Zongsan and Tang Junyi on Zhang Zai’s and Wang Fuzhi’s Philosophies of Qi : A Critical Reflection.” Dao: A Journal of Comparative Philosophy 10, 1 (March 2011): 85-98.

—–. “On Mou Zongsan’s Hermeneutic Application of Buddhism.” Journal of Chinese Philosophy 38, 2 (June 2011): 174-189.

Chan, Wing-Cheuk and Henry C. H. Shiu. “Introduction: Mou Zongsan and Chinese Buddhism.” Journal of Chinese Philosophy 38, 2 (June 2011): 169-173.

Clower, Jason. The Unlikely Buddhologist: Tiantai Buddhism in the New Confucianism of Mou Zongsan. Leiden: Brill, 2010.

—–. “Mou Zongsan on the Five Periods of the Buddha’s Teaching. Journal of Chinese Philosophy 38, 2 (June 2011): 190-205.

—–. “Mou Zongsan (Mou Tsung-san) (1909—1995).” Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy.

Guo Qiyong. “Mou Zongsan’s View of Interpreting Confucianism by ‘Moral Autonomy’.” Frontiers of Philosophy in China 2/3 (June 2007): 345-362.

Kantor, Hans-Rudolf. “Ontological Indeterminacy and Its Soteriological Relevance: An Assessment of Mou Zongsan’s (1909-1995) Interpretation of Zhiyi’s (538-597) Tiantai Buddhism.” Philosophy East and West 56, 1 (January 2006): 16-68.

Kwan, Chun-Keung. “Mou Zongsan’s Ontological Reading of Tiantai Buddhism.” Journal of Chinese Philosophy 38, 2 (June 2011): 206-222.

Lin, Chen-kuo. “Dwelling in Nearness to the Gods: The Hermeneutical Turn from MOU Zongsan to TU Weiming.” Dao 7 (2008): 381-392.

Lin, Tongqi and Zhou Qin. “The Dynamism and Tension in the Anthropocosmic Vision of Mou Zongsan.”Journal of Chinese Philosophy 22, 4 (December 1995): 401-440.

Liu, Shu-hsien. “Mou Tsung-san (Mou Zongsan).” in Encyclopedia of Chinese Philosophy, ed. A.S. Cua. New York: Routledge, 2003.

Schmidt, Stephen. “Mou Zongsan, Hegel, and Kant: The Quest for Confucian Modernity.” Philosophy East and West 61, 2 (April 2011): 260-302.

Shiu, Henry C.H. “Nonsubstantialism of the Awakening of Faith in Mou Zongsan.” Journal of Chinese Philosophy 38, 2 (June 2011): 223-237.

Tang, Andres Siu-Kwong. “Mou Zongsan’s ‘Transcendental’ Interpretation of Huayan Buddhism.” Journal of Chinese Philosophy 38, 2 (June 2011): 238-256.

Tu, Xiaofei. “Dare to Compare: The Comparative Philosophy of Mou Zongsan.” Kritike 1, 2 (December 2007): 24-35.

Zheng, Jiadong. “Mou Zongsan and the Contemporary Circumstances of the Rujia.” Contemporary Chinese Thought 36, 2 (Winter 2004-5): 67-88.

—–. “Between History and Thought: Mou Zongsan and the New Confucianism That Walked Out of History.” Contemporary Chinese Thought 36, 2 (Winter 2004-5): 49-66.

Mu Dan 穆旦

Li, Shu-erh. “What Has ‘Funeral Ode’ Buried?” In Hualing Nieh, ed., Literature of the Hundred Flowers, Volume II: Poetry and Fiction. NY: Columbia UP, 1981, 124-28.

Mi, Jiayan. Self-Fashioning and Reflexive Modernity in Modern Chinese Poetry. Lewiston, NY: Edwin Mellen, 2004.

[Abstract: This study explores diverse modes of self-fashioning in the discursive formation of Chinese modernity between 1919 and 1949 in modern Chinese poetry. By focusing on four representative poets of modern Chinese poetry before 1949—Guo Moruo, Li Jinfa, Dai Wangshu, and Mu Dan, the study offers fresh, insightful analysis of the dynamic trajectory of the historical complexity of fashioning a new modern self-subjectivity with relation to the nation-state. Theoretically informed by the varied perspectives of modernity, the self, the body, and memory, the author for the first time reveals how the corporeal body emerges as a site of agency, trauma, and libidinal investment for engaging with the configuration of a multi-layered self, gender, and nationhood in modern China. This work will make several significant contributions to enhancing readers’ understanding of the cultural and psychological complexity of modern China. This work will be of interest to teachers, students and scholars of modern Chinese literature and culture as well as comparative literature.]

