Education

| General | Late Qing and Republican | PRC | Taiwan and HK |
| Language Reform and Literacy | Physical Ed. Sports | On-line |


General

Chinese Education and Society (M.E. Sharpe; journal publishing translations of Chinese writings on education).

Deng, Peng. Private Education in Modern China. NY: Praeger, 1997.

Hao, Ping. Peking University and the Origins of Higher Education in China. Transaction, 2013.

[Abstract: Renowned as one of the most distinguished universities in the world, Peking University (PKU or, colloquially, “Beida”) has been at the forefront of higher education in China since its inception. Its roots arguably date to the origin of Chinese higher education. Hao Ping traces the intricate evolution of the university, beginning with the preceding institutions that contributed to its establishment, and stretching from the first Opium War of 1839 through the first of several eye-opening defeats for the then-isolated Middle Kingdom to the Xinhai Revolution and the early days of the Republic of China. Hao Ping chronicles the contentious debates between reform-minded leaders who championed Western models of learning and conservatives who favored the traditional schooling and examination system, providing readers with details about the workings of the imperial court as well as the individual officials and scholars involved in Chinese educational reform. This authoritative history of the founding of Peking University defends the university’s claim to be the first modern university in China and offers insight into the formation of higher education as it exists in China today.]

Hartnett, Richard. The Saga of Chinese Higher Education from the Tongzhi Restoration to Tiananmen Square: Revolution and Reform. Lewiston, NY: Edwin Mellen, 1998.

Hayhoe, Ruth, ed. Contemporary Chinese Education. London/Sydney: Croom Helm, 1984.

—–, ed. “Chinese Educators on Chinese Education” [special issue]. Canadian and International Education 16, 1 (1987).

—–, ed. Education & Modernization: The Chinese Experience. New York: Pergamon, 1992.

—–, ed. Knowledge Across Cultures – Universities East and West. Wuhan: Hubei Education Press/Toronto: OISE Press, 1993.

—–. China’s Universities, 1895-1995: A Century of Cultural Conflict. Levittown, NY: Garland, 1996.

Hayhoe, Ruth and Marianne Bastid, eds. China’s Education and the Industrialized World. Studies in Cultural Transfer. Armonk, N.Y.: M.E. Sharpe, 1987.

Lee, Wong Yin. “Women’s Education in Traditional and Modern China.” Women’s History Review 4, 3 (1995): 345-367. [downloadable from Women’s History Review website]

Lin, Sharon Chien. Libraries and Librarianship in China. Guides to Asian Librarianship. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1998.

Liu, Judith, and Heidi Ross and Donald Kelly. The Ethnographic Eye: An Interpretative Study of Education in China. New York, London: RoutledgeCurzon, 1999.

Peake, Cyrus H. Nationalism and Education in Modern China. NY: Columbia UP, 1932.

Peterson, Glen, Ruth Hayhoe, and Yongling Yu, eds. Education, Culture, and Identity in Twentieth Century China. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2001. [contains 16 essays deal with various aspects of education through the 20th century, exploring three themes: sino-foreign interactions, state-society relations, and gender representation and identification]

Postiglioni, Gerard, ed. China’s National Minority Education: Culturcide, State, Schooling and Develepment. Levittown, NY: Garland, 1998.

Xu, Di. A Comparison of the Educational Ideas and Practices of John Dewey and Mao Zedong in China. Lewiston, NY: Edwin Mellen Press, 1992.


Late Qing/Republican

Abe, Hiroshi. “Borrowing from Japan: China’s First Modern Educational System.” In Ruth Hayhoe and Marianne Bastid, eds., China’s Education and the Industrialized World. Armonk, NY: M.E. Sharpe, 1987, 57-80.

Averill, Stephen C. “The Cultural Politics of Local Education in Early Twentieth-Century China.” Twentieth-Century China 32, 2 (April 2007).

Ayers, William. Chang Chih-tung and Education Reform in China. Cambridge: Harvard UP, 1965.

Bailey, Paul. Reform the People: Changing Attitudes Towards Popular Education in Early Twentieth Century China. Edinburgh, 1990.

—–. Gender and Education in China: Gender Discourses and Women’s Schooling in the Early Twentieth Century. London and New York: Routledge, 2007.

Bastid, Marianne. Aspects de la reforme de l’enseignement en Chine au debut du Xxe siecle d’apres des ecrits de Zhang Jian. Paris: Mouton, 1971.

—– and Paul J. Bailey. Educational Reform in Early Twentieth-Century China. Ann Arbor: Center for Chinese Studies, University of Michigan, 1988.

Bergere, Marie-Claire. Education et Politique en Chine: Le Role des elites de Jiangsu, 1905-1914. Paris: Editions EHESS, 2001.

Biggerstaff, Knight. The Earliest Modern Government Schools in China. Ithaca: Cornell UP, 1961.

Borthwick, Sally. Education and Social Change in China: The Beginnings of the Modern Era. Stanford: Hoover Institution Press, 1983.

Burton, Margaret E. (Margaret Ernestine). The Education Of Women In China. NY: Fleming H. Revell, 1911.

Chan, Ming K. and Arif Dirlik. Schools into Fields and Factories: Anarchists, the Guomindang, and the National Labor University in Shanghai, 1927-1932. Durham: Duke UP, 1991.

Chauncey, Helen R. Schoolhouse Politicians: Locality and State During the Chinese Republic. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1992.

Chen, Hon Fai. Civilizing the Chinese, Competing with the West: Study Societies in Late Qing China. Hong Kong: The Chinese University Press, 2015.

Chen, Theodore Hsi-en. “Education in China, 1927-1937.” In Paul K. Sih, ed. The Strenuous Decade: China’s Nation-Building Efforts, 1927-1937. NY: St. John’s University, 1970, 289-314.

Chen, Xiaoqing Diana. Curricula Development and Academic Professionalization at Peking University, 1898-1937. Ph.D. Diss. Chicago: University of Chicago, 1993.

