Climate Change Program – Nov. 13 – Last Chance to Register

Join OSU Extension Greene County as we host Dr. Tom Blaine, OSU Associate Professor, who will share the history and trends of climate change. Learn what it means for your garden, woodlot or farm through the year 2050.

Dr. Blaine conducts research and develops educational materials that deal with the economic dimensions of recycling, preservation of farmland and green space, protection/improvement of Lake Erie water quality, and local food production and consumption in areas referred to as “food deserts.” Learn more at greene.osu.edu

Date: November 13th – 6:30 – 8:00 pm

Location: OSU Extension Greene County, 100 Fairground Rd, Xenia, Ohio 45385

Registration: Advanced registration is requested: go.osu.edu/climatechange2019

Cost: $10 (includes educational material and refreshments)

Contact: 937-372-9971 or Trevor Corboy corboy.3@osu.edu

Beef Quality Assurance Certification – October 28, 2019

Beef Quality Assurance Certification – October 28, 2019

Join OSU Extension Greene County on October 28, 2019 at 5 p.m. for a Beef Quality Assurance Certification at the office on the fairgrounds. Beef and dairy farmers should strongly consider becoming certified if they have not done so already.

In 2019, some of America’s largest meat distributers will only buy beef that is from BQA Certified producers. This certification is not mandated by law. However, it is being required by some of the links that make up the beef supply chain, including auction barns, feed lots, packers, retailers, and consumers. Essentially, marketing beef without BQA certification will become increasingly difficult and those who do so successfully may find their compensation inadequate.

The October 28, Greene County training will certify participants for three years. This opportunity is for any beef or dairy cattle producer in Greene County or surrounding area at $10 per person to cover educational materials.

Please note, there are two Beef Quality Assurance Programs in one evening.

Beef Quality Assurance Certification – 5 p.m. – If you have not already gotten your BQA Certification, this is one of your last chances for 2019. In today’s market, it is important to take advantage of any and all opportunities that make our cattle more desirable to the buyer sitting in the stands. As of now, Wendy’s restaurant, Tyson Foods and multiple auctions have announced that they will require producers to be certified in BQA in order to market their cattle or serve their product.

Transportation BQA – 6:30 p.m. – If you haul cattle, this may be for you. By the start of 2020, the major beef cattle processors have requested that any livestock hauler delivering cattle to their facilities be certified in Beef Quality Assurance –Transport (BQAT). Any professional hauler or farmer delivering loads of cattle to a processor should plan on attending. Much like producer BQA, the goal of the BQAT program is to make sure that cattle transporters are implementing good animal handling and transport practices. The training will last approx. two hours.

Visit greene.osu.edu to more details and to register for these upcoming programs. Questions on Beef Quality Assurance can be directed to OSU Extension Greene County, Trevor Corboy, Agriculture and Natural Resources Educator at 937-372-9971 ext. 114 or corboy.3@osu.edu.

Ohio Dairy Day – Nov. 14

Ohio Dairy Day – November 14

The event will be held on the Wooster campus, with the morning program at the Secrest Welcome Center and the afternoon program at the Krauss Dairy Center. Registrations are at no cost through October 31 and after this date, the cost is $25/person or $100/farm. Brochure and a registration link are available on our web site at: https://dairy.osu.edu/

Dairy Day Registration Brochure

Ohio’s proposed hemp rules are out

By Peggy Kirk Hall and Ellen Essman

OSU Agricultural & Resource Law Program

Ohio’s newly created hemp program is one step further toward getting off the ground.   On October 9, the Ohio Department of Agriculture (ODA) released its anxiously awaited proposal of the rules that will regulate hemp production in Ohio.   ODA seeks public comments on the proposed regulations until October 30, 2019.

There are two parts to the rules package:  one rule for hemp cultivation and another for hemp processing.   Here’s an overview of the components of each rule:

  1. Hemp cultivation

The first rule addresses the “cultivation” of hemp, which means “to plant, water, grow, fertilize, till or harvest a plant or crop.”  Cultivating also includes “possessing or storing a plant or cop on a premises where the plant was cultivated until transported to the first point of sale.”  The proposal lays out the following regulatory process for those who wish to cultivate hemp in Ohio.

