Penn, J. M., H. J. Penn, M. F. Potter, and W. Hu. 2017. Bed bugs and hotels: Traveler insights and implications for the industry. American Entomologist. 63: 79–88. doi: 10.1093/ae/tmx023

Summary: A nationwide survey of United States business and leisure travelers investigates travelers’ attitudes and behaviors toward bed bugs and discusses their implications for the hospitality industry.


Jourdain, F., P. Delaunay, J.-M. Bérenger, Y. Perrin, and V. Robert. 2016. The common bed bug (Cimex lectularius) in metropolitan France. Survey on the attitudes and practices of private- and public-sector professionals. Parasite. 23: 38. doi: 10.1051/parasite/2016038

“The ommon bed bug, Cimex lectularius, had virtually disappeared from France in the 1950s; however, a worldwide resurgence of bed bugs (C. lectularius and C. hemipterus) has been observed since the 1990s. To document modern pest control activities for the management of bed bugs, a survey was conducted in metropolitan France among the two main categories of professionals regularly called upon to deal with the control of infestations: Municipal Health and Safety Services (MHSSs) and private Pest Management Companies (PMCs). These professionals responded to a questionnaire targeting their knowledge, attitude and practices related to the process for diagnosing a bed bug infestation and the processes taken to actually control an infestation. There were 68 responses received from MHSSs and 51 from the PMCs. The responses indicate that every single département (French administrative division) in metropolitan France has witnessed at least one intervention for bed bugs. Among the criteria considered sufficient to confirm a bed bug infestation, direct observation of bugs was the most commonly cited response. Faced with an infestation, most PMCs used a combination of non-chemical and chemical methods, and systematically performed two treatments. This survey is the first of professionals involved in bed bug control in metropolitan France and confirms the growing importance of bed bugs as a public health pest. Establishing a database to monitor this emerging pest would improve the understanding of the distribution of these insects, help guide educational requirements, identify research needs and assist in ensuring that the most appropriate control practices are undertaken.”


Sutherland, A., D.-H. Choe, V. Lewis, D. Young, A. Romero, H. Spafford, and D. Gouge. 2015. Survey sheds light on bed bugs in multi-unit housing. Pest Control Technology. 43: 26, 28, 30, 32, 34, 36.
“In brief summary, responding PMPs reported substantial use of many different bed bug detection and control methods, though visual inspections and insecticide applications were clear mainstays. Regular monitoring programs and the use of several complementary control methods are primary components of urban IPM, advocated for strongly by members of our Work Group. We will consider these data as we work collaboratively with regional PMPs to design effective IPM programs for bed bugs in MUHs.”



Goodall, C. E., and P. Reed. 2013. Threat and efficacy uncertainty in news coverage about bed bugs as unique predictors of information seeking and avoidance: an extension of the EPPM. Health Communication. 28: 63–71.

“Reader’s responses to print news stories about bed bugs were evaluated using the Extended Parallel Process Model (EPPM). Results suggested that news reports that contained uncertainty about the bed bug threat may motivate people to actively seek out additional information. News reports referencing uncertainty as to the effectiveness of proposed solutions were more likely to cause information avoidance than stories referencing certainty of proposed solutions. Information avoidance is a maladaptive response to fear appeal messages, and indications of uncertainty when discussing solutions to threats in news stories might result in problematic avoidance responses that discourage people from taking protective action.”



Bencheton, A. L., J. M. Berenger, P. Del Giudice, P. Delaunay, F. Pages, and J. J. Morand. 2011. Resurgence of bedbugs in southern France: a local problem or the tip of the iceberg? Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology. 25: 599–602. doi: 10.1111/j.1468-3083.2010.03804.x

“Background: Bedbugs (Cimex lectularius) have been feeding on sleeping human beings since prehistory. In Europe, bed bugs were common and endemic until World War II when improved body and home hygiene, and widespread use of insecticides led to almost complete eradication. Current evidence indicates that bedbugs are making a comeback in Europe, USA, Canada and Australia. In our practice in Southern France, we observed several cases within a period of only 1 year.

Objectives: Based on this experience, we conducted an epidemiological study to evaluate the status of bedbugs in France.

Methods: During summer 2009, we mailed a short questionnaire to all hospital professors in the CEDEF (Collège des Enseignants de Dermatologie de France) asking four questions: number of suspected diagnosis of bedbugs in the year 2009, and number of certain positive diagnosis, difficulties in treatment, use of a pest control professional for treatment, and finally personal opinion on actual incidence of bedbugs, compared with past years.