Cheng, Weikun. “Going Public Through Education: Female Reformers and Girls’ Schools in Late Qing Beijing.” Late Imperial China 21, 1 (2000): 107-144.

Christian Education in China: The Report of the China Educational Commission of 1921-1922. Shanghai: Commercial Press, 1922.

Chu, Cindy Yik-yi. “The Catholic Church in China in the First Half of the Twentieth Century: The Establishment of Zhendan University and Furen University.” In Carolien Stotle and Yoshiyuke Kikuchi, eds., Eurasian Encounters: Museums, Missions, Modernities. Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press, 2017, 155-77.

Cong, Xiaoping. “Planting the Seeds for the Rural Revolution: Local Teachers’ Schools and the Reemergence of Chinese Communism in the 1930s.” Twentieth-Century China 32, 2 (April 2007).

—–. Teachers’ Schools and the Making of the Modern Chinese Nation-State, 1897-1937. Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press, 2007.

[Abstract: an innovative account of educational and social transformations in politically tumultuous early twentieth-century China. It focuses on the unique nature of Chinese teachers’ schools, which bridged Chinese and Western ideals, and the critical role that these schools played in the changes sweeping Chinese society. It also documents their role in the empowerment of women and the production of grassroots forces leading to the Communist Revolution.

Culp, Robert. “Elite Association and Local Politics in Republican China: Educational Institutions in Jiashan and Lanqi Counties, Zhejiang, 1911-1937.” Modern China 20, 4 (Oct. 1994): 446-77.

—–. “Self-determination or Self-discipline? The Shifting Meanings of Student Self-government in 1920s Jiangnan Middle Schools.” Twentieth-Century China 23, 2 (April 1998): 1-39.

—–. “‘China–The Land and Its People’: Fashioning Identity in Secondary School History Textbooks, 1911-1937.” Twentieth-Century China 26, 2 (April 2001): 17-62.

—–. “Setting the Sheet of Loose Sand: Conceptions of Society and Citizenship in Nanjing Decade Party Doctrine and Civics Textbooks.” In Terry Bodenhorn, ed., Defining Modernity: Guomindang Rhetoric of a New China, 1920-1980. Ann Arbor: Center for Chinese Studies Publication, 2002.

—–. Articulating Citizenship: Civic Education and Student Politics in Southeastern China, 1912-1940. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Asia Center, 2007.

[Abstract: At the genesis of the Republic of China in 1912, many political leaders, educators, and social reformers argued that republican education should transform China’s people into dynamic modern citizens–social and political agents whose public actions would rescue the national community. Over subsequent decades, however, they came to argue fiercely over the contents of citizenship and how it should be taught. Moreover, many of their carefully crafted policies and programs came to be transformed by textbook authors, teachers, administrators, and students. Furthermore, the idea of citizenship, once introduced, raised many troubling questions. Who belonged to the national community in China, and how was the nation constituted? What were the best modes of political action? How should modern people take responsibility for “public matters”? What morality was proper for the modern public? This book reconstructs civic education and citizenship training in secondary schools in the lower Yangzi region during the Republican era. It also analyzes how students used the tools of civic education introduced in their schools to make themselves into young citizens and explores the complex social and political effects of educated youths’ civic action.]

—–. “‘Teaching Baihua: Textbook Publishing and the Production of Vernacular Language and a New Literary Canon in Early Twentieth-Century China.” Twentieth-Century China 34, 1 (Nov. 2008).

Curran, Thomas D. Educational Reform in Republican China: The Failure of Educators to Create a Modern Nation. Lewiston, NY: Mellen Press, 2005.

Ding, Gang. “The Shuyuan and the Development of Chinese Universities in the Early Twentieth Century.” In Ruth Hayhoe and Julia Pan, eds., East-West Dialogue in Knowledge and Higher Education. Armonk, NY: M.E. Sharpe, 1996, 218-44.

Feng, Jin. The Making of a Family Saga: Ginling College. Albany: SUNY Press, 2009.

[Abstract: Looks at China’s Ginling College, the women’s missionary institution of higher learning that developed a discourse of family, recasting the Chinese Confucian family ideal as a female and Christian one. The institutional history of Ginling College is arguably a family history. Ginling, a Christian, women’s college in Nanjing founded by Western missionaries, saw itself as a family. The school’s leaders built on the Confucian ideal to envision a feminized, Christian family—one that would spread Christianity and uplift the family that was the Chinese nation. Exploring the various incarnations of the trope of the “Ginling family,” Jin Feng takes a microscopic view by emphasizing personal, subjective perspectives from the written and oral records of the Chinese and American women who created and sustained the school. Even when using more seemingly ordinary official documents, Feng seeks to shed light on the motives and dynamic interactions that created them and the impact they had on individual lives. Using this perspective, Feng questions the standard characterization of missionary higher education as simply Western cultural imperialism to show a process of influence and cultural exchange.]

Hao, Ping. Peking University and the Origins of Higher Education in China. Transaction, 2013.

[Abstract: Renowned as one of the most distinguished universities in the world, Peking University (PKU or, colloquially, “Beida”) has been at the forefront of higher education in China since its inception. Its roots arguably date to the origin of Chinese higher education. Hao Ping traces the intricate evolution of the university, beginning with the preceding institutions that contributed to its establishment, and stretching from the first Opium War of 1839 through the first of several eye-opening defeats for the then-isolated Middle Kingdom to the Xinhai Revolution and the early days of the Republic of China. Hao Ping chronicles the contentious debates between reform-minded leaders who championed Western models of learning and conservatives who favored the traditional schooling and examination system, providing readers with details about the workings of the imperial court as well as the individual officials and scholars involved in Chinese educational reform. This authoritative history of the founding of Peking University defends the university’s claim to be the first modern university in China and offers insight into the formation of higher education as it exists in China today.]