Cultivation licenses.  Anyone who wants to grow hemp must receive a hemp cultivation license from the ODA.  Licenses are valid for three years.  To obtain a license, the would-be hemp cultivator must submit an application during the application window, which will be between November 1 and March 31.  The application requires the applicant to provide personal information about the applicant, and if the applicant is a business, information about who is authorized to sign on behalf of the business, who will be primarily responsible for hemp operations and the identity of those having a financial interest greater than ten percent in the entity.    The cultivation license application will also seek information about each location where hemp will be grown, including the GPS coordinates, physical address, number of outdoor acres or indoor square footage, and maps of each field, greenhouse, building or storage facility where hemp will grow or be stored.  Cultivators must pay a license application fee of $100, and once licensed, an additional license fee of $500 for each growing location, which is defined as a contiguous land area or single building in which hemp is grown or planned to be grown.  All applicants and anyone with a controlling interest ithe hemp cultivation business must also submit to a criminal records check by the bureau of criminal identification and investigation.

Land use restrictions.  The proposed rules state that a licensed hemp cultivator shall not:

  • Plant or grow cannabis that is not hemp.
  • Plant or grow hemp on any site not approved by the ODA.
  • Plant, grow, handle or store hemp in or within 100 feet of a residential structure or 500 feet of a school or public park, unless for approved research.
  • Comingle hemp with other crops without prior approval from ODA.
  • Plant or grow hemp outdoors on less than one-quarter acre, indoors on less than 1,000 square feet, or in a quantity of less than 1,000 plants without prior approval from ODA.
  • Plant or grow hemp within half a mile of a parcel licensed for medical marijuana cultivation.
  • Plant or grow hemp on property that the license holder does not own or lease.

Hemp harvesting.  Licensed growers would be required to submit a report to ODA at least 15 days before their intended harvest date and pay a pre-harvest sample fee of $150.  ODA then has to sample the hemp for THC content, and only if approved can a cultivator harvest the crop, which in most cases must occur within 15 days after the sample is taken.  Failing to harvest within the 15-day window might require a secondary sampling and sampling fee.  A cultivator would be required to have a hemp release form from ODA before moving any harvested materials beyond the storage facility.

Random sampling.  The proposed rules also allow for random sampling of hemp by ODA and provide details on how ODA will conduct the sampling and charge sampling fees.  Any cultivator is subject to random sampling in each location where hemp has been cultivated. ODA will report testing results that exceed 0.3 THC to the cultivator, who may request a second sample.  A cultivator must follow procedures for destroying any leaf, seed, or floral material from plants that exceed 0.3 THC and any material that was co-mingled with the 0.3 THC materials, but may harvest bare hemp stalks for fiber.

Destruction of hemp.   Under the proposed regulations, a license holder must submit a destruction report before destroying hemp and ODA must be present to witness the destruction.  The proposed rules also authorize ODA to destroy a crop that was ordered destroyed, abandoned, or otherwise not harvested and assess the costs against the licensee.

Reporting and recordkeeping are also important in the proposed rules.  Licensed cultivators must submit a planting report on an ODA form for each growing location by July 1 or within 15 days of planting or replanting, which shall include the crop’s location, number of acres or square footage, variety name, and primary intended use.  The rule would also require licensees to submit a completed production report by December 31 of each year.    A licensee that fails to submit the required reports would be subject to penalties and fines. Cultivators must maintain planting, harvest, destruction and production reports for three years.

Control of volunteer plants.  A licensee must scout and monitor unused fields for volunteer hemp plants and destroy the plants for a period of three years past the last date of reported planting.  Failing to do so can result in enforcement action or destruction of the plants by ODA with costs assessed to the licensee.

Pesticide and fertilizer use.  The laws and rules that apply to other crops will also apply to hemp, except that when using a pesticide on a site where hemp will be planted, the cultivator must comply with the longest of any planting restriction interval on the product label.   ODA may perform pesticide testing randomly, and any hemp seeds, plants and materials that exceed federal pesticide residue tolerances will be subject to forfeiture or destruction without compensation.

Prohibited varieties.  The proposed rule states that licensed cultivators cannot use any part of a hemp plant that ODA has listed as a prohibited variety of hemp on its website.

Clone and seed production.  Special rules apply to hemp cultivators who plan to produce clones, cuttings, propagules, and seed for propagation purposes.  The cultivator can only sell the seeds or plants to other licensed cultivators and must maintain records on the variety, strain and certificate of analysis for the “mother plants.”  The licensee need not submit a harvest report, but must keep sales records for three years of the purchaser, date of sale, and variety and number of plants or seeds purchased.

