Lodi A, Vodovotz Y. Physical properties and water state changes during storage in soy bread with and without almond. J Food Chem 2008 Mar;110:554-61.
Soy bread was formulated to impart different isoflavone profiles by addition of almond: a natural source of P-glucosidase. In this study, the influence of almond powder on loaf quality and storage stability of soy bread was investigated using thermal analysis, texture, loaf volume and air cell imaging techniques. Lipids introduced with the almond fraction, served as mediators to strengthen the interaction between wheat and soy protein, thereby increasing dough extensibility. Loaf quality of the almond soy bread was therefore improved since the collapse of air cells during bread preparation was prevented. This in turn favored better loaf quality. Additionally, water binding strength and changes thereof during storage, probed by thermal analysis, were found to significantly hinder the staling rate during prolonged storage of soy-containing breads.
Mallery SR, Stoner GD, Larsen PE, Fields HW, Rodrigo KA, Schwartz SJ, Tian Q, Dai J, Mumper RJ. Formulation and in-vitro and in-vivo evaluation of a mucoadhesive gel containing freeze dried black raspberries: implications for oral cancer chemoprevention. Pharm Res 2007.
The purpose of these studies was to formulate mucoadhesive gels containing freeze dried black raspberries (FBR) and to determine optimum parameters for a subset of FBR bioactive compounds including anthocyanin stability, absorption and penetration in-vitro and in-vivo. Berry gels were prepared having FBR at 5% and 10% w/w and final pHs ranging from 3.5 to 7.5. A HPLC assay was developed to quantify and determine the stability of the anthocyanins in the gels. A single time-point study was performed to determine anthocyanin uptake when the gels were applied to oral mucosa. Penetration of anthocyanins into human oral tissue explants was determined as a function of gel pH and FBR content. A HPLC-mass spectroscopy assay was utilized to quantify the anthocyanin levels in human oral tissue explants, saliva, and blood. The stability of anthocyanins in the gel was directly related to gel pH and storage temperature. Maximum stability of anthocyanins was found at lower pH (pH 3.5) and storage temperature (4 degrees C). Anthocyanins contained in mucoadhesive berry gel formulations were readily absorbed into human oral mucosa tissue as evidenced by detectable blood levels within 5 min after gel application. There was a trend for greater penetration of anthocyanins into tissue explants for berry gels with a final pH of 6.5 versus pH 3.5. Formulation and characterization of a novel gel formulation for local delivery of chemopreventive compounds to human oral mucosal tissues has been described. The results show anthocyanin stability was dependent upon gel pH and storage temperature and also demonstrate that the gel composition is well-suited for absorption and penetration into the target oral mucosal tissue site.
Lodi A. Physico-chemical and molecular characterization of soy bread containing almond [Dissertation]. Columbus, OH: The Ohio State University; 2006.
Physical properties of soy breads with and without almond were compared to determine changes in loaf quality as they relate to consumer acceptability. Loaf specific volume (measured using rapeseed displacement and Tex-Vol), firmness (Instron), air cells size distribution (C-Cell) and moisture content (vacuum oven and thermogravimetric analysis) depicted an overall loaf quality improvement upon addition of almond to soy bread. Additionally, water and other components of the bread matrix were characterized in fresh and stored samples using a variety of thermal and magnetic resonance based techniques. Lipid mobility (NMR) was much higher in fresh soy bread with almond and decreased appreciably only after 3 days of storage. Changes in isoflavone profile during production and storage of soy bread containing almond were also investigated. Bread production affected the isoflavone profile by increasing the amount of unconjugated b-glucosides and aglycones. No significant changes in the isoflavone profile were found during storage for either bread. These results showed that addition of almonds to soy bread improved the physical properties and water mobility and distribution, possibly leading to greater stability during storage. Additionally, alteration of the isoflavone profile of the soy bread upon almond addition may improve the absorption of these phytochemicals.