Hayhoe, Ruth. “Towards the Forging of a Chinese University Ethos: Zhendan and Fudan, 1903-1919.” China Quarterly 94 (June 1983).

Hayhoe, Ruth and Yongling Lu, eds. Ma Xiangbo and the Mind of Modern China. Armonk, NY: M.E. Sharpe, 1996.

Israel, John. Student Nationalism in China, 1927-1937. Stanford: Stanford UP, 1966.

—–. Lianda: A Chinese University in War and Revolution. Stanford: Stanford UP, 1998.

Judge, Joan. Beyond Nationalism: Gender and the Chinese Student Experience in Japan in the Early 20th Century.” In Lo Chui-jung, ed., Wusheng zhi sheng (III): Jindai Zhongguo de fun?guojia (Voices amid silence [III]: women and culture in Mmdern China [1600-1950]). Taipei: Institute for Modern History, Academia Sinica, 2003: 359-93.

—–. “Between Nei and Wai: Chinese Female Students in Japan in the Early Twentieth Century.” In Bryna Goodman and Wendy Larson, eds., Gender in Motion: Divisions of Labor and Cultural Change in Late Imperial and Modern China. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield, 2005: 121-43.

—–. “The Culturally Contested Student Body: Nu Xuesheng at the Turn of the Twentieth Century.” In Doris Croissant, Catherine Vance Yeh, and Joshua Mostwo, eds., Performing Nation: Gender Politics in Literature, Theater, and the Visual Arts China and Japan, 1880-1940. Leiden: Brill, 2008, 105-32.

Kaske, Elisabeth. The Politics of Language in Chinese Education, 1895–1919. Leiden: Brill, 2007.

Keenan, Barry. The Dewey Experiment in China: Educational Reform and Political Power in the Early Republic. Cambridge: Harvard UP, 1977.

—–. Imperial China’s Last Classical Academies: Social Change in the Lower Yangzi, 1864-1911. Berkeley: Institute of East Asian Studies, 1994.

LaFarge, Thomas. China’s First Hundred, Educational Mission in the United States, 1872-1881. Pullman: Washington State UP, 1987.

Lanza, Fabio. Behind the Gate: Inventing Students in Beijing. NY: Columbia University Press, 2010.

[Abstract: Through an investigation of twentieth-century Chinese student protest, Fabio Lanza considers the marriage of the cultural and the political, the intellectual and the quotidian, that occurred during the May Fourth movement, along with its rearticulation in subsequent protest. Lanza returns to the May Fourth period (1917-1923) and the rise of student activism in and around Beijing University. He revisits reform in pedagogical and learning routines, changes in daily campus life, the fluid relationship between the city and its residents, and the actions of allegedly cultural student organizations. Through a careful analysis of everyday life and urban space, Lanza radically reconceptualizes the emergence of political subjectivities (categories such as “worker,” “activist,” and “student”) and how they anchor and inform political action. His research underscores how, during a time of crisis, the lived realities of university and student became unsettled in Beijing, and how political militancy in China arose only when the boundaries of identification were challenged.]

Lewis, Ida Belle. The Education of Girls in China. NY: Teachers College, Columbia University, 1919.

Liu, Chang. “Prometheus of the Revolution: Rural Teachers in Republican China.” Modern China 35, 6 (2009): 567-603.

Lund, Renville Clifton. The Imperial University of Peking. Ph.D. Diss. Seattle: University of Washington, 1956.

McElroy, Sarah Coles. “Forging a New Role for Women: Zhili First Women’s Normal School and the Growth of Women’s Education in China, 1901–1921.” In Glen Peterson, et al. eds., Education, Culture, and Identity in 20th century China. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2001, 338–374.

Miles, Steven B. “Out of Place: Education and Identity among Three Generations of Urban Panyu Gentry, 1830-1931.” Twentieth-Century China 32, 2 (April 2007).

Ng, Peter Tze Ming (in collaboration with others). Changing Paradigms in Chinese Christian Higher Education 1888-1950. Lewiston, NY: Edwin Mellen, 2002.

[Table of contents: Preface; Introduction 1. Christian Colleges and Theological Education 2. The Changing Phases of Religious Education 3. Chinese Studies at Christian Colleges in Modern China 4. Nationalism and Cosmopolitanism in Christian Colleges 5. The Cultural Knot Bibliography]

Ni, Ting. The Cultural Experiences of Chinese Students Who Studied in The United States During The 1930s-1940s. Lewiston, NY: Edwin Mellen, 2002.

[Abstract: In addition to exploring the experience of these Chinese students, this study examines the social, cultural, economic and political history of the two countries. Due to the Americanization of China’s higher education before the Sino-Japanese War in 1937, the students were well-prepared for studying in the United States. But the unexpected founding of Communist China and the development of the Cold War prevented some from returning. When they did return, some suffered during the political campaigns in China, and a few became members of a CCP-controlled elite. “. . . a fine effort supported well by a wide variety of sources. . . . the United States and China have had for generations a deep and personal connection with each other. Countless thousands of students from each country have studied in the other and this continues through today. There is a record there that needs to be understood and Ting Ni’s work helps us to understand that record. . . . a particularly important contribution to the history of Sino-American activities and a contribution that will be sorely needed as we move into the coming decades when not only contemporary Sino-American relations but the history of Sino-American relations will become important tools for those attempting to guide our two nations toward a cooperative and successful future.” – Steven Leibo]

Paragon, Donald. “Ying Nian-chi (1866–1926) and the Rise of Fu Jen, the Catholic University of Peking.” Monumenta Serica 20 (1961): 166–225.

Perry, Elizabeth J. “Red Literati: Communist Educators at Anyuan, 1921-25.” Twentieth-Century China 32, 2 (April 2007).

Rawski, Evelyn. Education and Popular Literacy in Ch’ing China. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1989.