Cultivation research.  Universities may research hemp cultivation without a license but private and non-profit entities that want to conduct research must have a cultivation license.  Cultivation research licensees would be exempt from many parts of the proposed rules, but must not sell or transfer any part of the plants and must destroy the plants when the research ends.

Enforcement.  The proposed rule grants authority to the ODA to deny, suspend or revoke cultivation licenses for those who’ve provide false or misleading information, haven’t completed a background check, plead guilty to a felony relating to controlled substances within the past 10 years, or violated the hemp laws and rules three or more times in a five-year period.

  1. Hemp processing

The proposed rules package by ODA also addresses processing, which the rule defines as “converting hemp into a hemp product” but does not include on-farm drying or dehydrating of raw hemp materials by a licensed hemp cultivator for sale directly to a licensed hemp processor.    Because of this definition, many farmers who want only to grow and dry hemp would need only a cultivation license.  Growers who want to process their licensed hemp into CBD oil or other products, however, must also obtain a processing license.  The processing rules follow a similar pattern to their cultivation counterpart, as follows.

Processing licenses.  In addition to submitting the same personal, business and location information as a cultivation license requires, a hemp processing license application must list the types of hemp products that the processor plans to produce.   An “extraction operational plan” including safety measures and guidelines is required for processors who want to extract CBD from hemp to produce their product, and an applicant must indicate compliance with all building, fire, safety and zoning requirements.  The amount of the license fee depends on what part of the hemp plant the processor plans to process.  Processing raw hemp fiber, for example, requires a $500 license fee for each processing site, whereas processing the raw floral component of hemp requires a $3000 fee for each site.  Like the cultivation license, a processing license is valid for three years.  Applicants and those with a controlling interest in the business must submit to a background check.

Land use restrictions.  The proposed regulations would prevent a licensed processor from:

  • Processing or storing any cannabis that is not hemp.
  • Processing or storing hemp or hemp products on any site not approved by ODA.
  • Processing, handling, or storing hemp or hemp products in or adjacent to a personal residence or in any structure used for residential use or on land zoned for residential use.
  • Processing hemp within 500 feet of a school or public park, except for approved research.

Financial responsibility.    A licensed processor must meet standards of financial responsibility, which require having current assets at least $10,000 or five percent of the total purchase of raw hemp materials in the previous calendar year, whichever is greater, and possessing a surety bond.

Inspection and sampling.  As with cultivation licensees, hemp processing licensees would be subject to inspection and sampling by ODA under the proposed rule.

Food safety regulations.  The proposed rule requires hemp processes to comply with federal and state food safety regulations.

Sources and extraction of cannabinoids (CBD). A processor who wants to extract or sell CBD products must obtain the materials from a licensed or approved cultivator or processor in Ohio or another state with hemp cultivation licenses.  The regulation outlines components of the extraction operational plan that a processor must submit with the processing application, as well as acceptable extraction methods and required training.

Product testing.  A hemp processor must test hemp products at an accredited testing laboratory before selling the products.   The proposed rule describes the testing procedures, which address microbial contaminants, cannabinoid potency, mycotoxins, heavy metals, pesticide and fertilizer residue and residual solvents.  There are testing exemptions, however, for hemp used exclusively for fiber, derived exclusively from hemp seed and hemp extracts.  The testing laboratory must create a certificate of analysis for each batch or lot of the tested hemp product.

Processor waste disposal.  Under the proposed rule, a licensed processor must follow procedures for proper disposal of hemp byproducts and waste and must maintain disposal records.

Product labeling requirements are also proposed in the rule.  A processor must label all hemp products except for those made exclusively from hemp fiber as outlined in the rule and in compliance with federal law and other existing Ohio regulations for standards of identify and food coloring.

Recordkeeping.  As we’d expect, the proposal states that hemp processors must maintain records for five years that relate to the purchase of raw, unprocessed plant materials, the purchase or use of extracted cannabinoids, and the extraction process.

Prohibited products.  Finally, the proposed rules include a list of hemp products that cannot be offered for sale, which includes hemp products with over 0.3 percent THC by dry weight basis, hemp products which laboratory testing determines do not meet standards of identity or that exceed the amount of mytoxins, heavy metals, or pesticides allowed, and any hemp products produced illegally.