Yan, Liu. “Mu Dan’s Poem Revelation, the Bible and Western Modernism.” Asian and African Studies [Brataslava] 19, 2 (2010): 220-36.

Zhu, Yanhong. Reconfiguring Chinese Modernism: The Poetics of Temporality in 1940s Fiction and Poetry. Ph. D. diss. Los Angeles: University of Southern California, 2009.

[Authors that are discussed in the dissertation include: Shen Congwen, Feng Zhi, Nine Leaves Poets (primarily Yuan Kejia and Mu Dan)].

Mu Mutian 穆木天

Liu, David Jason. “Chinese ‘Symbolist’ Verse in the 1920’s: Li Chin-fa and Mu Mu-t’ien.” Tamkang Review 12, 3 (1981): 27-53.

Mu Shiying 穆时英

Braester, Yomi. “Shanghai’s Economy of Spectacle: The Shanghai Race Club in Liu Na’ou’s and Mu Shiying’s Stories.” Modern Chinese Literature 9, 1 (1995): 39-58.

Lee, Haiyan. “Writing the Experience of Modernity: The Metropolis and the Modern Self in Mu Shiying’s fiction.” MA Thesis. Ithaca: Cornell University, 1996.

Lee, Leo Ou-fan. “Face, Body, and the City: The Fiction of Liu Na’ou and Mu Shiying.” In Lee, Shanghai Modern: The Flowering of a New Urban Culture in China, 1930-1945. Cambridge: Harvard UP, 1999, 190-231.

Liu, Jianmei. “Shanghai Variations on ‘Revolution Plus Love.'” Modern Chinese Literature and Culture 14, 1 (Spring 2002): 51-92. [deals with texts by Shi Zhecun, Liu Na’ou, Mu Shiying, Zhang Ziping, and Ye Lingfeng]

Mak, Anthony Wan-hoi. The School of New Sensibilities in the 1930s: A Study of Liu Na’ou and Mu Shiying’s Fiction. Ph.D. diss. University of Toronto, 1995.

Rosenmeier, Christopher John. Shanghai Avant-garde: The Fiction of Shi Zhecun, Mu Shiying, Xu Xu, and Wumingshi. Ph. D. diss. London: University of London, 2006.

—–. “The Subversion of Modernity and Socialism in Mu Shiying’s Early Fiction.” Frontiers of Literary Studies in China 7, 1 (2013): 1-22.

[Abstract: Mu Shiying’s first short story collection, North Pole, South Pole (Nanbeiji) from 1932, is usually seen as socialist or proletarian literature preceding his later modernist writings. I argue that this view needs to be revised. In one short story Mu deliberately parodies the social agenda of contemporary leftist writers. The protagonists are neither enlightened workers nor victims of social injustice. On the contrary, they turn to rage, misogyny, and self-righteous violence, and their motives are rooted in their sexual frustrations and inability to cope with modern life. Their righteous ideals are based on fiction and an imagined tradition. Mu’s construction of the fictive tradition plays an important part in these early short stories, and, in this respect, I compare them with Shi Zhecun’s writings.]

Schaefer, William. “Montage Landscapes.” In Schaefer, Shadow Modernism: Photography, Writing, and Space in Shanghai, 1925-1937. Durham: Duke University Press, 2017, 145-79.

Shih, Shu-mei. “Performing Semicolonial Subjectivity: The Work of Mu Shiying.” In Shi, The Lure of the Modern: Writing Modernism in Semicolonial China, 1917-1937. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2001, 302-38.

Williams, Philip F. “Pierrot Figures in the Modern Chinese Novella.” Asian Review 9, 1 (1989): 21-24. [comparative analysis of works by Mu Shiying and Jiang Guangci].

—–. “Twentieth Century Chinese Fiction’s Growing Tension Between Narrator and Implied Reader: The Case of Mu Shiying.” Chinese Culture XL, 1 (March 1999): 71-84.

Zhang, Yingjin. The City in Modern Chinese Literature and Film. Stanford, Stanford UP, 1996, 154-85. [contains a section on Mu Shiying]

—–. “Mu Shiying.” In Dictionary of Literary Biography–Chinese Fiction Writers, 1900-1949. Ed. Thomas Moran. NY: Thomson Gale, 2007, 178-82.

Mu Xin 木心

Liu, Toming Jun. “A Dialogue with Mu Xin.” Words Without Borders: The Online Magazine of International Literature. Originally published in slightly longer form in North Dakota Quarterly (Spring 1997): 19-28.

Murong Xuecun 慕容雪村

Gentil, Sylvie. “Chengdu, Leave Me Alone Tonight or Life as a Drowning Experience.” Chinese Cross Currents 1, 2 (2004): 58-69.