Teoh, Karen M. “Exotic Flowers, Modern Girls, Good Citizens: Female Education and Overseas Chinese Identity in British Malaya and Singapore, 1900s-1950s.” Twentieth-Century China 35, 2 (2010): 25-51.

VanderVen, Elizabeth. “It’s Time for School: The Introduction of the New Calendar in Haicheng County Primary Schools, Northeast China, 1905-1919.” Twentieth-Century China 32, 2 (April, 2007).

Wallace, L. Ethel. Hwa Nan College: The Woman’s College Of South China. NY: United Board for Christian Colleges in China, 1956.

Wang, Dong. Managing God’s Higher Learning: U.S.-China Cultural Encounter and Canton Christian College (Lingnan University), 1888-1952.. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 2007.

Wentworth, Phoebe White. Fair Is the Name: The Story of the Shanghai American School, 1912-1950. Los Angeles: Shanghai American School Association, 1997.

Weston, Timothy. Beijing University and Chinese Political Culture, 1898-1920. Ph.d. diss. Berkeley: University of California, 1995.

—–. “Corrupt Capital, Reformed Academy: Beijing and the Identity of Beijing University, 1898-1919.” In Herman van der Wusten, ed., The Urban University and Its Identity: Roots, Locations, Roles. Dordrecht [Netherlands]; Boston : Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1998, 137-48.

—–. “The Founding of the Imperial University and the Emergence of Chinese Modernity.” In Rebecca E. Karl and Peter Zarrow, eds., Rethinking the 1898 Reform Period: Political and Cultural Change in late Qing China. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Asia Center, 2002.

—–. The Power of Position: Beijing University, Intellectuals, and Chinese Political Culture, 1898-1929. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2004.

Wing, Yung. My Life in China and America. NY: H. Holt, 1909.

Ye, Weili. “Nu liuxuesheng: The Story of American-Educated Chinese Women, 1880s-1920s.” Modern China 20, 3 (July 1994): 315-46.

—–. Seeking Modernity in China’s Name: Chinese Students in the United States, 1900-1927. Stanford: Stanford UP, 2001.

Yeh Wen-hsin. The Alienated Academy: Culture and Politics in Republican China, 1911- 1937. Cambridge: HUP, 1990.

Zurndorfer, Harriet T. “Gender, Higher Education, and the ‘New Woman’: The Experiences of Female Graduates in Republican China.” In Mechthild Leutner and Nicola Spakowski, eds., Women in China: The Republican Period in Historical Perspective. Munster: Lit, 2005, 450-81.


PRC

Adamson, Bob. China’s English: A History of English in Chinese Education. HK: HK University Press, 2004.

Agelasto, Michael and Bod Adamson, eds. Higher Education in Post-Mao China. HK: HKUP, 1998.

—–. Educational Disengagement: Undermining Academic Quality at a Chinese University. Hong Kong: 1998.

—–. University in Turmoil: The Political Economy of Shenzhen University. Hong Kong: 1998.

Billioud, Sebastien and Joel Thoraval. “Jiaohua: The Confucian Revival in China as an Educative Project.” China Perspectives 4 (2007): 4-21.

Fraser, Stewart. Chinese Communist Education; Records of the First Decade. New York, Wiley, 1966.

Gao, Bao Qiang. China’s Teacher-Student Relations in the Period of Modernization (1982-1992). Lewiston, NY: Mellen Press, 2011.

Hayhoe, Ruth. China’s Universities and the Open Door. Armonk, NY: M.E. Sharpe, 1989.

Hawkins, J. N. Education and social change in the People’s Republic of China. New York: Praeger, 1983.

He, Jianming. Report on University Entrance Examinations: He Jianming’s Collected Prize-winning Reportage. Beijing: New World Press, 2004.

Hu, C.T. Education under Communist China. New York: Teachers College Press, Columbia University, 1962.

Hu, Shi Ming and Eli Seifman, eds. Education and Socialist Modernization. New York: AMS Press, 1987.

Kulander, Greg. “The Chinese Filter: Assimilation of Western Educational Theories in the Early 1980s.” In Søren Clausen, Roy Starrs, and Anne Wedell-Wedellsborg, eds, Cultural Encounters: China, Japan, and the West: Essays Commemorating 25 years of East Asian Studies at the University of Aarhus. Aarhus: Aarhus University Press, 1995, 289-325.

Lam, Agnes S. L. Language Education in China: Policy and Experience from 1949. HK: Hong Kong UP, 2005.

Leung, Yat Ming. “The People’s Republic of China.” In Paul Morris and Anthony Sweeting, eds., Education and Development in East Asia. NY: Garland, 1995, 203-42.

Liu, Xiufeng. Mathematics and Science Curriculum Change in the People’s Republic of China. Lewiston, NY: Edwin Mellen Press, 1996.

Parker, Frank and Betty June Parker. Education in the People’s Republic of China, Past and Present: An Annotated Bibliography. Levittown, NY: Garland, 1996.

Ross, Heidi and Judith Liu. Education in the People’s Republic of China: An Ethnography. Levittown, NY: Garland, 1999.

Ryan, Janette. Education Reform in china: Changing Concepts, Contexts, and Practices. Routledge, 2011.

Sargent, Tanja Carmel. “Revolutionizing Ritual Interaction in the Classroom: Constructing the Chinese Renaissance of the Twenty-First Century.” Modern China 35, 6 (2009): 632-661.

Seeberg, Vilma. The Rhetoric and Reality of Mass Education in Mao’s China. Lewiston, NY: Edwin Mellen Press, 2000.

Stiffler, Douglas. “Creating ‘New China’s First New-Style Regular University,’ 1949-50.” In Jeremy Brown and Paul Pickowicz, eds., Dilemmas of Victory: The Early Years of the People’s Republic of China. Cambridge: Harvard UP, 2008.

Wang, Xiufang. Education in China since 1976. Jefferson, North Carolina: McFarland, 2003.