Results: Of the 84 questionnaires sent, there were only 26 responses despite two reminders. The responses were predominantly southern France, probably as a result of intensive immigration and increased travel and trade. Difficulties encountered during diagnosis and treatment are also mentioned. Utilizing the services of entomological experts and pest control professionals is essential.

Conclusions: France has the same experience regarding the resurgence of bedbugs as several European countries, USA, Canada and Australia, especially the southern regions. This emerging health problem has to be known by dermatologists. A national programme has been launched in France to assess actual incidence and study C. lectularius– related diseases.”

Goddard, J. 2011. Bed bugs (Cimex lectularius L.) in Mississippi: survey of the scope, extent, and control of the problem. Midsouth Entomologist. 4: 57–62.

“Bed bugs are blood-sucking insects which had nearly disappeared in developed countries until fairly recently, when a dramatic increase and spread of the insects began in the 1980s. Since then, bed bugs increasingly have been reported inside U.S. hotel rooms, dormitories, and apartments. In this study, entomologists at the Mississippi Department of Health, as well as licensed pest control personnel throughout the state, were queried for information about the scope and extent of bed bug infestations throughout Mississippi for the time period from 1 September 2010 through 28 February 2011. In addition, pest management personnel were asked to provide information about pesticides and other control methods used for bed bug control in Mississippi. A total of 179 bed bug infestations were reported by the respondents covering the six-month period. Health department personnel reported 40 infestations around the state, with an average of 5.0 infestations per responder, while pest management personnel reported 139 infestations with an average of 5.1 infestations per responder. About 30% (8/27 pest control; 3/11 health dept) of responders reported no infestations in their area, so bed bug problems appear to be focal in distribution. Pesticides remain the primary control tool for bed bugs in Mississippi, with most responders saying they use products in the pyrethroid class of pesticides. This particular finding is worrisome in light of widespread pyrethroid resistance. New and expanded educational efforts aimed at both homeowners or tenants and pest management professionals are needed in the fight against this emerging pest.”


How, Y.-F., and C.-Y. Lee. 2010. Survey of bed bugs in infested premises in Malaysia and Singapore. Journal of Vector Ecology. 35: 89–94.

Public accommodations, hotels, and residences in Malaysia and Singapore that were infested with bed bugs were surveyed to determine the most common species and locations of bed bugs inside the infested areas. The tropical bed bug, Cimex hemipterus, was the only species, and it was most frequently located in the bedding and headboard. Bed bug infestations were more common in hotels and public accommodations than in residences.

Omudu, E. A., and C. N. Kuse. 2010. Bedbug infestation and its control practices in Gbajimba: a rural settlement in Benue state, Nigeria. Journal of Vector Borne Diseases 47: 222–227.

“BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: The common bedbug Cimex lectularius Linnaeus (Hemiptera: Cimicidae) is a globally re-emerging pest of serious public health concern. We investigated bedbug infestation in randomly selected apartments in Gbajimba community in Guma Local Government area in Benue state, Nigeria.

METHODS: Beddings and furniture (bed frames, pillows, mattresses, cushion chairs, mats, mosquito nets and bamboo beds) were thoroughly inspected for bedbug infestation using the hand-picking technique. Data were analysed using chi- square analysis for differences in the infestation levels in harbourages and sampling locations.

RESULTS: Only 16% of the apartments investigated showed no evidence of bedbug infestation as egg cases and faecal marks were sighted in 62.2% of apartments surveyed. The highest infestation rate was observed in Angwan Jukun area and infestation here was higher compared to other study locations within the town though the difference was not statistically significant (x2 = 7.92, df = 6, p >0.05). Bamboo beds harboured the highest number of bedbugs collected, accounting for 35.8%, while other harbourages like iron bed frames and sleeping mats had 23 and 22.7% infestation rates respectively. The infestation rates in these household items were significantly higher than other items inspected (x2 = 11.8, df = 4, p > 0.05).

INTERPRETATION & CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates the urgent need for identification of evidences of infestation and bedbug management involving community participation in inspection, detection and education, including physical removal and exclusion as well as pesticide application.”

Yaguchi, N., and S. Kasai. 2010. Current situation and problem of bedbug infestation in Tokyo, Japan: from public health officer’s angle. Medical Entomology and Zoology 61: 231–237.

A Japanese review paper focusing on the current frequency and location of bed bug infestations and a public health officer’s point-of-view on bed bug infestations and what works and doesn’t work. Many infestations are seen in poor accommodations in urban sites around Japan. Movie theatres, restaurants, grocery stores, and buses are among the places that bed bugs are found. Bed bug control is difficult due to pyrethroid resistant bed bugs. It is necessary to survey the level of insecticide resistance of bed bugs in Japan.