Human Health Considerations: General Information, Multiple Factors, Reviews

2016

Kaushal, A., K. Gupta, and M. L. van Hoek. 2016. Characterization of Cimex lectularius (bedbug) defensin peptide and its antimicrobial activity against human skin microflora. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications. 470: 955–960. doi: 10.1016/j.bbrc.2016.01.100

“Antimicrobial peptides are components of both vertebrate and invertebrate innate immune systems that are expressed in response to exposure to bacterial antigens. Naturally occurring antimicrobial peptides from evolutionarily ancient species have been extensively studied and are being developed as potential therapeutics against antibiotic resistant microorganisms. In this study, a putative Cimex lectularius (bedbug, CL) defensin is characterized for its effectiveness against human skin flora including Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. The bedbug defensin (CL-defensin), belonging to family of insect defensins, is predicted to have a characteristic N-terminal loop, an α-helix, and an antiparallel β-sheet, which was supported by circular dichroism spectroscopy. The defensin was shown to be antimicrobial against Gram-positive bacteria commonly found on human skin (Micrococcus luteus, Corynebacterium renale, Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis); however, it was ineffective against common skin Gram-negative bacteria (Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii) under low-salt conditions. CL-defensin was also effective against M. luteus and C. renale in high-salt (MIC) conditions. Our studies indicate that CL-defensin functions by depolarization and pore-formation in the bacterial cytoplasmic membrane.”


2015

Bandyopadhyay, T., A. Kumar, and A. Saili. 2015. Bed bug outbreak in a neonatal unit. Epidemiology and Infection. 143(13): 2865-2870.doi: 10.1017/S0950268814003690

“There has been a worldwide increase in bed bug infestations over the last 10-15 years. A major stigma is placed upon the institutions found to be infested. We report our experience with an outbreak of the tropical bed bug, Cimex hemipterus, in a neonatal unit. The outbreak not only affected the admitted newborns and mothers by causing a wide variety of rashes and inducing sleeplessness, but also impinged upon the health professionals and their families by producing similar symptomology. It is important for healthcare providers to be aware of, and for each healthcare facility to have, bed bug prevention and control policies.”


Kaushal, A., K. Gupta, and M. Hoek. 2015. Characterization of Cimex lectularius (bedbug) defensin peptide and its antimicrobial activity against human skin microflora. Insect Science. 470: 955-960.

“Antimicrobial peptides are components of both vertebrate and invertebrate innate immune systems that are expressed in response to exposure to bacterial antigens. Naturally occurring antimicrobial peptides from evolutionarily ancient species have been extensively studied and are being developed as potential therapeutics against antibiotic resistant microorganisms. In this study, a putative Cimex lectularius (bedbug, CL) defensin is characterized for its effectiveness against human skin flora including Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. The bedbug defensin (CL-defensin), belonging to family of insect defensins, is predicted to have a characteristic N-terminal loop, an α-helix, and an antiparallel β-sheet, which was supported by circular dichroism spectroscopy. The defensin was shown to be antimicrobial against Gram-positive bacteria commonly found on human skin (Micrococcus luteus, Corynebacterium renale, Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis); however, it was ineffective against common skin Gram-negative bacteria (Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii) under low-salt conditions. CL-defensin was also effective against M. luteus and C. renale in high-salt (MIC) conditions. Our studies indicate that CL-defensin functions by depolarization and pore-formation in the bacterial cytoplasmic membrane.”


2014

McGoldrick, M. 2014. Bag technique: preventing and controlling infections in home care and hospice. Home Healthcare Nurse. 32: 39–45.

Home care and hospice staff are provided with guidelines for the management of their nursing bag. Strategies are discussed for carrying equipment and supplies in order to prevent and control the transfer of microorganisms.


Murray, B. S. 2014. Bedbugs: what nurses need to know. American Journal of Nursing. 32: 58–62.

A literature review for health care professionals focusing on bed bug bites, control measures, emotional and psychological effects of bed bug infestations, and preventative measures.