N

Nan Wei

Kuoshu, Harry. “Dramatizing Xianglin Sao: Light Cast on an Opaque Figure.” In Harry Kuoshu, Lightness of Being in China: Adaptation and Discursive Figuration in Cinema and Theater. NY: Peter Lang, 1999, 51-70. [in part about Nan Wei’s dramatic adaptation of “Zhufu”]

Nie Gannu 聂绀弩

Tian, Xiaofei. “Muffled Dialect Spoken by Green Fruit: An Alternative History of Modern Chinese Poetry.” Modern Chinese Literature and Culture 21, 1 (Spring 2009): 1-45.

Xia, Zhongyi and Brian Skerratt. “Against the Grain of History: In Search of Humanity in the Mao Era: The Contemporary Classical Poetry of Chen Yinke, Nie Gannu, and Wang Xindi.” Journal of Chinese Literature and Culture 3, 2 (Nov. 2016): 429-47.

[Abstract: This article argues that the classical verse of three twentieth-century writers, Chen Yinke 陳寅恪 (1890–1969), Nie Gannu 聶紺弩 (1903–86), and Wang Xindi 王辛笛 (1912–2004), is significant to the canon of contemporary Chinese literature. The literary historical merit of their poetry is due not only to its aesthetic accomplishments but even more to the poets’ specific responses to the challenges posed to human dignity during the thought reform campaigns of the 1950s and the Cultural Revolution. Whereas Chen Yinke’s last twenty years demonstrate the faith and hauteur of a scholar who wore the mantle of the entire classical tradition, Nie Gannu expresses the deepest despair through deceptively humorous rustic topics, and Wang Xindi’s grief over separation and loss recall Du Fu’s poetry of the An Lushan Rebellion. Although the thirty years between the establishment of the People’s Republic of China through the end of the Cultural Revolution may have been a time when intellectuals were intimidated into conformity or silence, these three poets show that such hardship created an opportunity to exalt the spirit of individual dignity, if only through poetry.

Yang, Haosheng. “Who Am I? Identity, Resistance, and Resilience in the Classical-Style Poetry of Nie Gannu.” Journal of Chinese Literature and Culture 3, 2 (Nov. 2016): 335-56.

[Abstract: This article examines modern Chinese writer Nie Gannu’s 聶紺弩 (1903–86) poetic exploration of the meaning of life and poetry in times of both personal crisis and sociopolitical crises in China from the 1950s through the mid-1970s. Before and during the Cultural Revolution, Nie was thrice denounced—as a member of the Hu Feng clique in 1955, as a rightist in 1957, and as a counterrevolutionary in 1967 for his critique of the extreme political measures of the time. Political persecution spurred Nie’s serious interest in writing classical-style poetry, in which he redefined the role of intellectual writers in the socialist state. His poems were generated from ideological crisis, emotional vexation, and a moral imperative to record unvarnished truth; in an age obsessed with the future, they bore witness to the suffering of the present and the past.]

Nie Hualing 聂华苓

Chen, Angelina, dir. One Tree Three Lives (2012) [documentary on the life and work of Nieh Hualing, acclaimed Chinese novelist and essayist. this writer has been a major influence on generations of writers in the Chinese diaspora and beyond. Winner of the 2013 HK Film Critics Society’s Film Merit Award.]

Chen, Tina. “Bodily Negotiations: The Politics of Performance in Hualing Nieh’s Mulberry and Peach.” In Chen, Double Agency: Acts of Impersonation in Asian American Literature and Culture. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2005, 89-112.

Chiu, Monica. Illness and Self-representation in Asian-American Literature by Women. Ph.D. diss. Atlanta, GA: Emory University, 1996.

Denton, Kirk A. “Review of Mulberry and Peach: Two Women of China by Hualing Nieh.” Journal of the Chinese Language Teacher’s Association 24, no. 2 (1989): 135–138.

Feeley, Jennifer. 2009. “From Hubei to the Iowa Women’s Hall of Fame: Hualing Nieh Engle Talks about Her Work, Her ‘Three Lives’ and the Founding of the UI International Writing Program.” Full Tilt: A Journal of East Asian Poetry, Translation, and the Arts 4.

Fitzgerald, Carolyn. “‘Diary of a Madwoman’ Traversing the Diaspora: Rewriting Lu Xun in Hualing Nieh’s Mulberry and Peach.” Modern Chinese Literature and Culture 26, 2 (Fall 2014): 38-88.

Li Kailing李凯令 and Chen Zongshu 谌宗恕, eds. 1990. Nie Hualing yanjiu zhuanji 聂华苓研究专集 (An anthology of studies on Nie Hualing). Wuhan: Hubei jiaoyu.

Nazareth, Peter. “An Interview with the Chinese Author Hualing Nieh.” World Literature Today 55,1 (Winter 1981): 10-18.

Palumbo-Liu, David. 1999. Asian/American: Historical Crossings of a Racial Frontier. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1999, 347-78.

