How to Succeed in College

Dear students,

The science of learning has identified many study strategies that can increase retention and comprehension, yet most college professors rarely talk about these strategies. Below I cover four topics: efficient study skills, accountability structures, distraction blockers, and additional tips. If you apply these strategies to every college course you take, and your life in general, the good news is that you will get better grades and improve your overall success in college, and the even better news is that it will probably take you less time than your current strategies and will improve your well-being.

Efficient Study Skills

The single worst way to remember something is to read it. That is, the single worst way to study is to read your notes. If you want to remember something, you have to practice remembering it. The first study strategy I am going to suggest to you is retrieval. In cognitive science, the retrieval effect suggests that if you want to remember or retrieve something from your memory, you have to PRACTICE remembering or retrieving it from you memory! If you do not practice retrieving it, then why do you expect to be able to retrieve the information on your exam, or, later in life, as most college professors would like you to do as you apply the concepts from your coursework to the real world. In fact, according to science, the more times you have to remember something, the more likely you are to remember it in the future. Thus, practice retrieval.

Try making flashcards, using resources from your textbook which may include flashcards, or use Quizlet or other applications or websites that allow you to create your own flashcards or games. You can try creating regular flashcards, or try a strategy I once heard an ADHD coach suggest – create a visual depiction along with the word you are trying to remember. If you are a visual learner, you may remember better with the visual cue in conjunction with the word. Have a friend quiz you – perhaps a friend you make in this class, or another friend. Take turns quizzing each other on material from your respective courses.

The second study strategy I am going to suggest to you is prediction. In an experiment, UCLA researchers found that the simple act of predicting what you are going to be taught, even if it is wrong, increases retention of material. Specifically, according to James Lang’s book Small Teaching, when you use prediction: “you are compelled to search around for any possible information you might have that could relate to the subject matter and help you make a plausible prediction. That search activates prior knowledge you have about the subject matter and prepares your brain to slot the answer, when you receive it, into a more richly connected network of facts.” (p. 49). If you want a better grade in your courses, try predicting what you think you will learn in a reading, in a lecture, or in a video or podcast before you consume the material. Specifically, try reading the title of a chapter or video. What do you think it is going to be about? What do you think will be the four main points? Read the chapter or watch the video. Were you right? Even better, go back and correct your answers. This strategy will help you retain the material for the exams, and even later in life.

The third strategy I suggest is interleaving. Interleaving is the strategy of reviewing old material and adding in new material little by little. Instead of cramming lots of new material into your study practice right before a quiz, each day, review materials from previous modules, then add in a few new things. For example, review your flashcards for the last two modules, and then read or watch something from the next module, make flashcards, and study these too. This is an excellent and effective learning strategy. Practice retrieval through interleaving for 10 to 20 minutes each day. This way, you won’t cram all of your retrieval in right before the midterm or final. You will better learn the material, and you will save yourself a lot of time and stress in the long run.

Accountability Structures

When you have accountability, you are more likely to complete a task. At Ohio State, the most significant way I can advance my career is to work on my research. Yet, my research does not bug me with emails and doesn’t ask to meet with me. So, I use accountability to make sure that I get it done. You can use some of my same strategies to do better in your courses through accountability.

  1. Form a study group

Form a study group with others in the course. You could meet up for two hours every Sunday, do some predicting, read/watch course materials, quiz each other over these materials, work on assignments or discussion posts, etcetera. Then, celebrate when it is all done by grabbing pizza together or going to the gym, whatever you like to do for fun.

  1. Form an accountability study group

Find a few friends and form an accountability study group. Spend one hour on Sunday setting goals that you want to accomplish the following week. Perhaps it is to spend 20 minutes each day reviewing course material, or finishing your term paper, etcetera. Then, after you check in with your goals, spend an hour or two working on assignments or flashcards. Set-up a recurring time to check in with your goals/study together each week. You can even use a doodle poll to find a time that works for all of you. Next week at your meeting, check in with all of your goals. Did you meet them? If so, you get a gold star (make a chart!). If you almost met them, you get a silver star. If you did not meet them, you get a blue. Keep track of your goals and achievements over the course of the semester. Celebrate good grades and less stress because you are getting your work done. You can see more details about my accountability group here.