Podczervinski, S., J. Fauver, L. Helbert, M. Minser, J. Bosze, H. Nolting, T. M. Gonzalez, and S. Pergam. 2014. A multidisciplinary approach to minimize exposures to bed bugs (Cimex lectularis {sic}) in a large ambulatory cancer center. American Journal of Infection Control. 42: S85–S86.

Brief description of policy changes and their effect on reducing the spread of bed bugs among patients and rooms in a cancer center.


2013


2012


2011

CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention). 2011. Acute illnesses associated with insecticides used to control bed bugs–seven states, 2003–2010. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. 60(37): 1269–1274.

Researchers analyzed records of severe illness associated with insecticides used for bed bug control including cases from 2003–2010 that were reported by 12 states participating in the Sentinel Event Notification System for Occupation Risks (SENSOR) Pesticide program as well as the New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene (NYC DOHMH). Seven of twelve states reported cases of severe illness—of 111 total cases, 90 cases were determined to be of low severity and 99 cases were associated with improper applications of insecticides.


Eddy, C. and S. C. Jones. 2011. Bed bugs, public health, and social justice: part 1, a call to action. Journal of Environmental Health. 73: 8–14.

A literature review focusing on the human health effects caused by bed bug bites and social justice issues related to bed bug infestations. Housing and the built environment now are recognized as major influences on human health. The public health community is in a precarious social justice position if its lack of response to bed bug infestations disproportionately impacts underserved populations. Bed bugs are an urgent public health and environmental justice concern.


Eddy, C. and S. C. Jones. 2011. Bed bugs, public health, and social justice: part 2, an opinion survey. Journal of Environmental Health. 73: 15–17.

Surveys were conducted of attendees at the 2009 Central Ohio Bed Bug Summit, 2009 National Environmental Health Association Annual Educational Conference and Exhibition, 2009 Ohio Association of Health Commissioners Fall Conference, and 2010 Hamilton County Council on Aging Annual Conference. The survey results indicated that 73% of respondents thought that bed bugs were an environmental justice issue and 90% thought that bed bugs were a public health concern. The findings indicate that federal, state, and local public health agencies should use their authority and respond to the escalating bed bug problem.


Hurst, S., and M. Humphreys. 2011. Bedbugs: not back by popular demand. Dimensions of Critical Care Nursing. 30: 94–96.

Literature review describing the biology of bed bugs, inspection and treatment of bed bugs, and nursing interventions.


2010

Lyons, J. 2010. The social impacts of bed bugs on inner-city residents. MS Thesis. University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba

Master’s thesis that utilizes the Community Economic Development and Social Determinants of Health approaches to delineate the economic and social threats in terms of health issues for inner-city residents in Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada. Bed bugs disproportionately impact the lives of low-income people. Policy documents and other secondary sources are used (1) to assess the effectiveness of policies and existing practices to respond to bed bugs and (2) to offer a more comprehensive approach for responding to the social impacts of bed bugs in the city of Winnipeg.


Rossi, L., and S. Jennings. 2010. Bed bugs: a public health problem in need of a collaborative solution. Journal of Environmental Health. 72: 34–35.

The socioeconomic impacts of bed bugs are described, and suggestions are given for communities and federal governmental agencies to provide education for individuals impacted by bed bug infestations.


2009

Heukelbach, J., and U. R. Hengge. 2009. Bed bugs, leeches and hookworm larvae in the skin. Clinical Dermatology. 27: 285–290.

A literature review covering the causative agents, transmission, clinical signs, diagnosis, and treatment for bed bugs, hookworm larvae, and leeches.


Krause-Parello, C. A., and P. Sciscione. 2009. Bedbugs: an equal opportunist and cosmopolitan creature. Journal of School Nursing. 25: 126–132.

An article focusing on bed bugs in schools and information for school nurses regarding causes of the bed bug resurgence, transmission modes, and eradication options for school and community settings.


2008


2007


2006


2005

Ter Poorten, M. C., and N. S. Prose. 2005. The return of the common bedbug. Pediatric Dermatology. 22: 183–187.

A medical case study documenting the presentation of skin disease in a child from a home with a bed bug infestation.

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