Pai Hsien-yung (a.k.a. Bai Xianyong白先勇). 1976. “The Wandering Chinese: The Theme of Exile in Taiwan Fiction.” Iowa Review 7, no. 2–3: 205–212.

Wong, Sauling C. “The Stakes of Textual Border-Crossing: Hualing Niehh’s Mulberry and Peach in Sinocentric, Asian American, and Feminist Critical Practices.” In Kandice Chuh and Karen Shimakawa, eds.,Orientations: Mapping Studies in the Asian Diaspora. Durham: Duke UP, 2001, 130-52.

Yu, Shiao-ling. “The Themes of Exile and Identity Crisis in Nie Hualing’s Fiction.” In Hsin-sheng C. Kao, ed., Nativism Overseas: Contemporary Chinese Women Writers. Albany: SUNY Press, 1993, 127-156.


O

Ouyang Jianghe 欧阳江河

Kubin, Wolfgang. “Wolfgang Kubin on Ouyang Jianghe.” Asymptote (Jan. 2012).

Ouyang, Jianghe and Austin Woerner. “Interview with Ouyang Jianghe and Austin Woerner.” Kenyon Review (Sept. 2009).

Ouyang Yu

Jacobs, Lyn. “About Face: Asian-Australians at Home.” Australian Literary Studies 20, 3 (May 2002): 201-214.

Ommundsen, Wenche. “Not for the Faint-hearted: Ouyang Yu: The Angry Chinese poet.” Meanjin 57, 3 (1998): 595-609

Qian, Chaoying. “Death in the ‘New Chinese Literature’ of Australia.” In Wenche Ommundsen, ed., Bastard Moon: Essays on Chinese-Australian Writing. Melbourne: Otherland, 2001, 225-242.

Ouyang Yuqian 欧阳予倩

Braester, Yomi. “Rewriting Tradition, Misreading History: Twentieth-Century (Sub)versions of Pan Jinlian’s Story.” In Braester, Witness Against History: Literature, Film, and Public Discourse in Twentieth-Century China. Stanford: Stanford UP, 2003, 56-80. [deals with Wei Minglun’s Pan Jinlian, as well as Ouyang Yuqian’s play of the same title]

Shao, Qin. “The Mismatch: Ouyang Yuqian and Theater Reform in Nantong, 1919-1922.” Chinoperl Papers 19 (1996): 39-66.

Ouyang Zi 歐陽子

Lee, Tong Kong. “Forbidden Imaginations: Three Chinese Narratives on Mother-Son Incest.” Chinese Literature: Essays, Articles, Reviews 36 (2014): 1-24.

[Abstract:This paper explores the representation of incest in contemporary Chinese fiction. Specifically, it looks at three short stories by Chinese woman writers, focusing its discussion on their relation to psychoanalytic models, the significance of trauma and causality and the arising discourses on incestuous desire. It asks the following questions: To what extent do incest narratives challenge or reinforce extant norms on sexual relations? What are the ethical implications of these stories for (de)situating incest within the popular erotic imagination? The analysis indicates that in articulating the occurrence of incest, different narrative trajectories project divergent discourses on consanguineous sex. The various guises in which the Oedipal narrative is replayed also reveal the tensions and anxieties involved in representing the culturally tabooed.]

Lindfors, Sally Ann. Private Lives: An Analysis of the Short Stories of Ouyang Tzu, a Modern Chinese Writer. Ph.D. diss. Austin: University of Texas, 1982.


P

Ping Jinya平襟亚 (or Wangzhu sheng 网蛛生)

Elvin, Mark. “The Crisis of Absurdity: Ping Jinya, Tides in the Human Sea.” In Elvin, Changing Stories in the Chinese World. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1997, 94-148.


Q

Qian Xingcun (Ah Ying) 钱杏邨/阿英

Galik, Marian. “Ch’ien Hsing-ts’un’s Theory of Proletarian Realism and ‘Literature of Power.'” In Galik, The Genesis of Modern Chinese Literary Criticism (1917-1930). London: Curzon Press, 1980, 166-90.

Qian Zhongshu 钱钟书

Benicka, Jana. “Some Remarks on the Satirical in Qian Zhongshu’s Novel Weicheng (Fortressed Beseiged). In Findeisen and Gassmann, eds., Autumn Floods Essays in Honor of Marian Galik. Bern: Peter Lang, 1997.

Cairncross, Frances and Li Chen. “Qian Zhongshu and Oxford University.” Chinese Arts and Letters 2, 1 (April 2015): 70-84.

Chang, Shen Tai. “Reading Qian Zhongshu’s ‘God’s Dream’ as a Postmodern Text.” CLEAR 16 (1994): 93-110.