Importantly for both of these strategies, when the group is meeting to either goal set or study together, you need to turn all of your phones on do-not disturb and commit to not checking any social media or news alerts, etcetera while you are studying. A lot of cognitive science suggests that humans are really bad at multi-tasking, so focusing your attention on studying during this time will increase your learning. You also need to make sure you keep chatting under control. You do not want this to turn into a gossip session. Set a timer for 10 minutes for catching up, and once it goes off, start working.

If you are looking for a place to meet, libraries and many residence halls have meeting spaces. Reserve one for the entire semester for your study time. I do something called write-on-site with other professors where we meet for two hours in a conference room on campus to get writing done. We all work quietly on our laptops, and no one checks their email or their phones. This accountability really helps my productivity.

  1. Use a Pomodoro

A Pomodoro is an online timer that can be used for accountability. Set the timer, work for 25 minutes, and then take a 5 minute break. Then, start another timer.

Distraction Blockers

How often do you want to get something done when you find yourself distracted by your phone or your email? Or, how often are you studying when you decide to take a break, but then you find yourself still on Instagram thirty minutes later? I like to joke with my husband that I do not even know if I could have gotten my PhD with a smart phone. I get distracted by my phone/email/the news just like all of you do. One way I think professors are failing our undergraduate students is by not talking about how to handle digital distractions. The following are strategies that I use to reduce distractions that would probably help you.

  1. Turn off all notifications.

I have turned off all notifications on my email, Facebook, news apps, Snapchat, etcetera. I get notifications for my texts and a few other apps, but I am very selective about what I allow to send me a notification. You can find out how many likes your photo on Instagram got when you log into Instagram. You do not need to know immediately. Importantly, turn off notifications on your phone, your laptop, and wherever else you are getting notifications. You are in charge of your time – not your phone.

  1. Turn your phone on do-not-disturb

I have the ability on my iPhone to turn it on do-not-disturb. When I turn my phone on do-not-disturb, only people on my “favorites” list can get through. This allows me to up my concentration level and really focus on work I need to get done. For most of us, life-or-death emergencies while our phone is on do not disturb are unlikely. That text can still be responded to an hour later. And, you can tell your friend or parent – “Sorry, I was really trying to study and focus. I am done now – what do you need?” If you are not comfortable doing this, ask yourself why. Do you have fear of missing out? You will probably be able to engage in activities more fully, that is, be more fully present, when you are not ruminating about your school work. If you are still worried about missing texts, you can tell family and friends “I study for two hours uninterrupted every Tuesday from 3 to 5. I won’t respond to texts then, but will check my phone when I am done at 5. I will be here [fill in location] if you really need me.” You can even set up a recurring “do-not-disturb” for that time.

  1. Use fidget toys or walking to take a break during studying

I went on a writing retreat a while back, and the writing coach who led the retreat told me that one of her strategies for taking a break when she is writing is to use a fidget toy. In fact, she suggested that reading Instagram, or a news website, or anything text based continues to overwhelm our brains and makes it much less likely that we will continue on the task we were doing. Now, when I am writing, I take breaks with a fidget toy or by taking a walk around my office. Sometimes I will take a walk down the hall, but that can be risky because I am trying not to talk to anyone. I try to avoid engaging with someone else when I am trying to get something done.

  1. Use an app that will block distractions

I use apps like Freedom and StayFocusd. You can set these apps up to block websites for certain periods of time. I have all distracting websites blocked on my phone and computers from 9 am until 4 pm with the app Freedom. I also block distracting websites after 9 pm when I need to be getting ready for bed, and want to give my husband my full attention.

Additional Tips

  1. Get an Academic Coach!

At Ohio State, the Dennis Learning Center offers academic coaching through free one-on-one appointments for Ohio State students. The coaches are trained in learning and motivation strategies, and your coach can help you examine your academic strengths and weaknesses and develop strategies that lead to success. And it is free! Perhaps your own university offers something like this.