What’s next for the hemp rules?

Keep in mind that these rules are not yet set in stone; they are a simply a proposal for hemp licensing rules in Ohio.  Those interested in cultivating or processing hemp in the future should read the draft rules carefully.  The proposed rule for hemp cultivation is here and the proposal for hemp processing is here.  Anyone can submit comments on the proposed rules here.  Your comments could affect what the final hemp rules require for hemp cultivators and processors.  After ODA reviews all comments, it will issue its final hemp licensing regulations.

Federal law requires that after Ohio finalizes its rules, ODA must submit them to the USDA for approval.  That approval won’t occur, however, until USDA completes its own hemp regulations, which are due out in proposal form any day now.  Ohio’s rules will become effective once USDA approves them, hopefully in time for the 2020 planting season.  Stay tuned to the Ag Law Blog to see what happens next with hemp production in Ohio.

You can follow the Ohio Agricultural Law Blog here for the latest Ohio Ag Law updates. 

CORN Newsletter

Corn Newsletter
ABOUT CFAES OSU EXTENSION OARDC OHIO STATE ATI
ABOUT CFAES OSU EXTENSION OARDC OHIO STATE ATI
October 15 – 21, 2019
Editor: Mary Griffith

Sampling for Soybean Cyst Nematode – Fall is the time!

Author: Anne Dorrance

Harvest is well underway and once the soybeans are off the fields this provides some time to sample soil for the SCN populations.  The SCN Coalition theme for the next few years is What’s your number?  Do you know which fields have SCN and what the current population is sitting a

Read more

Managing Phosphorus for Yield and Reduced Edge of Field Losses

Author: Greg LaBarge, CPAg/CCA

A new factsheet highlights eight steps to reducing edge of field P losses while maintain soils for increase crop production.

Read more

2019 Ohio Soybean Performance Trial- South Region Results Available

Authors: Laura Lindsey, Wayde Looker

The South Region results of the 2019 Ohio Soybean Performance Trials are available online here: https://stepupsoy.osu.edu/news/2019-ohio-soybean-performan

Read more

Surface Application of Manure to Newly Planted Wheat Fields

Author: Glen Arnold, CCA

Several livestock producers have inquired about applying liquid dairy or swine manure to newly planted wheat fields using a drag hose.

Read more

Tar Spot of Corn in Ohio Again this 2019

Authors: Pierce Paul, Felipe Dalla Lana da Silva

Tar Spot, a new disease of corn caused by the fungus Phyllachora maydis, was reported for the first time in Ohio at the end of the 2018 growing season.

Read more

New and Upcoming Episodes of the Agronomy and Farm Management Podcast Focus on Harvest and Compaction

Authors: Elizabeth Hawkins, Amanda Douridas

The Agronomy and Farm Management Podcast has new episodes available to check out.

Read more
About C.O.R.N. NewsletterC.O.R.N. Newsletter is a summary of crop observations, related information, and appropriate recommendations for Ohio crop producers and industry. C.O.R.N. Newsletter is produced by the Ohio State University Extension Agronomy Team, state specialists at The Ohio State University and the Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center (OARDC). C.O.R.N. Newsletter questions are directed to Extension and OARDC state specialists and associates at Ohio State.
Glen Arnold, CCA
Field Specialist, Manure Nutrient Management
Mark Badertscher
Hardin County
Lee Beers, CCA
Trumbull County
Ben Brown
Farm Management Program Mgr, Program Manager
Sam Custer
Darke County
Felipe Dalla Lana da Silva
Graduate student
Wayne Dellinger
Union County
Anne Dorrance
State Specialist, Soybean Diseases
David Dugan
Adams County
Mike Estadt
Pickaway County
Ken Ford
Fayette County
Mike Gastier, CCA
Huron County
Jason Hartschuh, CCA
Crawford County
Elizabeth Hawkins
Field Specialist, Agronomic Systems
Andrew Holden
Ashtabula County
Stephanie Karhoff
Williams County
Dean Kreager
Licking County
Greg LaBarge, CPAg/CCA
Field Specialist, Agronomic Systems
Rory Lewandowski, CCA
Wayne County
Laura Lindsey
State Specialist, Soybean and Small Grains
Wayde Looker
Andy Michel
State Specialist, Entomology
Sarah Noggle
Paulding County
Pierce Paul
State Specialist, Corn and Wheat Diseases
Eric Richer, CCA
Fulton County
Clint Schroeder
Allen County
Mark Sulc
State Specialist, Forage Production
Harold Watters, CPAg/CCA
Field Specialist, Agronomic Systems
Aaron Wilson
Byrd Polar & Climate Research Center
Ted Wiseman
Perry County
Chris Zoller
Tuscarawas County
The information presented here, along with any trade names used, is supplied with the understanding that no discrimination is intended and no endorsement is made by Ohio State University Extension is implied. Although every attempt is made to produce information that is complete, timely, and accurate, the pesticide user bears responsibility of consulting the pesticide label and adhering to those directions.