Egan, Ronald. “Introduction.” In Limited Views: Essays on Ideas and Letters. Cambridge: Council on East Asian Studies, Harvard University, 1998, 1-26.

—–. “Guanzhui bian, Western Citations, and the Cultural Revolution.” In Christopher Rea, ed., China’s Literary Cosmopolitans: Qian Zhongshu, Yang Jiang, and the World of Letters. Leiden: Brill, 2015, 109-32.

Gong Gang 龚刚. Qian Zhongshu: Ai zhi zhe de xiaoyao 钱钟书: 爱智者的逍遥 (Qian Zhongshu: Spiritual freedom of a scholar). Beijing: Wenjin, 2005.

Hsia, C.T. “Ch’ien Chung-shu.” In C.T. Hsia. A History of Modern Chinese Fiction. 2nd ed. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1971, 432-60.

Hu, Dennis T. “A Linguistic-Literary Approach to Ch’ien Chung-shu’s Novel Wei-ch’eng.” Journal of Asian Studies 37 (1978): 427-443.

—–. A Linguistic-Literary Study of Ch’ien Chung-shu’s Three Creative Works. Ph.D. Diss. Madison: University of Wisconsin, 1977.

Huters, Theodore. Traditional Innovation: Qian Zhong-shu (Ch’ien Chung-shu) and Modern Chinese Letters. Ph.D. Diss. Stanford: Stanford University, 1977.

—–. “Illumination of Chinese Fictional Conventions in Qian Zhongshu’s Weicheng.” Selected Papers in Asian Studies 1 (1976): 50-60.

—–. Qian Zhongshu. Boston: Twayne, 1982.

—–. “In Search of Qian Zhongshu.” Modern Chinese Literature and Culture 11, 1 (Spring 1999): 193-99.

Ji, Jin. “Qian Zhongshu: A Grandmaster in a Fortress Beseiged.” Asian and African Studies [Brataslava] 21, 1 (2012): 1-13.

Liol, Tiziana. “Qian Zhongshu and Italy: Documents and Facts.” Chinese Arts and Letters 2, 1 (April 2015): 86-95.

Linsley, Robert. “Qian Zhongshu and the Late, Late Modern.” Yishu: Journal of Contemporary Chinese Art 1, 1 (Spring 2002): 60-67

Liu Haoming. “Jueshi yiren: zuo wei fan wenhua xianxiang de Qian Zhongshu” (Hunger artist: Qian Zhongshu as an anti-culture phenomenon). Tianya 3 (2005): 171-77.

Ma Guangyu. “Xie zai rensheng bian yanjiu zongshu” (A summary of studies on Written on the margins of life). In Tian Huilan, et.al., eds. Qian Zhongshu, Yang Jiang yanjiu ziliao ji (Collection of research materials on Qian Zhongshu and Yang Jiang). Wuhan: Huazhong Shifan daxue, 1990.

Mao, Yiran. “Introduction.” In Cat: A Translation and Critical Introduction. HK: Joint Publishing, 2001, 17-46.

Rea, Christopher G. “‘Life, it’s been said, is one big book…’: One hundred years of Qian Zhongshu.” The China Beat (Nov. 21, 2010).

—–. “The Critic Eye 批眼.China Heritage Quarterly 30/31 (June/Sept. 2012).

—–, ed. China’s Literary Cosmopolitans: Qian Zhongshu, Yang Jiang, and the World of Letters. Leiden: Brill, 2015. [MCLC Resource Center review by Inhye Han]

[AbstractChina’s Literary Cosmopolitans offers a comprehensive introduction to the literary oeuvres of Qian Zhongshu (1910-98) and Yang Jiang (b. 1911). It assesses their novels, essays, stories, poetry, plays, translations, and criticism, and discusses their reception as two of the most important Chinese scholar-writers of the twentieth century. In addition to re-evaluating this married couple’s intertwined literary careers, the book also explains why they have come to represent such influential models of Chinese literary cosmopolitanism. Uncommonly well-versed in Western languages and literatures, Qian and Yang chose to live in China and write in Chinese. China’s Literary Cosmopolitans argues for their artistic importance while analyzing their works against the modern cultural imperative that Chinese literature be worldly.]

—–. “The Institutional Mindset: Qian Zhongshu and Yang Jiang on Marriage and the Academy.” In Christopher Rea, ed., China’s Literary Cosmopolitans: Qian Zhongshu, Yang Jiang, and the World of Letters. Leiden: Brill, 2015, 157-78.

—–. “Qian Zhongshu and Yang Jiang: A Literary Marriage.” In Kirk A. Denton, ed., Columbia Companion to Modern Chinese Literature. NY: Columbia University Press, 2016, 231-36.