Xiao, Xuehui. “Industrializing Education.” In Chaohua Wang, ed., One China, Many Paths. London: Verso, 2003, 237-49.

Xu, Luo. “Farewell to Idealism: Mapping China’s University Students of the 1990s.” Journal of Contemporary China 13, 41 (Nov. 2004): 779-799.

Zhao, Fang. “A Remarkable Move of Restructuring Chinese Higher Education.” Education Policy Analysis Archives 6, 5 (Feb. 5, 1998).


Taiwan/HK

Arnold, Julean Herbert. Education in Formosa. Washington: G.P.O., 1908.

Education in the Republic of China. Taipei: Ministry of Education, 1970, 1976, 1980.

Bray, Mark, and Ramsey Koo, eds. Education and Society in Hong Kong and Macao: Comparative Perspectives on Continuity and Change. HK: Comparative Education Research Centre, University of Hong Kong, 1999.

Chou, Grace Ai-Ling. Confucianism, Colonialism, and the Cold War: Chinese Cultural Education at Hong Kong’s New Asia College, 1949-1963. Leiden: Brill, 2012.

[Abstract: The story of Hong Kong’s New Asia College, from its 1949 establishment through its 1963 incorporation into The Chinese University of Hong Kong, reveals the efforts of a group of self-exiled intellectuals in establishing a Confucian-oriented higher education on the Chinese periphery. Their program of cultural education encountered both support and opposition in the communist containment agenda of American non-governmental organizations and in the educational policies of the British colonial government. By examining the cooperation and struggle between these three parties, this study sheds light on postwar Hong Kong, a divided China, British imperial ambitions in Asia, and the intersecting global dynamics of modernization, cultural identity, and the Cold War.]

Cunich, Peter. A History of The University of Hong Kong: Volume 1, 1911-1945. HK: Hong Kong University Press, 2013.

[Abstract: The University of Hong Kong was one of only a handful of fully autonomous colonial universities in the British Empire in the first half of the twentieth century. From its founding in 1911, the institution was intended as a “British lighthouse in the Orient,” with a broad remit to educate a new generation of Chinese youth who would lead the to the modernization of China. This book evaluates the success of that mission while also demonstrating the importance of the university to the development of Hong Kong and Malaya, the two areas supplying the most students to the university. As the first university established in Hong Kong, the early decades of its history represent the foundations of China’s higher education system. This study provides fresh insight into the character of colonial education and the development of Hong Kong and tracks the fortunes of the colony from the peak of imperial British power to the catastrophic Japanese occupation of 1941 to 1945.

Fung, Pui Wing. The Development of Higher Education in a Developing City, Hong Kong, 1900-1980. Hull, England: s.n. ; 1988.

Ho, Lok Sang, Paul Morris, and Yue-ping Chung, eds. Education Reform and the Quest for Excellence: The Hong Kong Story. HK: Hong Kong UP, 2005.

Lee, Francis Wing-lin. Nurturing Pillars of Society: Understanding and Working with the Young Generation in Hong Kong. HK: HK University Press, 2011.

Luk, Bernard. “Chinese Culture in the Hong Kong Curriculum: Heritage and Colonialism.” Comparative Education Review 35, 4 (Nov. 1991).

Lun, Alice N. H. Ng. Interactions of East and West: Development of Public Education in Early Hong Kong. HK: Chinese University Press, 1984.

—–, ed. The Quest for Excellence: A History of the Chinese University of Hong Kong, 1963-1993. HK: Chinese University Press, 1994.

Mok, Joshua Ka-ho and David Kin-keung Chan, eds. Globalization and Education: The Quest for Quality Education in Hong Kong. Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press, 2002.

Ngan, Mary Chan Kam. “The Universities in Hong Kong: An Analysis of Their Aims and Contributions to our Bi-cultural Community.” Journal of Education 23 (1966): 1-10.

Postiglione, Gerard A., ed. Education and Society in Hong Kong: Toward One Country and Two Systems. Armonk, NY: M.E. Sharpe, 1991.

Postiglione, Gerard A. and Wing On Lee, eds. Schooling in Hong Kong: Organization, Teaching and Social Context. Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press, 1997.

Sassani, Abul Hassan K. Education in Taiwan (Formosa). Washington: U.S. Dept. of Health, Education and Welfare, Office of Education, 1956.

Smith, Douglas C. In the Image of Confucius: The Education and Preparation of Teachers in Taiwan. Taipei: Pacific Cultural Foundation, 1983.

Sweeting, Anthony. Education in Hong Kong, Pre-1841-1941. HK: HK University Press, 1990.

—–, ed. Differences and Identities: Educational Argument in Late Twentieth Century Hong Kong. HK: Faculty of Education, University of Hong Kong, 1990.

—–. A Phoenix Transformed: The Reconstruction of Education in Post-war Hong Kong. Hong Kong: Oxford University Press, 1993.

—–. “Hong Kong.” In Paul Morris and Anthony Sweeting, eds., Education and Development in East Asia. NY: Garland, 1995, 41-78.

—–. Education in Hong Kong, 1941-2001. HK: HK University Press, 2005.

To, Cho-Yee. “The Development of Higher Education in Hong Kong.” Comparative Education Review 9, 2 (Feb. 1965): 74-80.

Tsurumi, Patricia. “Colonial Education in Korea and Taiwan.” In Ramon H. Myers and Mark R. Peattie, eds., The Japanese Colonial Empire, 1895-1945. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1984, 275-311.

—–. Japanese Colonial Education in Taiwan, 1893-1945. Cambridge: Harvard UP, 1977.

Vickers, Edward. In Search of an Identity: The Politics of History as a School Subject in Hong Kong, 1960s–2002. New York and London: Routledge, 2003.

Wang, Dong. Managing God’s Higher Learning: U.S.-China Cultural Encounter and Canton Christian College (Lingnan University), 1888-1952.. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 2007.

Wen, Maureen Yuh-Feng. The Structure of Public Education in Taiwan. 1965.