  1. Take a workshop or course on study and procrastination tips

At Ohio State, the Dennis Learning Center also offers workshops, including “Active Note-taking Strategies” and “Dealing with Procrastination.” They also offer courses that you can take for credit, including “Learning and Motivation Strategies for Success in College” and “Online Learning Strategies and Skills.” Perhaps your university offers courses like this. Ask an adviser.

  1. Work with the Writing Center

When I was an undergrad, I sometimes got feedback that my writing was poor. Unfortunately, most people have a fixed mindset about writing. That means that they think that their writing cannot improve. This is wrong! You should cultivate a growth mindset around your writing skills. I have become a much better writer over the years. One way to get help with your writing is through your campus’s writing center. Most offer free help with writing at any stage of the writing process. You can bring in an assignment, or even just bring in an idea to bounce around! I have a writing group with my grad students, and some of our most productive sessions come from just discussing an idea. I should also mention that there has been some critique’s of writing centers – specifically that they do not help students with basic writing skills. If you find that this is a problem, try showing your writing center mentor this article, and ask for basic help. Or, read some books on writing. One I like, although it is a little convoluted and dry, is The Sense of Style.  You can also try my favorite writing tip – read it out loud. I try to read everything out loud, and every time I do, I find so many errors, and every time I don’t, someone else finds my errors and I am embarassed.

  1. Practice Mindfulness and Meditation

Mindfulness is something that most people think is really hokey. But, the research on mindfulness, and meditation, which promotes mindfulness, shows that it can improve cognitive functioning and reduce stress in a myriad of ways. There are apps and podcasts you can get – like 10% Happier – to help you create and learn about mindfulness and practice meditation. And, you can get benefits from mindfulness in as little as one minute of meditation a day! One minute! I recently went through a huge stressor, one of the biggest stressors of my life. I kept ruminating about it. Then, a counselor I talked to reminded me of the power of mindfulness. I used the mantra “where you are, there you are” to try to center myself to stop ruminating and stressing about the situation. This reminded me that the best way for me to live is to live in the moment and use and enjoy this moment, and to try to let the worry over the past and future go. It really helped me out! So, try practicing mindfulness and meditation when you start to get stressed. You will likely find yourself happier and less stressed out when the difficult times of the semester hits. If you are skeptical, I cannot suggest the book 10% Happier and the app 10% Happier enough. They are literally designed for skeptics. Some of the most successful people in the world meditate: Lebron James, Derek JeterOprah Winfrey, Jerry Seinfeld, Howard Stern, and of course the Dalai Lama to name a few.

At Ohio State, there is even the YesPlus club, which holds retreats designed around mindfulness. Perhaps your campus has a club or retreat program like this.

  1. Exercise

Research indicates that exercise benefits memory and learning. So, check out a group fitness class at your campus gym, go for a run with friends, take a walk around campus, or do some kind of exercise.

  1. Sleep

Make sure you are getting enough sleep. It is literally more difficult to learn when you are sleep-deprived – a sleep-deprived person has a much more difficult time concentrating, which reduces the efficiency of any time spent trying to study/learn when you are tired. Sleep also has a role in creating memory, which means that if you are sleep deprived, your brain may be less likely to create memories and connections, which will lead you to get poorer grades. And not only that, you are four times more likely to catch a cold if you get less than 7 hours of sleep per night. So, shoot for 7 to 8 hours of sleep per night. My phone automatically goes on do-not-disturb at 9 pm and turns back on at 5 am so that texts and other notifications do not wake me up.

  1. Self-care

Many undergraduate students find themselves stressed. Make sure you are taking care of yourself and your stress, because stress can beget stress. Stress can make you sick and make you less productive as you ruminate about all of the things that you need to do. Mindfulness and exercise will help with stress, but make sure you incorporate self-care into your day whether that it is watching Netflix, hanging out with friends, or listening to your favorite podcast or audiobook.