CFAES provides research and related educational programs to clientele on a nondiscriminatory basis. For more information, visit cfaesdiversity.osu.edu. For an accessible format of this publication, visit cfaes.osu.edu/accessibility.

OSU Extension Income Tax Schools

OSU Extension offers two-day schools at convenient locations throughout Ohio designed for tax preparers with some experience preparing and filing federal tax returns for individuals and small businesses.

Instruction focuses on tax law changes and on the problems that you face in preparing tax returns. Highly qualified instructors will explain and interpret tax regulations and recent changes in tax laws. These two-day schools offer continuing education credit for attorneys, CPAs, EAs and CFPs, and other tax return preparers.

Locations include: Fremont, Cuyahoga Falls, Ashland University, Dayton, Lima, Plain City, Chillicothe, Zanesville and Columbus. Detailed information about each location and the event can be found by clicking here.

Ag & Natural Resources Income Tax Webinar

Agricultural and Natural Resource Issues Webinar
Monday, December 16, 2019
9:00 a.m. – 3:00 p.m.
$150*

If you are a farmer or represent farmers or rural landowners, this five-hour webinar is for you. It will focus on key regulations of the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act related specifically to those income tax returns.

You can choose to attend a host location or participate at home or in the office. Host locations will provide a facilitator, refreshments and lunch. You are encouraged to bring your computer as there will be real-time Q&A. If you choose not to attend a host location, a web address will be e-mailed to you prior to the webinar.

*Registration, which includes the workbook, is $150 if received or entered on-line by December 2. After December 2, registration is $200.

Continuing Education Credits are offered (pending approval):
Accountancy Board of Ohio, CPAs (6 hours)
Office of Professional Responsibility, IRS (6 hours)
Supreme Court of Ohio, Attorneys (5 hours)

For questions, email Julie Strawser (strawser.35@osu.edu) or call 614-292-2433.

Clermont County
OSU Extension Office in Clermont County
1000 Locust St., Owensville
513-732-7070

Auglaize County
OSU Extension Office in Auglaize
208 S Blackhoof St., Wapakoneta
419-739-6580

Putnam County
OSU Extension Office in Putnam County
1206 East Second St., Ottawa
419-523-6294

Wayne County – NOTE LOCATION CHANGE!
Wayne County Administration Building
428 West Liberty St., Wooster
330-264-8722

Wyandot County
Elk’s Lodge
320 E. Wyandot Ave. Upper Sandusky
419-294-4931

Beef Quality Assurance Certification & Transport – October 28

Two Programs – One Evening

Beef Quality Assurance Certification – 5 p.m. – If you have not already gotten your BQA Certification, this is one of your last chances for 2019. In today’s market, it is important to take advantage of any and all opportunities that make our cattle more desirable to the buyer sitting in the stands. As of now, Wendy’s restaurant, Tyson Foods and multiple auctions have announced that they will require producers to be certified in BQA in order to market their cattle or serve their product.

Transportation BQA – 6:30 p.m. – If you haul cattle, this may be for you. By the start of 2020, the major beef cattle processors have requested that any livestock hauler delivering cattle to their facilities be certified in Beef Quality Assurance –Transport (BQAT). Any professional hauler or farmer delivering loads of cattle to a processor should plan on attending. Much like producer BQA, the goal of the BQAT program is to make sure that cattle transporters are implementing good animal handling and transport practices. The training will last approx. two hours.

LOCATION: OSU Extension Greene County, 100 Fairground Road, Xenia, Ohio 45385

CONTACT: 937-372-9971 or corboy.3@osu.edu

COST: $10 per person for BQA Certification; Transport BQA is free.