Wong, Ting-Hong. Hegemonies Compared: State Formation and Chinese School Politics in Postwar Singapore and Hong Kong. New York: RoutledgeFalmer, 2002.

Young, Yi Rong. “Taiwan.” In Paul Morris and Anthony Sweeting, eds., Education and Development in East Asia. NY: Garland, 1995, 105-24,


Language Reform/Literacy

Beckett, Gulbahar and Gerard Postiglione, eds. China’s Assimilationist Language Policy: The Impact on Indigenous/Minority Literacy and Social Harmony. Routledge, 2011.

“Debates on Language Reform.” Special Issue of Chinese Education 10, 3/4 (1977/78).

DeFrancis, John. Nationalism and Language Reform in China. New York, Octagon Books, 1972.

Gunn, Edward M. Rendering the Regional: Local Language in Contemporary Chinese Media. Honlulu: University of Hawai’i Press, 2005.

Hayford, C. W. “Literacy Movements in Modern China.” In Harvey Graff and Robert Arnove, eds., Literacy Movements in Historical Perspective. Plenum Press, 1987.

Ingulsrun, John E. and Kate Allen. Learning to Read in China: Sociolinguistic Perspectives on the Acquisition of Literacy. Lewiston, NY: Edwin Mellen Press, 1999.

Ji, Fengyuan. Linguistic Engineering: Language and Politics in Mao’s China. Honolulu: University of Hawai’i Press, 2004.

Judge, Joan. “Reforming the Feminine: Female Literacy and the Legacy of 1898.” In Rebecca E. Karl and Peter Zarrow, eds., Rethinking the 1898 Reform Period: Political and Cultural Change in late Qing China. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Asia Center, 2002, 158-79.

Kaske, Elisabeth. The Politics of Language in Chinese Education, 1895–1919. Leiden: Brill, 2007.

Lam, Agnes S. L. Language Education in China: Policy and Experience from 1949. HK: Hong Kong University Press, 2005. [HKUP blurb]

Literacy, Writing and Education (maintained by Barend ter Haar, Leiden University)

Merkel-Hess, Kate. “Reading the Rural Modern: Literacy and Morality in Republican China.” History Compass 7, no 1 (2009): 44-45.

Peterson, Glen. The Power of Words: Literacy and Revolution in South China, 1949-1995. Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press, 1997.

Rawski, Evelyn. Education and Popular Literacy in Ch’ing China. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1989.

Seeberg, Vilma. Literacy in China: The Effect of the National Development Context and Policy on Literacy Levels, 1949-1979. Bochum: Brockmeyer, 1990.

Seybolt, Peter and Gregory Keuei-ke Chiang, eds. Language Reform in China: Documents and Commentary. Armonk, NY: M.E. Sharpe, 1978.

Wei, Jennifer M. Language Choice and Identity Politics in Taiwan. Lanham: Lexington Books, 2008.

Zhou, Minglang. Multilingualism in China: The Politics of Writing Reforms for Minority Languages, 1949-2002. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter, 2003.

—–, ed., and Hongkai Sun, consulting ed. Language Policy in the People’s Republic of China: Theory and Practice Since 1949. Kluwer, 2004.


Physical Education/Sports

Bardon, Severine. “The Economics of Sports in China: A Maturing Sector.” China Perspectives 1 (2008): 40-47.

Boucher, Aurelien. “The Introduction of Sports in China.” China Perspectives 1 (2008): 48-52.

Brownell, Susan. Training the Body For China: Sports in the Moral Order of the People’s Republic. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1995.

—–. “Making Dream Bodies in Beijing: Athletes, Fashion Models, and Urban Mystique in China.” In Nancy Chen, et al, eds., China Urban: Ethnographies of Contemporary Culture. Durham: Duke UP, 2001.

—–. “China and Olympism.” In John Bale and Mettte Krogh Christensen, eds., Post-Olympism? Questionning Sport in the Twenty-first Century. Oxford: Berg, 2004.

—–. Beijing’s Games: What the Olympics Mean to China. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield, 2008.

Chang, Ning Jennifer. “Pure Sport or A Gambling Disgrace? Greyhound Racing and the Formation of Modern Shanghai.” In Peter Zarrow, ed., Creating Chinese Modernity: Knowledge and Everyday Life, 1900-1940. NY: Peter Lang, 2007, 147-82.

Chicharro-Saito, Gladys. “Physical Education and ‘Embodiment’ of Morality in Primary Schools in the People’s Republic of China.” China Perspectives 1 (2008): 29-39.

Dong, Jianxia. “The Female Dragons Awake: Women, Sport, and Society in the Early Years of the New China.” International Journal of the History of Sport 18, 2 (2001).

Edwards, Louis. “Sport, Fashion, and Beauty: New Incarnations of the Female Politician in Contemporary China.” In Martin and Larissa Heinrich, eds., Embodied Modernities: Corporeality, Representation, and Chinese Cultures. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 2006, 146-61.

Fong, Ben and Jonathan Heung On Wai, eds. Marathon in Hong Kong: Challenges and Health. HK: The Chinese University Press, 2010.

[Abstract: The essays in this collection cover topics relating to the history of marathon running in Asia, such as the stories behind the cities that have hosted the marathon, what role gender difference plays in marathon sport performance, and the experience of organizing the race in Hong Kong. Concluding sections advise runners on the proper way to treat serious injuries and the best way to prepare for long-distance running. Contributors are chosen from a range of universities and are leading scholars, practitioners, and experts on sport.]

Fu, Frank H. “Sports Medicine.” In James Riordan and Robin Jones, eds, Sport and Physical Education in China. NY: E and FN Spon, 1999, 231-42.

Gao, Yunxiang. “The Nationalist and Feminist Discourses on ‘Jianmei’ (Fit/Robust Beauty) during China’s ‘National Crisis’ in the 1930s.” Gender and History 18, 3 (November 2006). Rpt. in Dorothy Ko and Wang Zheng eds, Translating Feminism in China. New York: Blackwell Publishing, 2007, 104-137.