  1. Mind Your Mental Health

If you do find yourself feeling stressed and overwhelmed, reach out for help. If you are my student, I am always available for you to talk with (even after you finish with my course), or try your campus’s mental health center. If you are considering harming or killing yourself, you can call this 24-hour suicide hotline (1-800-273-8255) or chat with someone. You are important, and you matter.

  1. Take Care of Your Physical Health

Get your flu shot, wash your hands often, and avoid sick friends/roommates. If you do find that you are sick, visit your campus’s health center to see a doctor or nurse practitioner. Try not to let your semester slide because you are not taking care of your physical health.

I hope you find these strategies helpful, and good luck!!

Accountability Group

As many of my readers know, and for that matter, anyone who talks to me knows, I am an avid consumer of productivity tips, from blog posts to books. As the mother of four boys ages 5 to 15, married to a full-time employed co-parent, I am super busy all the time. And, I also love to not work and have fun with my family and friends. So, when I am at work, I need to get things done. This can be a problem because I also love to waste time reading news websites, online shopping, engaging on social media, etcetera. I use a ton of productivity strategies (see this post for some of them) to try to create accountability around getting the things done that will advance my career. For me, that is getting my grants and publications written, revised, and submitted.

Stream in the woods

The view on a walk during my 2016 InkWell writing retreat.

One of my favorite tips for productivity came from Michelle Boyd of InkWell writing retreats. I went on one of Michelle’s amazing retreats in 2016 (cannot recommend her enough), and one of the best parts of retreating was my half hour I spent with Michelle each day. We talked about my writing struggles, and she mentioned that one strategy that really helped her get her writing done was her accountability group. I started an accountability group in the Fall of 2016 with three fellow faculty members, two assistant professors and another associate professor like myself. We are in three different departments in three different colleges at Ohio State. We meet for one hour, strict, every week (one member is a “timekeeper”). This group has helped me become more productive, and has given me peer mentoring and support through some of the most trying times of my career. I cannot recommend forming your own accountability group enough.

At the first meeting of the semester, we discuss some overarching goals we have for the semester and set goals for the next week. Then, each week, we meet and discuss whether we met our goals or not. One member is a “secretary”, and they will remind you what your goals were. If you met your goal, you get a gold star (one member is a “goalkeeper”). If you almost met it, you get a silver star. If you do not meet your goal, you get a blue star. After three blues, we might have an intervention and brainstorm ways to get back on track, or provide social support, or encourage you to be gentle with yourself because you are going through a lot and you have unrealistic expectations, whatever seems right for the moment. One of my fellow accountability group members mentioned that she met a colleague who has her own accountability group at a conference. Their group throws in $5 every time they do not meet their goal, and then they use the money to share a meal at the end of the semester. I think this is a great idea! My group might try this next year. I find that I really want to get a gold star, and I try hard to meet my goals. Thus, I prioritize those things that I set goals for, and I would say that most weeks, I get silver or gold. What I love about the group is that my accountability group creates something to bug me to get my most important work done. My students will email me, journal editors will email me for reviews, but NIH doesn’t email me to find out when I am submitting my grant. My accountability group will ask me though, and keep me answerable to my goals.

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Dual-earner couples share the housework equally – until the first baby comes

Claire Kamp Dush, The Ohio State University

As a tenured professor and mother of four young sons, I am constantly asked, “How do you do it?” What people mean is: “How can you have a full-time job and still manage child care and housework?”

I usually respond, “High-quality husband and high-quality child care, in that order.” From the outset, my husband, a full-time, clinical pharmacist, has been a committed partner in caring for our house and raising our children.

But I’ve learned that, with our equal division of housework and child care, he’s an outlier. There may be some like him, but our research group at The Ohio State University recently discovered that such husbands in dual-earner households are, indeed, rare.

Unequal workloads

In our new study of 182 dual-earner couples who became parents for the first time, we found that fathers generally did less work around the home after their baby was born, and also became less involved in childcare than mothers. This was surprising given that both parents worked at their jobs about the same amount of hours.

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Where should I submit my paper?

