Fall wheat stripe rust as reported by Michigan State University Extension

by Thomas Lichtensteiger, Sustainable Plant Systems major

Introduction and Global Impact

This article was published as a means to inform growers about a fungal disease that would affect their wheat crop. Before fall planting is the best time to consider the best methods and identification of which varieties are the best in the area.

The data being from all over Michigan will allow for optimal decisions made by the farmer for their farm. The potential damage of having a susceptible crop is 40% according to the article. On a global scale that adds up to a lot of bushels not making it to the table.

Survival & Infection

In a disease cycle there is a survival stage. For wheat rust that appears in Michigan the spores of the fungus blow in from the south where they overwinter.

In order for good development the right conditions must be met and those are:

  1. Wet soil
  2. Cool temperatures
  3. Optimal Temperature 50 to 59 degrees Fahrenheit

The infection court, or how infection happens, is in the stomata. This is an opening that the plant uses respiration. Signs may not show up for 2 weeks but when they do they will be orange in color.

Treatment

Since it is a fungus the best treatments is a fungicide or select a resistant variety to plant if you are excepting problems. From a management prospective it would be best to make sure, if planting wheat after wheat especially, that there are no vectors for harboring inoculum. Reducing volunteer wheat and not having to worry about infected seed helps manage fall wheat stripe rust in Michigan

Sources

Michigan State Extension
> Fall wheat stripe rust management considerations

About Me

I am currently in my fourth year at The Ohio State University majoring in Sustainable Plant Systems with a Specialization in Agronomy and a minor in Production Ag.

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This blog post was an assignment for Societal Issues: Pesticides, Alternatives and the Environment (PLNTPTH 4597). The views expressed are those of the author and do not necessarily reflect the views of the class, Department of Plant Pathology or the instructor.

Vomitoxin

by Eli Cook, Agribusiness major

For my blog post I researched vomitoxin, and found some very interesting information.  I was always aware of the existence of this from growing up on a grain farm, but I wasn’t informed about how serious it is.

If pigs are fed grain with a high vomitoxin percentage they will vomit profusely.  Most countries have set limits on vomitoxin because of its effects on humans and animals.  The FDA set a limit of 1 parts per million, while in some areas of Europe the level is even lower at 0.5 parts per million.

In the United States the monetary losses because of vomitoxin exceed 1 billion dollars yearly.  This is covering costs because of grain quality, feed, and animal losses.

Vomitoxin is also in all of our food that is made with grain.  When bread is baked for example, vomitoxin levels are only decreased by seven percent.  In China there have been many outbreaks of food poisoning because of vomitoxin.  When even low levels of vomitoxin are in the human stomach, they start tearing down the stomach walls, which causes food poisoning.  When this happens more than once it can eventually lead to food allergies, IBD, and celiac disease. Vomitoxin presents a serious problem in human and animal health and should be monitored closely to prevent reoccurring problems.

Sources

Nature’s Poisons
North Dakota State University Extension Service,  DON (Vomitoxin) in Wheat: Basic Questions and Answers
P.J. Johnson et. al, Effect of feeding dioxynivalenol (vomitoxin)-contaminated barley leaves to horses
D.E. Clark et. al, Effects of vomitoxin (deoxynivalenol) on conditioned saccharin aversion and food consumption in adult rats

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This blog post was an assignment for Societal Issues: Pesticides, Alternatives and the Environment (PLNTPTH 4597). The views expressed are those of the author and do not necessarily reflect the views of the class, Department of Plant Pathology or the instructor.