—–. “Sex, Sports, and China’s National Crisis, 1931-1945: The “Athletic Movie Star” Li Lili (1915-2005).” Modern Chinese Literature and Culture 22, 1 (Spring 2010): 96-161.

Garrett, Shirley S. 1970. Social Reformers in Urban China: The Chinese Y.M.C.A., 1895-1926. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Gimpel, Denise. “Freeing the Mind through the Body: Women’s Thoughts on Physical Education in Late Qing and Early Republican China.” In Kai-wing Chow, Tze-ki Hon, Hung-yok Ip, and Don Price, eds., Beyond the May Fourth Paradigm: In Search of Chinese Modernity. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 2008.

Greene, Felix, producer. Friendship First, Competition Second. [Motion picture]. New York: Time-Life Multimedia, 1973.

Gries, Peter Hayes. “The Olympic Effect on American Attitudes towards China: Beyond Personality, Ideology, and Media Exposure.” Journal of Contemporary China 19 (64) (2010): 213-31.

Hong, Fan. “Iron Bodies: Women, War and Sport in the Early Communist Movement in China.”Journal of Sport History (Spring 1997).

—–. “Not all Bad! Communism, Society and Sport in the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution.” International Journal of the History of Sport 16, 3 (1999).

—–. “The Significance of the Cultural Revolution for the Evolution of Sport in Modern China.” In J. Buschmann and G. Pfister, eds., Sport and Social Changes. Sankt Augustin: Academia Verlag Richarz, 2001.

—–. “Which Road to China? An Evaluation of Two Different Approaches: The Inadequate and the Adequate.” International Journal of the History of Sport 18, no. 2 (2001).

Hong, Fan and Tan Hua. “Sport in China: Conflict between Tradition and Modernity, 1840s-1930s.” International Journal of the History of Sport 19, 2-3 (2002).

Hong, Fan and Xiong Xiaozheng. “Communist China: Sport, Politics and Diplomacy.” International Journal of the History of Sport 19, 2-3 (2002).

Hong, Fan and J. A. Mangan, eds. Soccer, Women, Sexual Liberation: Kicking Off a New Era. London: Frank Cass, 2004.

Hwang, Dong-Jhy and Li-ke Chang. “Sport, Maoism and the Beijing Olympics:: One Century, One Ideology.” China Perspectives 1 (2008): 4-18.

Jones, Robin. “Ten Years of China Watching: Present Trends and Future Directions of Sport in the People’s Republic.” In J. Tolleneer, ed., Old Borders, New Borders, No Borders: Sport and Physical Education in a Period of Change. Oxford: Meyer and Meyer Sport, 1998.

—–. “Sport in China.” In James Riordan and Robin Jones, eds, Sport and Physical Education in China. NY: E and FN Spon, 1999, 1-19.

—–. “Sport and Physical Education in School and University.” In James Riordan and Robin Jones, eds, Sport and Physical Education in China. NY: E and FN Spon, 1999, 90-119.

—–. “The Emergence of Professional Sport–The Case of Soccer.” In James Riordan and Robin Jones, eds, Sport and Physical Education in China. NY: E and FN Spon, 1999, 185-201.

Knuttgen, Howard G., Ma Qiwei and Wu Zhongyuan, eds., Sport in China. Champaign, Ill.: Human Kinetics Books, 1990.

Kolatch, Jonathan. Sports, Politics, and Ideology in China. NY: Jonathan David Publishers, 1972.

—–. Is the Moon in China Just as Round?: Sporting Life & Sundry Scenes. Middle Village, N.Y. : Jonathan David Publishers, 1992.

Lam, S. F. and Julian W. Chang, eds. The Quest for Gold: Fifty Years of Amateur Sports in Hong Kong, 1947-1997. HK: Hong Kong UP, 2006.

Larmer, Brook. Operation Yao Ming: The Chinese Sports Empire, American Big Business, and the Making of an NBA Superstar. NY: Gotham Books, 2005.

Lo, M. K. “Progress of Sport among the Chinese in Hong Kong.” In Hong Kong World News Service, ed., The Hong Kong Centenary Commemorative Talks, 1841-1941. HK: World News Service, 1941.

Lu, Suping. “Nationalist Feelings and Sports.” Journal of Contemporary China no. 22 (1999): 517-33.

Morris, Andrew. “‘Chinese Men Look Like Real Athletes’: From Calisthenics and Gymnastics (Ticao) to Athletics (Tiyu) in 1910s China.” In Sports — the East and the West: documentary volume of the 3rd International ISHPES Seminar. Sankt Augustin: Academia, 1999.

—–. Cultivating the National Body: A History of Physical Culture in Republican China. Ph.D. Diss. University of California, San Diego, 1998.

—–. “‘I Can Compete!’: China in the Olympic Games, 1932 and 1936.” Journal of Sports History 26, 3 (Fall 1999): 545-566.

—–. “Mastery Without Enmity: Athletics, Modernity and the Nation in Early Republican China.” Republican China 22, 2 (April 1997): 3-39.

—–. “Native Songs and Dances: Southeast Asia in a Greater Chinese Sporting Community, 1920-1948.” Journal of Southeast Asian Studies 31, 1 (March 2000): 48-69.

—–. “To Make the 400 Million Move: The Late Qing Origins of Modern Chinese Sport and Physical Culture.” Comparative Studies in Society and History 42, 4 (October 2000): 876-906.

—–. “‘I Believe You Can Fly’: Basketball Culture in Postsocialist China.” In Perry Link, Richard P. Madsen, and Paul G.Pickowicz, eds. Popular China: Unofficial Culture in a Globalizing Society. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield Publishers, Inc., 2002, 9-38.