I wish we could get credit for publishing in these kind of journals. photo credit: yelahneb via photopin cc

I wish we could get credit for publishing in these kind of journals. photo credit: yelahneb via photopin cc

When you are in an interdisciplinary department, deciding where to submit your paper is fun, and confusing. I already told you about the time my student and I rewrote a paper we had rejected from Demography for the Journal of Family Psychology (it was accepted). But, how do you decide which journal to submit to? What factors do you consider?  My student Sara Sandberg-Thoma have been working on a paper and discussing where to submit it, which is where the idea for this blog came from. Sara and I came up with the following tips on how to decide where to submit your paper

  1. Where are the papers you are citing published? The paper Sara and I are working on could be submitted to several journals – it crosses a few disciplines. As we were reading the paper out loud, I noticed Sara was citing a paper in a journal we hadn’t discussed that I really like – Social Science & Medicine. I suggested we submit the paper there.
  2. What is the turn-around that you want? Sara is going on the job market soon, so we wanted to submit the paper to a journal with a pretty quick turn-around time. I also considered turn-around time when I was on the tenure track – I didn’t want my paper languishing for months. I would rather get a quick reject and move on to the next journal. Social Science & Medicine, the journal we decided on, has a pretty quick turn-around time, so we thought the paper could potentially be in press before she went on the market.
  3. Where else have you published? Other journals in our field have pretty quick turn-around times – Journal of Marriage and Family (JMF), Family Relations (FR), Journal of Family Psychology (JFP) – but Sara already has two first-authored papers in JMF, so we decided to go for Social Science & Medicine because she hadn’t published there before.  I don’t think it is a good idea to have most of your papers in the same journal, though JMF is awesome, so she has a good problem.
  4. How good is the paper? I think Sara’s paper is really good, so I think she should be able to get it in a high-impact factor journal. You will sometimes hear academics talk about top-tier, second-tier, and third-tier journals. So, before Sara submitted to FR, a journal I love but that is probably second tier, I thought we should try a higher-tier journal first. Again, since she had two papers in JMF, I thought we should go for a different journal with a high impact factor – again a deciding factor for Social Science & Medicine.
  5. Who do you want to read your paper? Another factor to consider is who you want to read your paper. Would you like psychologists to read it? Maybe you should go for JFP or a psych journal. Do you want sociologists to read it? Maybe you should go for Social Forces or Journal of Health and Social Behavior. This is also important in considering who will review your paper. In my post about the demography paper that ended up in JFP, I discussed how to write your paper for different audiences. Consider your audience before you submit. Skim a few other papers in the journal. This will give you a sense of the flavor of the journal, and you can adjust your paper accordingly.
  6. What do other people think? Sarah Schoppe-Sullivan and I have a writing group with our grad students, and we always get feedback from this group. Do you think this paper is good enough for JMF? What kind of reception do you think it will get at JFP? Advice from others can really help, and can also help you see flaws in the paper that you can fix before you submit. Just don’t wait around too long for the advice! I have a colleague who is constantly seeking advice from several people, and his/her papers never get submitted, thus his/her CV is lacking – not a good situation to be in when on the tenure track. So, get some advice, then submit it!
  7. When should I shoot high? If you already have some really great publications, like Sara does, she can afford to get rejected from a high-impact journal first, then resubmit to a lower impact journal. The extra time it will take to be rejected from the higher-impact journal shouldn’t hurt her if she resubmits to a quicker turn-around lower-impact journal. However, if she had fewer publications and she was going on the job market soon, I might suggest she try for a lower impact journal that would be unlikely to reject her paper, especially if it had a quick turn-around. But, she has some wiggle room give her current publication record, so I think she can afford the risk of rejection and shoot for a higher-tier journal. So, if you have already been productive for the point at which you are in your career, then shoot high. Or, if you have tenure, why not try to submit that paper to Child Development or American Sociological Review. You can take the risk.