Sohigian, Diran John. “The Phantom of the Clock: Laughter and the Time of Life in the Writings of Qian Zhongshu and His Contemporaries.” In Jocelyn Chey and Jessica Milner Davis, eds., Humour in Chinese Life and Culture: Resistance and Control in Modern Times. Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press, 2013, 23-45.

Tian Huilan 田蕙兰, Ma Guangyu 马光裕, Chen Keyu 陈珂玉, eds. Qian Zhongshu, Yang Jiang yanjiu ziliao ji 钱钟书,杨绛研究资料集 (Collection of research materials on Qian Zhongshu and Yang Jiang). Wuhan: Huazhong shifan daxue, 1990.

Wang, Yugen. “‘Passing Handan without Dreaming’: Passion and Restraint in the Poetry and Poetics of Qian Zhongshu.” In Christopher Rea, ed., China’s Literary Cosmopolitans: Qian Zhongshu, Yang Jiang, and the World of Letters. Leiden: Brill, 2015, 41-64.

Wong, Yoon Wah. “Symbolism in Qian Zhongshu’s Novel Fortress Besieged.” In Wong, Essays on Chinese Literature. Singapore: Singapore University Press, 1988, 82-95.

Xia, Shi. “Wei Cheng: From an Elite Novel to a Popular Metaphor.” The China Beat (June 27, 2008).

Yang, Xiaobing. “Qian Zhongshu.” In Thomas Moran, ed., Dictionary of Literary Biography–Chinese Fiction Writers, 1900-1949. NY: Thomson Gale, 2007, 183-91.

Yu, Hong. “Qian Zhongshu’s Essays.” In Martin Woesler, ed., The Modern Chinese Literary Essay: Defining the Chinese Self in the 20th Century. Bochum: Bochum UP, 20oo.

Qiong Yao 琼瑶

Lang, Miriam. “Taiwanese Romance: San Mao and Qiong Yao.” In Joshua Mostow, ed, and Kirk A. Denton, China section, ed., Columbia Companion to Modern East Asian Literatures. NY: Columbia UP, 2003, 515-19. Rpt in Kirk A. Denton, ed., Columbia Companion to Modern Chinese Literature. NY: Columbia University Press, 2016, 280-85.

—–. “San Mao and Qiong Yao: A ‘Popular’ Pair.” Modern Chinese Literature and Culture 15, 2 (Fall 2003): 76-120.

—–. “Qiong Yao, the Renunciation of True Love and the ‘Rights’ of Love.” In Christina Neder and Ines Susanne Schilling, eds., Transformation! Innovation? Perspectives on Taiwan Culture. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz Verlag, 2003, 147-68.

Lin Fangmei. Social Change and Romantic Ideology: The Impact of the Public Industry, Family Organization and Gender Roles on the Reception and Interpretation of Romance Fiction in Taiwan. Ph. D. diss. University of Pennsylvania, 1992.

Nielsen, Inge. 2000. “Caught in the Web of Love. Intercepting the Young Adult Reception of Qiong Yao’s Romances.”Acta Orientalia Hungarica vol. LIII, nos. 3-4: 235-254.

Qin Shou’ou 秦瘦鸥

Ng, Mau-sang. “Popular Fiction and the Culture of Everyday Life: A Cultural Analysis of Qin Shouou’s Qiuhaitang.” Modern China 20, 2 (April 1994): 131-56.

Qin Zhaoyang 秦兆阳

Bordahl, Vibeke. “Before Silence: Qin Zhaoyang’s Early Short Stories 1940-57.” China Quarterly 110 (1987): 231-55.

—–. Along the Broad Road of Realism: Qin Zhaoyang’s World of Fiction. London: Curzon, 1990.

King, Richard. “‘Rightist’ in the Wilderness: Qin Zhaoyang’s Memories of His Twenty Years of Ostracism.” Modern Chinese Literature Newsletter 6, 2 (1980): 11-21.

Qideng Sheng 七等生

Chen, Li-fen. “Form and Its Discontent: A Rereading of Ch-i-teng Sheng’s Fiction.” Modern Chinese Literature 6 1/2 (1992): 179-202.

—–. Fictionality and Reality in Narrative Discourse: A Reading of Four Contemporary Taiwanese Writers. Ph. D. diss. Seattle: University of Washington, 2000.[chapters on Ch’en Ying-chen, Ch’i-Teng Sheng, Wang Chen-ho, and Wang Wen-hsing; available through Dissertation.com]

Tu, Chao-mei. “Qideng Sheng.” In Thomas Moran and Ye (Dianna) Xu, eds., Chinese Fiction Writers, 1950-2000. Dictionary of Literature Biography, vol. 370. Detroit: Thomson Gale, 2013, 195-200.

Wang, C.H. “Fancy and Reality in Ch’i-teng Sheng’s Fiction.” In Jeannette Faurot, ed., Chinese Fiction from Taiwan: Critical Perspectives. Bloomington: IUP, 1980, 194-205.