—-. “Baseball, History, the Local and the Global in Taiwan.” In David K. Jordan, Andrew Morris, and Marc L. Moskowitz, ed.s, The Minor Arts of Daily Life: Popular Culture in Taiwan. Honolulu: U of Hawaii Press, 2004, 175-203.

—–. Marrow of the Nation: A History of Sport and Physical Culture in Republican China. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2004. [MCLC Resource Center Review by Denise Gimpel]

—–. Colonial Project, National Game: A History of Baseball in Taiwan. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2010. [MCLC Resource Center review by Kristin Stapleton]

[Abstract: Morris traces the game’s social, ethnic, political, and cultural significance since its introduction on the island more than one hundred years ago. Introduced by the Japanese colonial government at the turn of the century, baseball was expected to “civilize” and modernize Taiwan’s Han Chinese and Austronesian Aborigine populations. After World War II, the game was tolerated as a remnant of Japanese culture and then strategically employed by the ruling Chinese Nationalist Party (KMT) Even as it was also enthroned by Taiwanese politicians, cultural producers, and citizens as their national game. In considering baseball’s cultural and historical implications, Morris deftly addresses a number of societal themes crucial to understanding modern Taiwan, the question of Chinese “reunification,” and East Asia as a whole.]

N.a. China’s Sports Today. Beijing, 1956.

Polumbaum, Judy. “The Other Side of the Rock.” sportsjones (Oct. 15, 1999).

—–. “From Evangelism to Entertainment: The YMCA, the NBA, and the Evolution o Chinese Basketball.” Modern Chinese Literature and Culture 14, 1 (Spring 2002): 178-230.

Ready, Oliver George. Life and Sport in China. Taipei: Ch’eng Wen, 1971. [originally published in 1904].

Reekie, Shirley. “Mass Fitness.” In James Riordan and Robin Jones, eds, Sport and Physical Education in China. NY: E and FN Spon, 1999, 243-54.

—–. “Administration of Sport.” In James Riordan and Robin Jones, eds, Sport and Physical Education in China. NY: E and FN Spon, 1999, 255-71.

Ren, Hai. “China and the Olympic Movement.” In James Riordan and Robin Jones, eds, Sport and Physical Education in China. NY: E and FN Spon, 1999, 202-13.

Riordan, Jim. “Communist sports policy: The end of an era.” In Laurence Chalip, Arthur Johnson & Lisa Stachura, eds. National Sports Policies: An International Handbook. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1996.

Riordan, Jim and Robin Jones, eds. Sport and Physical Education in China. NY: E and FN Spon, 1999.

Riordan, James and Dong Jinxia. “Chinese Women and Sport: Success, Sexuality and Suspicion.” The C hina Quarterly. 145 (1996). Rpt. in James Riordan and Robin Jones, eds, Sport and Physical Education in China. NY: E and FN Spon, 1999, 159-84.

Speak, Mike. “The Emergence of Modern Sport: 960-1840.” In James Riordan and Robin Jones, eds, Sport and Physical Education in China. NY: E and FN Spon, 1999, 45-69.

—–. “China in the Modern World, 1840-1949.” In James Riordan and Robin Jones, eds, Sport and Physical Education in China. NY: E and FN Spon, 1999, 70-89.

“Sports and Politics: Special Feature.” China Perspectives 1 (2008).

Whitby, Dennis. “Elite Sport.” In James Riordan and Robin Jones, eds, Sport and Physical Education in China. NY: E and FN Spon, 1999, 120-41.

—–. “Sports Science.” In James Riordan and Robin Jones, eds, Sport and Physical Education in China. NY: E and FN Spon, 1999, 214-30.

Whitby, Dennis, Zhu Peilan, and Zhang Baoluo. “Professional Training.” In James Riordan and Robin Jones, eds, Sport and Physical Education in China. NY: E and FN Spon, 1999, 142-58.

Wu, Chih-Kang. The influence of the YMCA on the development of physical education in China. Ph.D. diss. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan, 1956.

Wu Shaozu et al., eds. Zhonghua renmin gongheguo tiyu shi (This history of sport in the PRC). Beijing: Zhongguo shuji, 1999.

Wu, Zhongyuan and Que Yongwu. “Organizational structure of China’s physical culture.” In Howard G. Knuttgen, Ma Qiwei, and Wu Zhongyuan, eds. Sport in China. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics Publishers, 1990.

Xiao, C. F. Yao Ming: The Road to the NBA. Tr. Philip Robyn. Long River Press, 2007.

Xu, Guoqi. Olympic Dreams: China and Sports, 1895-2008. Cambridge: Harvard UP, 2008.

—–. “China’s National Representation and the Two-Chna Question in the Olympic Movement: The Significance of the 1952 Helsinki Games.” China Perspectives 1 (2008): 19-28.

Yao, Ming, with Ric Bucher. Yao: A Life in Two Worlds. NY: Miramax Books, 2005.

Yu, Chien-ming. “Female Physical Education and the Media in Modern China.” In Mechthild Leutner and Nicola Spakowski, eds., Women in China: The Republican Period in Historical Perspective. Munster: Lit, 2005, 482-505.

Zheng, Tiantian. “Embodied Masculinity: Sex and Sport in a (Post) Colonial Chinese City.” The China Quarterly 190 (June 2007): 432-450.


On-Line

Academy of Social Sciences (Beijing)
China Education [complete listing of Chinese universities and colleges]
Comparative Education Research Centre (University of Hong Kong)
Chinese Education Association for International Exchange
Chinese Education and Research Network (CERNET) (contains links to the PRC Ministry of State Education, Chinese Universities, Online Libraries, National Key Labs, Chinese Academy of Science, National Natural Science Foundation of China, and Research Institutes)
Education in China (China Daily)
Literacy, Writing and Education (maintained by Barend ter Haar, Leiden University)
Photos of Wangzhuang Village Elementary School, Shandong (Photos taken by Kirk Denton)