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Kill Your Darlings (or Kill Your “Research has found that”s)

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photo credit: Unhindered by Talent via photopin cc

When I took our university’s Course Design Institute [which I highly recommend], I learned to think about my teaching in a new way.  One of the first questions I was asked was “What do your student need to know to move from novice to expert?” As we reflected on this question, we were supposed to think over what our students needed to know that were content-related and skill-related.  I was designing my research methods course at the time, so I reflected on what my students would need to know to successfully conduct research not only from a content standpoint, but also from a skill standpoint. The most important skill that I could think of was writing well. A researcher can be phenomenal, but if she or he cannot clearly explain their research, she or he will not be successful.

Writing is a particularly salient skill for me because when I first started submitting my papers, I regularly received negative feedback on my writing. My pattern of thinking then, which I think is common to many young scientists, was that if I do high-quality, methodologically sophisticated research, reviewers will see the value in my research and will react favorably.  Papers from scholars with this mindset tend to have longer result sections and shorter literature reviews. What I quickly learned in submitting my research was that nothing could replace good writing.  Reviewers do not like to read poorly written work, even if the data and methods are good. So, I would get comments from reviewers that commented on the poor quality of my writing and typos. I was tired of these comments, and the possibility that my papers were being penalized because of them.

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Work and family and “one night a week”

I know there has been a lot written about academia and work-life balance – this recent post in Inside Higher Ed tries to get at why academics work so much. In general, the meme about academics working constantly doesn’t really resonate with me [I should also mention that the meme about professors never working also does not resonate with me]. College professor has been ranked as one of the best jobs in America and the least stressful, though both of these rankings have been debated. In general, I have found it possible to have work-life balance as an academic. Part of my strategy has been to try to make my time at work as productive as possible, so my time at home can be as fun and relaxing as possible.

So, my next post in my “how do I do it” series is my strategy of “one night a week”. While on the tenure track, I often found that it was difficult to find time to focus on my research and writing during the day when I was meeting with students, going to meetings, teaching, etcetera. So, I started staying at work one night a week, and working late, often until 10 or 11.  I would shut my door, order in some food, and work on my research and writing for several hours. This really worked for me, and I got a lot done. I tried not to let teaching or service creep into this time, and I would just work on analyses, coding, and writing. I should also mention that there were very few distractions after 5! Note it doesn’t always have to be at night – I have a friend who worked every Saturday morning on the tenure track.

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Writing Group

As the mother of four (2 sons born in grad school, 2 sons born on the tenure track), people are always asking me “how do you do it?”  [Note, my husband never gets asked this question, which is a whole other blog post on gender attitudes.] My go to answer is always “high quality husband, high quality childcare”.  This is true. But, I have also been interested in productivity for a while. I have read several books on the subject, including books designed for academics like Advice for New Faculty by Robert Boice and How to Write a Lot by Paul Silva, and those designed for a general audience like Leave the Office Earlier by Laura Stack. I also participated in the National Center for Faculty Diversity and Development’s Faculty Success Program with Kerry Ann Roquemore, which I really enjoyed.

Recently a friend posted on Facebook that he and his wife, who are both on the tenure track, were going to need some tips for success with multiple children.  So, my friend Dave’s comment is inspiring my next series of posts.  I am going to post a few tips that I have found have helped me be productive.  Most I have implemented in the past five years or so, and I really think they have helped up my productivity.

The first tip I want to share is on my writing group.  After reading How to Write a Lot, my colleague Sarah Schoppe-Sullivan and I started a writing group with our graduate students. We started out simply; I remember that our first semester one of our tasks was to read How to Write a Lot.  We devised a schedule for the quarter (though Ohio State is now on semesters, so we now devise our schedule by semesters), and each person in the group took a week to share a piece of writing with the group. We usually distribute a draft of a paper, though sometimes it might just be an idea for a paper, or a conference proposal. Sarah and I both take turns in addition to the graduate students. The group helped boost our productivity by creating deadlines for the students, and for us.  For instance, if a student presented a paper at a conference in the fall, we would encourage the student to put the paper on our schedule to read in the spring.  This is very important because publishing is key for both tenure, and what I call the “first tenure track” – grad school.  The job market is so competitive, and to stand out at all, students need to make sure they are submitting their work for publication early and often. We found that writing group was successful and resulted in several submissions.

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