Qiu Huadong 邱华栋

Lu, Jie. “Rewriting Beijing: A Spectacular City in Qiu Huadong’s Urban Fiction.” In Jie Lu, ed., China’s Literary and Cultural Scene at the Turn of the 21st Century. NY: Routledge, 2008, 269-84.

Robin Visser. “Spaces of Disappearance: Aesthetic Responses to Contemporary Beijing City Planning.” Journal of Contemporary China 13, 39 (May 2004): 277-310. [On Qiu Huadong’s Chengshi zhanche (City Tank), Wang Xiaoshuai’s Jidu hanleng (Frozen), and experimental art.]

—–. “Urban Ethics: Modernity and the Morality of Everyday Life.” In Charles Laughlin, ed., Contested Modernities in Chinese Literature.New York: Palgrave, 2005. 193-216. [deals with fiction by Qiu Huadong (Yingyan), He Dun, and Zhu Wen].

Qiu Jin 秋瑾

Giles, Lionel. Ch’iu Chin: A Chinese Heroine. London: East and West, 1917.

Hieronymus, Sabine. “Qiu Jin (1875-1907)–A Heroine for all Seasons.” In Mechthild Leutner and Nicola Spakowski, eds., Women in China: The Republican Period in Historical Perspective. Munster: Lit, 2005, 57-85.

Hong, Fan and J. A. Mangan. “A Martyr for Modernity: Qui Jin – Feminist, Warrior and Revolutionary.” The International Journal of the History of Sport 18, 1 (March 2001): 27 – 54.

[Abtract: Qui Jin, at one level, was an oriental twentieth-century Judith, the mythical Jewish widow from Bethulia who cut off the head of Holofernes, the Assyrian general besieging the city, thus saving the Israelites from destruction. Qui Jin was, as Judith was, a self-reliant heroine who when others seemed ‘helpless and demoralized… undertook to save them single-handedly’, or in her case virtually single-handedly. This, of course, was both her making and her unmaking. In Chinese terms the story of Qui Jin, like the story of Judith if less famous, less publicised, more recent, is the story of an icon at once central and at the same time marginal to tradition. She contradicted the most cherished customs on Confucian Chinese culture. She was a radical force who thrust her way to the centre of the concentric circles of customs surrounding this culture and was pushed back to the margins by conservatism. Nevertheless Qui Jin was not without success. She challenged a long-established mythology of exclusively masterful patriarchy – and created a counter myth of purposeful patriotic feminism. She was a counter-cultural icon who changed perceptions of Chinese femininity. She gave courage, confidence and purpose to those women who came after her and absorbed her ambitions for modern Chinese womanhood. For them she was a modern national heroine and a personification of a modern nation of equal men and women. For Qui Jin the body was an instrument of female revolution to be trained, strengthened and prepared for confrontation. As a revolutionary militant she was a failure; as a revolutionary talisman she was a success. For the Chinese women of the 1911 Revolution hers was an exemplary emancipatory story: subscribe, struggle, sacrifice. Patriotism through feminism is the purpose. Her heroism was firmly outside the historic patriarchal order. Her adulation is thus all the more remarkable because of the profound traditions she rejected, the controversial mannerisms she adopted, the uncompromising attitudes she embraced. She eschewed motherhood, abandoned marriage, dismissed femininity, and yet won acclaim in the most traditional of cultures. Qui Jin was hardly a cynosure of universal acclaim but she was admired, respected and emulated by radical Chinese women and men seeking a new society accommodating women. Her modern feminism struggled to overcome an ancient patriarchy. Here was her appeal. She exuded no moral ambiguity. Consequently, if she was demonized by the conventional; she was deified by the radical – and inspired them as the contemplated and attempted to construct the future. There is a point, of course, that should not be overlooked. Qui Jin, in fact, is not divorced from occidental culture and political iconography. Qui Jin is closely associated with the attitudes, aspirations and fantasies of modern Western feminism…]

Hsu, C.Y. “Ch’iu Chin, Revolutionary Martyr.” Asian Culture Quarterly 22, 2 (1994): 75-94.

Hu, Ying. “Writing Qiu Jin’s Life: Wu Zhiying and Her Family Learning.” Late Imperial China 25, 2 (Jan. 2005): 119-60.

—–. “Qiu Jin’s Nine Burials: The Making of Historical Monuments and Public Memory.” Modern Chinese Literature and Culture 19, 1 (Spring 2007): 138-91.

Martin, Dorothea A.L. “Guest Editor’s Introduction.” Special issue on Qiu Jin. Chinese Studies in History 34, 2 (Winter 2000-01): 10-19.