REGISTRATION: Includes program education and materials. Please register by calling the OSU Extension Greene County office at 937-372- 9971 or email corboy.3@osu.edu by October 24.

Flyer

CORN Newsletter

Corn Newsletter September 24 – 30, 2019
Editor: Ken Ford

Yield monitor calibration for fall harvest

Authors: John Fulton, Elizabeth Hawkins

Harvest has not yet started here in Ohio, but it is good to remember to make sure your yield monitor is setup and calibrated properly. Geo-referenced yield data (i.e. yield maps) are being used to provide precision agriculture insights and recommendations at the field level.

Corn Silage, Too Wet or Too Dry?

Authors: Bill Weiss, Mark Sulc

Too Wet?

Pricing Standing Forage Crops in the Field

Author: Mark Sulc

How to value a standing hay or haylage crop for sale directly from the field prior to harvest can be challenging.  Assigning an appropriate value includes the buyer and seller first agreeing on the market value for the hay and then adjusting for harvest costs and other factors that contribute to

Drydown In Corn – What To Expect?

Author: Peter Thomison

Many corn growers may encounter slower than normal drydown this fall due to late crop development associated with June planting dates. Much of Ohio’s late-planted corn may not achieve black layer until mid-October or later when drying conditions are less favorable for drydown.

Will Late Planted Corn Reach Black Layer Before a Killing Frost?

Authors: Allen Geyer, Rich Minyo, Peter Thomison

Ohio saw record late corn planting in 2019.  According to the Agricultural Statistics Service, only 33% of Ohio’s corn was planted by June 2.  The question being asked now is will the June planted corn reach physiological maturity (black layer) before a killing frost?  Corn is killed when tempera

The 57th Farm Science Review

Authors: Ken Ford, Nathan Douridas, CCA

According to Nick Zachrich, the 57th Annual Farm Science Review saw attendance numbers with Tuesday 40,200, Wednesday 50,790 and Thursday 23,600 with a total attendance of 114,590.  The weather for the event was sunny, dry with above normal temperatures.

Upcoming Events

10/09
Clinton County Harvest Outlook and Farm Bill Program
About C.O.R.N. NewsletterC.O.R.N. Newsletter is a summary of crop observations, related information, and appropriate recommendations for Ohio crop producers and industry. C.O.R.N. Newsletter is produced by the Ohio State University Extension Agronomy Team, state specialists at The Ohio State University and the Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center (OARDC). C.O.R.N. Newsletter questions are directed to Extension and OARDC state specialists and associates at Ohio State.
CONTRIBUTORS:
Glen Arnold, CCA
Field Specialist, Manure Nutrient Management
Mark Badertscher
Hardin County
Lee Beers, CCA
Trumbull County
Sam Custer
Darke County
Anne Dorrance
State Specialist, Soybean Diseases
David Dugan
Adams County
John Fulton
State Specialist, Precision Agriculture
Mike Gastier, CCA
Huron County
Allen Geyer
Research Associate, Corn Production
Jason Hartschuh, CCA
Crawford County
Elizabeth Hawkins
Field Specialist, Agronomic Systems
Stephanie Karhoff
Williams County
Dean Kreager
Licking County
Greg LaBarge, CPAg/CCA
Field Specialist, Agronomic Systems
Rory Lewandowski, CCA
Wayne County
Rich Minyo
Research Specialist
Sarah Noggle
Paulding County
Tony Nye
Clinton County
Pierce Paul
State Specialist, Corn and Wheat Diseases
Eric Richer, CCA
Fulton County
Dennis Riethman
Mercer County
Garth Ruff
Henry County
Clint Schroeder
Allen County
Jeff Stachler
Auglaize County
Mark Sulc
State Specialist, Forage Production
Peter Thomison
State Specialist, Corn Production
Harold Watters, CPAg/CCA
Field Specialist, Agronomic Systems
Bill Weiss
Chris Zoller
Tuscarawas County
The information presented here, along with any trade names used, is supplied with the understanding that no discrimination is intended and no endorsement is made by Ohio State University Extension is implied. Although every attempt is made to produce information that is complete, timely, and accurate, the pesticide user bears responsibility of consulting the pesticide label and adhering to those directions.

CFAES provides research and related educational programs to clientele on a nondiscriminatory basis. For more information, visitcfaesdiversity.osu.edu. For an accessible format of this publication, visit cfaes.osu.edu/accessibility.