Rankin, Mary Backus. “The Emergence of Women at the End of the Ch’ing: The Case of Ch’iu Chin.” In M. Wolf and R. Witke, ed., Women in Chinese Society. Stanford: SUP, 1975, 39-66.

Tao, Chia-lin Pao. “Historical Introduction.” Special issue on Qiu Jin. Chinese Studies in History 34, 2 (Winter 2000-01): 5-7.

Yan, Haiping. “Qiu Jin and Her Imaginary.” In Yan, Chinese Women Writers and the Feminist Imagination, 1905-1948. London: Routledge, 2006, 33-68.

Qiu Miaojin 邱妙津

Ding, Naifei and Jen-peng Liu. “Crocodile Skin, Lesbian Stuffing, Half-Man Half Horse Qiu Miaojin.” In Naifei Ding, Jen-peng Liu, and Amie Perry, Penumbrae Query Shadow: Queer Reading Tactics. Chungli: National Central University Center for the Study of Sexualities, 2007, 83-105.

Martin, Fran. “The Crocodile Unmasked: Toward a Theory of Xianshen.” In Martin, Situating Sexualities: Queer Representations in Taiwanese Fiction, Film and Public Culture. Hong Kong: University of Hong Kong Press, 2003, 215-36.

—–. “Stigmatic Bodies: The Corporeal Qiu Miaojin.” In Martin and Larissa Heinrich, eds., Embodied Modernities: Corporeality, Representation, and Chinese Cultures. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 2006, 177-94.

Sang, Tze-lan, The Emerging Lesbian: Female Same-Sex Desire in Modern China. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2003, 261-274.

Qiu Xiaolong 裘小龙

Stalling, Jonathan. “Bilingual Poetics in the Global Age: An Interview with Qiu Xiaolong.” Chinese Literature Today 6, 1 (2017): 89-97.

Qu Bo 曲波

Hegel, Robert. “Making the Past Serve the Present in Fiction and Drama: From the Yan’an Forum to the Cultural Revolution.” In Bonnie S. McDougall ed., Popular Chinese Literature and Performing Arts in the People’s Republic of China, 1949-1979. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1984, 197-223. [see in particular pages 214-223]

Van Fleit Hang, Krista. “The Heart of the Party: Language, Gender, and Power in Tracks in the Snowy Forest.” Modern Chinese Literature and Culture 21, 1 (Spring 2009): 72-101.

—–. “The Heart of the Party: Gender and Communist Party Ideals in Tracks in the Snowy Forest.” In Van Fleit Hang, Literature the People Love: Reading Chinese Texts from the Early Maoist Period (1949-1966). NY: Palgrave Macmillan, 2013, 91-118. [MCLC Resource Center review by Richard King]

Wu Yan 吳岩. Tan Linhai xueyuan 谈林海雪原 (On Tracks in the Snowy Forest). Shanghai: Xin wenyi, 1958.

Qu Qiubai 瞿秋白

Galik, Marian. “Ch’u Ch’iu-pai’s Russian Example and the Concept of Reality in Literature and Art.” In Galik, The Genesis of Modern Chinese Liteary Criticism (1917-1930). London: Curzon Press, 1980, 214-35.

Hsia, T. A. “Ch’u Ch’iu-po: The Making and Destruction of a Tenderhearted Communist.” In Hsia, The Gate of Darkness: Studies on the Leftist Literary Movement. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1968, 3-54.

Knight, Nick. “The Dilemma of Determinism: Qu Qiubai and The Origins of Marxist Philosophy in China.” China Information 13, 4 (Spring 1999).

Nozawa, Toshitaka. “A Note on Ch’u Ch’iu-pai’s ‘Irrelevant Remarks.'” Language and Culture 4 (1983): 31-72.

Pickowicz, Paul. “Lu Xun through the Eyes of Qu Qiubai: New Perspectives on Chinese Marxist Literary Polemics of the 1930s.” Modern China 2, 2 (April 1976): 327-68

—–. “Qu Qiubai’s Critique of the May Fourth Generation: Early Chinese Marxist Literary Criticism.” In M. Goldman, ed., Modern Chinese Literature in the May Fourth Era. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1977, 351-81.

—–. Marxist Literary Thought in China: The Influence of Ch’u Ch’iu-pai. Berkeley: UCP, 1981.

Tian, Chengshan. “Qu Qiubai’s Reading of Marxian ‘Dialectics.'” Monumenta Serica 54 (2006): 299-309.

Villard, Florent. Le Gramsci de Chine Qu Qiubai: penseur de la modernité culturelle. Lyon: Editions Tigre de Papier, 2009.

Widmer, Ellen. “Qu Qiubai and Russian Literature.” In Merle Goldman, ed., Modern Chinese Literature in the May Fourth Era. Cambridge: Harvard UP, 1977, 103-26.